Inference in Hidden Markov Models

Author: Olivier Cappé,Eric Moulines,Tobias Ryden

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387289828

Category: Mathematics

Page: 653

View: 1255

This book is a comprehensive treatment of inference for hidden Markov models, including both algorithms and statistical theory. Topics range from filtering and smoothing of the hidden Markov chain to parameter estimation, Bayesian methods and estimation of the number of states. In a unified way the book covers both models with finite state spaces and models with continuous state spaces (also called state-space models) requiring approximate simulation-based algorithms that are also described in detail. Many examples illustrate the algorithms and theory. This book builds on recent developments to present a self-contained view.

Hidden Markov Models for Time Series

An Introduction Using R, Second Edition

Author: Walter Zucchini,Iain L. MacDonald,Roland Langrock

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482253844

Category: Mathematics

Page: 370

View: 5797

Hidden Markov Models for Time Series: An Introduction Using R, Second Edition illustrates the great flexibility of hidden Markov models (HMMs) as general-purpose models for time series data. The book provides a broad understanding of the models and their uses. After presenting the basic model formulation, the book covers estimation, forecasting, decoding, prediction, model selection, and Bayesian inference for HMMs. Through examples and applications, the authors describe how to extend and generalize the basic model so that it can be applied in a rich variety of situations. The book demonstrates how HMMs can be applied to a wide range of types of time series: continuous-valued, circular, multivariate, binary, bounded and unbounded counts, and categorical observations. It also discusses how to employ the freely available computing environment R to carry out the computations. Features Presents an accessible overview of HMMs Explores a variety of applications in ecology, finance, epidemiology, climatology, and sociology Includes numerous theoretical and programming exercises Provides most of the analysed data sets online New to the second edition A total of five chapters on extensions, including HMMs for longitudinal data, hidden semi-Markov models and models with continuous-valued state process New case studies on animal movement, rainfall occurrence and capture–recapture data

Hidden Markov Models and Dynamical Systems

Author: Andrew M. Fraser

Publisher: SIAM

ISBN: 0898717744

Category: Computer algorithms

Page: 132

View: 2886

This text provides an introduction to hidden Markov models (HMMs) for the dynamical systems community. It is a valuable text for third or fourth year undergraduates studying engineering, mathematics, or science that includes work in probability, linear algebra and differential equations. The book presents algorithms for using HMMs, and it explains the derivation of those algorithms. It presents Kalman filtering as the extension to a continuous state space of a basic HMM algorithm. The book concludes with an application to biomedical signals. This text is distinctive for providing essential introductory material as well as presenting enough of the theory behind the basic algorithms so that the reader can use it as a guide to developing their own variants.

Hidden Markov Models

Estimation and Control

Author: Robert J Elliott,Lakhdar Aggoun,John B. Moore

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387848541

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 5083

As more applications are found, interest in Hidden Markov Models continues to grow. Following comments and feedback from colleagues, students and other working with Hidden Markov Models the corrected 3rd printing of this volume contains clarifications, improvements and some new material, including results on smoothing for linear Gaussian dynamics. In Chapter 2 the derivation of the basic filters related to the Markov chain are each presented explicitly, rather than as special cases of one general filter. Furthermore, equations for smoothed estimates are given. The dynamics for the Kalman filter are derived as special cases of the authors’ general results and new expressions for a Kalman smoother are given. The Chapters on the control of Hidden Markov Chains are expanded and clarified. The revised Chapter 4 includes state estimation for discrete time Markov processes and Chapter 12 has a new section on robust control.

Hidden Markov Models

Applications in Computer Vision

Author: Horst Bunke,Terry Caelli

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814491470

Category: Computers

Page: 244

View: 2302

Hidden Markov models (HMMs) originally emerged in the domain of speech recognition. In recent years, they have attracted growing interest in the area of computer vision as well. This book is a collection of articles on new developments in the theory of HMMs and their application in computer vision. It addresses topics such as handwriting recognition, shape recognition, face and gesture recognition, tracking, and image database retrieval. This book is also published as a special issue of the International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence (February 2001). Contents: Introduction: A Simple Complex in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (B H Juang)An Introduction to Hidden Markov Models and Bayesian Networks (Z Chahramani)Multi-Lingual Machine Printed OCR (P Natarajan et al.)Using a Statistical Language Model to Improve the Performance of an HMM-Based Cursive Handwriting Recognition System (U-V Marti & H Bunke)A 2-D HMM Method for Offline Handwritten Character Recognition (H-S Park et al.)Data-Driven Design of HMM Topology for Online Handwriting Recognition (J J Lee et al.)Hidden Markov Models for Modeling and Recognizing Gesture Under Variation (A D Wilson & A F Bobick)Sentence Lipreading Using Hidden Markov Model with Integrated Grammar (K Yu et al.)Tracking and Surveillance in Wide-Area Spatial Environments Using the Abstract Hidden Markov Model (H H Bui et al.)Shape Tracking and Production Using Hidden Markov Models (T Caelli et al.)An Integrated Approach to Shape and Color-Based Image Retrieval of Rotated Objects Using Hidden Markov Models (S Müller et al.) Readership: Graduate students of computer science, electrical engineering and related fields, as well as researchers at academic and industrial institutions. Keywords:Hidden Markov Models;Gesture Recognitoin;Bayesian Networks;Optical Character Recognition;Handwriting Character Recognition;Cartography;Shape Extraction;Image Feature Extraction.

Hidden Markov Models

Applications to Financial Economics

Author: Ramaprasad Bhar,Shigeyuki Hamori

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402079400

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 162

View: 9833

Markov chains have increasingly become useful way of capturing stochastic nature of many economic and financial variables. Although the hidden Markov processes have been widely employed for some time in many engineering applications e.g. speech recognition, its effectiveness has now been recognized in areas of social science research as well. The main aim of Hidden Markov Models: Applications to Financial Economics is to make such techniques available to more researchers in financial economics. As such we only cover the necessary theoretical aspects in each chapter while focusing on real life applications using contemporary data mainly from OECD group of countries. The underlying assumption here is that the researchers in financial economics would be familiar with such application although empirical techniques would be more traditional econometrics. Keeping the application level in a more familiar level, we focus on the methodology based on hidden Markov processes. This will, we believe, help the reader to develop more in-depth understanding of the modeling issues thereby benefiting their future research.

Hidden Markov Models in Finance

Author: Rogemar S. Mamon,Robert J Elliott

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387711635

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 186

View: 2728

A number of methodologies have been employed to provide decision making solutions globalized markets. Hidden Markov Models in Finance offers the first systematic application of these methods to specialized financial problems: option pricing, credit risk modeling, volatility estimation and more. The book provides tools for sorting through turbulence, volatility, emotion, chaotic events – the random "noise" of financial markets – to analyze core components.

Handbook of Hidden Markov Models in Bioinformatics

Author: Martin Gollery

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420011804

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 7116

Demonstrating that many useful resources, such as databases, can benefit most bioinformatics projects, the Handbook of Hidden Markov Models in Bioinformatics focuses on how to choose and use various methods and programs available for hidden Markov models (HMMs). The book begins with discussions on key HMM and related profile methods, including the HMMER package, the sequence analysis method (SAM), and the PSI-BLAST algorithm. It then provides detailed information about various types of publicly available HMM databases, such as Pfam, PANTHER, COG, and metaSHARK. After outlining ways to develop and use an automated bioinformatics workflow, the author describes how to make custom HMM databases using HMMER, SAM, and PSI-BLAST. He also helps you select the right program to speed up searches. The final chapter explores several applications of HMM methods, including predictions of subcellular localization, posttranslational modification, and binding site. By learning how to effectively use the databases and methods presented in this handbook, you will be able to efficiently identify features of biological interest in your data.

Thoughtful Machine Learning

A Test-Driven Approach

Author: Matthew Kirk

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449374107

Category: Computers

Page: 236

View: 6965

Learn how to apply test-driven development (TDD) to machine-learning algorithms—and catch mistakes that could sink your analysis. In this practical guide, author Matthew Kirk takes you through the principles of TDD and machine learning, and shows you how to apply TDD to several machine-learning algorithms, including Naive Bayesian classifiers and Neural Networks. Machine-learning algorithms often have tests baked in, but they can’t account for human errors in coding. Rather than blindly rely on machine-learning results as many researchers have, you can mitigate the risk of errors with TDD and write clean, stable machine-learning code. If you’re familiar with Ruby 2.1, you’re ready to start. Apply TDD to write and run tests before you start coding Learn the best uses and tradeoffs of eight machine learning algorithms Use real-world examples to test each algorithm through engaging, hands-on exercises Understand the similarities between TDD and the scientific method for validating solutions Be aware of the risks of machine learning, such as underfitting and overfitting data Explore techniques for improving your machine-learning models or data extraction

Image Segmentation and Compression Using Hidden Markov Models

Author: Jia Li,Robert M. Gray

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461544971

Category: Computers

Page: 141

View: 3268

In the current age of information technology, the issues of distributing and utilizing images efficiently and effectively are of substantial concern. Solutions to many of the problems arising from these issues are provided by techniques of image processing, among which segmentation and compression are topics of this book. Image segmentation is a process for dividing an image into its constituent parts. For block-based segmentation using statistical classification, an image is divided into blocks and a feature vector is formed for each block by grouping statistics of its pixel intensities. Conventional block-based segmentation algorithms classify each block separately, assuming independence of feature vectors. Image Segmentation and Compression Using Hidden Markov Models presents a new algorithm that models the statistical dependence among image blocks by two dimensional hidden Markov models (HMMs). Formulas for estimating the model according to the maximum likelihood criterion are derived from the EM algorithm. To segment an image, optimal classes are searched jointly for all the blocks by the maximum a posteriori (MAP) rule. The 2-D HMM is extended to multiresolution so that more context information is exploited in classification and fast progressive segmentation schemes can be formed naturally. The second issue addressed in the book is the design of joint compression and classification systems using the 2-D HMM and vector quantization. A classifier designed with the side goal of good compression often outperforms one aimed solely at classification because overfitting to training data is suppressed by vector quantization. Image Segmentation and Compression Using Hidden Markov Models is an essential reference source for researchers and engineers working in statistical signal processing or image processing, especially those who are interested in hidden Markov models. It is also of value to those working on statistical modeling.

Python Machine Learning Cookbook

Author: Prateek Joshi

Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 1786467682

Category: Computers

Page: 304

View: 5288

100 recipes that teach you how to perform various machine learning tasks in the real world About This Book Understand which algorithms to use in a given context with the help of this exciting recipe-based guide Learn about perceptrons and see how they are used to build neural networks Stuck while making sense of images, text, speech, and real estate? This guide will come to your rescue, showing you how to perform machine learning for each one of these using various techniques Who This Book Is For This book is for Python programmers who are looking to use machine-learning algorithms to create real-world applications. This book is friendly to Python beginners, but familiarity with Python programming would certainly be useful to play around with the code. What You Will Learn Explore classification algorithms and apply them to the income bracket estimation problem Use predictive modeling and apply it to real-world problems Understand how to perform market segmentation using unsupervised learning Explore data visualization techniques to interact with your data in diverse ways Find out how to build a recommendation engine Understand how to interact with text data and build models to analyze it Work with speech data and recognize spoken words using Hidden Markov Models Analyze stock market data using Conditional Random Fields Work with image data and build systems for image recognition and biometric face recognition Grasp how to use deep neural networks to build an optical character recognition system In Detail Machine learning is becoming increasingly pervasive in the modern data-driven world. It is used extensively across many fields such as search engines, robotics, self-driving cars, and more. With this book, you will learn how to perform various machine learning tasks in different environments. We'll start by exploring a range of real-life scenarios where machine learning can be used, and look at various building blocks. Throughout the book, you'll use a wide variety of machine learning algorithms to solve real-world problems and use Python to implement these algorithms. You'll discover how to deal with various types of data and explore the differences between machine learning paradigms such as supervised and unsupervised learning. We also cover a range of regression techniques, classification algorithms, predictive modeling, data visualization techniques, recommendation engines, and more with the help of real-world examples. Style and approach You will explore various real-life scenarios in this book where machine learning can be used, and learn about different building blocks of machine learning using independent recipes in the book.

Scala for Machine Learning

Data processing, ML algorithms, smart analytics, and more

Author: Patrick R. Nicolas

Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 178712620X

Category: Computers

Page: 740

View: 9569

Leverage Scala and Machine Learning to study and construct systems that can learn from data About This Book Explore a broad variety of data processing, machine learning, and genetic algorithms through diagrams, mathematical formulation, and updated source code in Scala Take your expertise in Scala programming to the next level by creating and customizing AI applications Experiment with different techniques and evaluate their benefits and limitations using real-world applications in a tutorial style Who This Book Is For If you're a data scientist or a data analyst with a fundamental knowledge of Scala who wants to learn and implement various Machine learning techniques, this book is for you. All you need is a good understanding of the Scala programming language, a basic knowledge of statistics, a keen interest in Big Data processing, and this book! What You Will Learn Build dynamic workflows for scientific computing Leverage open source libraries to extract patterns from time series Write your own classification, clustering, or evolutionary algorithm Perform relative performance tuning and evaluation of Spark Master probabilistic models for sequential data Experiment with advanced techniques such as regularization and kernelization Dive into neural networks and some deep learning architecture Apply some basic multiarm-bandit algorithms Solve big data problems with Scala parallel collections, Akka actors, and Apache Spark clusters Apply key learning strategies to a technical analysis of financial markets In Detail The discovery of information through data clustering and classification is becoming a key differentiator for competitive organizations. Machine learning applications are everywhere, from self-driving cars, engineering design, logistics, manufacturing, and trading strategies, to detection of genetic anomalies. The book is your one stop guide that introduces you to the functional capabilities of the Scala programming language that are critical to the creation of machine learning algorithms such as dependency injection and implicits. You start by learning data preprocessing and filtering techniques. Following this, you'll move on to unsupervised learning techniques such as clustering and dimension reduction, followed by probabilistic graphical models such as Naive Bayes, hidden Markov models and Monte Carlo inference. Further, it covers the discriminative algorithms such as linear, logistic regression with regularization, kernelization, support vector machines, neural networks, and deep learning. You'll move on to evolutionary computing, multibandit algorithms, and reinforcement learning. Finally, the book includes a comprehensive overview of parallel computing in Scala and Akka followed by a description of Apache Spark and its ML library. With updated codes based on the latest version of Scala and comprehensive examples, this book will ensure that you have more than just a solid fundamental knowledge in machine learning with Scala. Style and approach This book is designed as a tutorial with hands-on exercises using technical analysis of financial markets and corporate data. The approach of each chapter is such that it allows you to understand key concepts easily.

Hidden Markov Models

Methods and Protocols

Author: David R. Westhead,M. S. Vijayabaskar

Publisher: Humana Press

ISBN: 9781493967513

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 698

This volume aims to provide a new perspective on the broader usage of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) in biology. Hidden Markov Models: Methods and Protocols guides readers through chapters on biological systems; ranging from single biomolecule, cellular level, and to organism level and the use of HMMs in unravelling the complex mechanisms that govern these complex systems. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Hidden Markov Models: Methods and Protocols aims to demonstrate the impact of HMM in biology and inspire new research.

Hidden Semi-Markov Models

Theory, Algorithms and Applications

Author: Shun-Zheng Yu

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 0128027711

Category: Computers

Page: 208

View: 3108

Hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs) are among the most important models in the area of artificial intelligence / machine learning. Since the first HSMM was introduced in 1980 for machine recognition of speech, three other HSMMs have been proposed, with various definitions of duration and observation distributions. Those models have different expressions, algorithms, computational complexities, and applicable areas, without explicitly interchangeable forms. Hidden Semi-Markov Models: Theory, Algorithms and Applications provides a unified and foundational approach to HSMMs, including various HSMMs (such as the explicit duration, variable transition, and residential time of HSMMs), inference and estimation algorithms, implementation methods and application instances. Learn new developments and state-of-the-art emerging topics as they relate to HSMMs, presented with examples drawn from medicine, engineering and computer science. Discusses the latest developments and emerging topics in the field of HSMMs Includes a description of applications in various areas including, Human Activity Recognition, Handwriting Recognition, Network Traffic Characterization and Anomaly Detection, and Functional MRI Brain Mapping. Shows how to master the basic techniques needed for using HSMMs and how to apply them.

Hidden Markov Models in Finance

Further Developments and Applications

Author: Rogemar S. Mamon,Robert J. Elliott

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1489974423

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 261

View: 7305

Since the groundbreaking research of Harry Markowitz into the application of operations research to the optimization of investment portfolios, finance has been one of the most important areas of application of operations research. The use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) has become one of the hottest areas of research for such applications to finance. This handbook offers systemic applications of different methodologies that have been used for decision making solutions to the financial problems of global markets. As the follow-up to the authors’ Hidden Markov Models in Finance (2007), this offers the latest research developments and applications of HMMs to finance and other related fields. Amongst the fields of quantitative finance and actuarial science that will be covered are: interest rate theory, fixed-income instruments, currency market, annuity and insurance policies with option-embedded features, investment strategies, commodity markets, energy, high-frequency trading, credit risk, numerical algorithms, financial econometrics and operational risk. Hidden Markov Models in Finance: Further Developments and Applications, Volume II presents recent applications and case studies in finance and showcases the formulation of emerging potential applications of new research over the book’s 11 chapters. This will benefit not only researchers in financial modeling, but also others in fields such as engineering, the physical sciences and social sciences. Ultimately the handbook should prove to be a valuable resource to dynamic researchers interested in taking full advantage of the power and versatility of HMMs in accurately and efficiently capturing many of the processes in the financial market.