In controversial court cases involving civil rights, schools and housing, prison reform, and other social issues, federal district court judges are often called upon to make some of the most difficult judicial decisions. How do these cases arise? How are they prosecuted and remedies fashioned when federally protected rights are violated? How can relations between federal judges and state and local officials be improved? This book--the first to attempt to look at such cases from the judge's point of view--examines some of these questions through five comparative case studies involving open housing in a Cleveland suburb, school desegregation in Detroit, mental health reform in Alabama, prison conditions in Ohio, and alleged police misconduct in Philadelphia. Cooper presents a clear overview of the remedial decree process and prefaces each of the case studies with a full chapter that sets the case in its legal, administrative, and political context. Taking a close look at the interactions between federal district court judges and state and local officials, this volume produces a model of remedial decree litigation that challenges widely held assumptions about the role of district court judges in such controversial cases.
Federal District Court Judges and State and Local Officials
Author: Phillip J. Cooper
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Category: Political Science
Justice and Legal Change on the Shores of Lake Erie explores the many ways that the United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio has affected the region, the nation, the development of American law, and American politics. The essays in this book, written by eminent law professors, historians, political scientists, and practicing attorneys, illustrate the range of cases and issues that have come before the court. Since the court’s inception in 1855, judges have influenced economic developments and social issues, beginning with the court’s most famous early case, involving the rescue of the fugitive slave John Price by residents of Northern Ohio. Chapters focusing on labor strikes, free speech, women’s rights, the environment, the death penalty, and immigration illustrate the impact this court and its judges have had in the development of society and the nation’s law. Some of the cases here deal with local issues with huge national implications —like political corruption, school desegregation, or pollution on the Cuyahoga River. But others are about major national issues that grew out of incidents, such as the prosecution of Eugene V. Debs for opposing World War I, the litigation resulting from the Kent State shootings and opposition to the Vietnam War, and the immigration status of the alleged Nazi war criminal John Demyanjuk. This timely history confirms the significant role played by district courts in the history of the United States.
A History of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio
Author: Paul Finkelman,Roberta Sue Alexander
Publisher: Ohio University Press
This is the first book-length study of a federal district court to analyze the revolutionary changes in its mission, structure, policies, and procedures over the past four decades. As Steven Harmon Wilson chronicles the court's attempts to keep pace with an expanding, diversifying caseload, he situates those efforts within the social, cultural, and political expectations that have prompted the increase in judicial seats from four in 1955 to the current nineteen. Federal judges have progressed from being simply referees of legal disputes to managers of expanding courts, dockets, and staffs, says Wilson. The Southern District of Texas offers an especially instructive model by which to study this transformation. Not only does it contain a varied population of Hispanics, African Americans, and whites, but its jurisdiction includes an international border and some of the busiest seaports in the United States. Wilson identifies three areas of judicial management in which the shift has most clearly manifested itself. Through docket and case management judges have attempted to rationalize the flow of work through the litigation process. Lastly, and most controversially, judges have sought to bring "constitutionally flawed" institutions into compliance through "structural reform" rulings in areas such as housing, education, employment, and voting. Wilson draws on sources ranging from judicial biography and oral-history interviews to case files, published opinions, and administrative memoranda. Blending legal history with social science, this important new study ponders the changing meaning of federal judgeship as it shows how judicial management has both helped and hindered the resolution of legal conflicts and the protection of civil rights.
Author: Steven Harmon Wilson
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
Health Care and the Charter explores the systematic use of Charter litigation in the area of health care and the policy impact of the resulting judicial decisions. Christopher P. Manfredi and Antonia Maioni examine three of the most controversial Supreme Court decisions in recent years. Eldridge (1997) and Auton (2004) invited the Court to extend the scope of publicly funded services, while Chaouilli (2005) asked the Court to allow private health services. This book explores the paths that brought litigants to the Court, the arguments that supported their positions, and the substance of the victory or defeat the Court provided.
Legal Mobilization and Policy Change in Canada
Author: Christopher P. Manfredi,Antonia Maioni
Publisher: UBC Press
Overviews lower federal trial courts in historical, institutional, and functional contexts, then addresses the extent to which individual presidents have advanced particular policy objectives through their judicial appointments to federal district courts. Analysis of presidential policy preferences
Federal District Courts in the Political Process
Author: Kevin L. Lyles
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
In 1987 Judge Russell Clark mandated tax increases to help pay for improvements to the Kansas City, Missouri, School District in an effort to lure white students and quality teachers back to the inner-city district. Yet even after increasing employee salaries and constructing elaborate facilities at a cost of more than $2 billion, the district remained overwhelmingly segregated and student achievement remained far below national averages. Just eight years later the U.S. Supreme Court began reversing these initiatives, signifying a major retreat from Brown v. Board of Education. In Kansas City, African American families opposed to the district court's efforts organized a takeover of the school board and requested that the court case be closed. Joshua Dunn argues that Judge Clark's ruling was not the result of tyrannical "judicial activism" but was rather the logical outcome of previous contradictory Supreme Court doctrines. High Court decisions, Dunn explains, necessarily limit the policy choices available to lower court judges, introducing complications the Supreme Court would not anticipate. He demonstrates that the Kansas City case is a model lesson for the types of problems that develop for lower courts in any area in which the Supreme Court attempts to create significant change. Dunn's exploration of this landmark case deepens our understanding of when courts can and cannot successfully create and manage public policy.
The Case of Missouri v. Jenkins
Author: Joshua M. Dunn
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Category: Political Science
Author: James MacGregor Burns
Category: Political Science
Serves as a starting point for the nonspecialist.
An Annotated Bibliography
Author: Robert Joseph Janosik
Category: Constitutional law
Managing in the public sector entails an understanding of the interaction between three distinct dimensions&BAD:—administrative structures and processes, organizations and their cultures, and the skills and values of individual managers. Public managers must produce results that citizens and their representatives expect from their government while balancing these concerns within a constitutional scheme of governance. In Public Management, authors Carolyn J. Hill and Laurence E. Lynn, Jr. show that constructing critical analyses and persuasive arguments is the principal tool for effectively managing in three dimensions. Students learn how to analyze and explain managerial strategies and decisions, critically assessing real world case studies and building their own arguments. Four unique features further the book&BAD:’s approach and reinforce practical learning: Rule of Law boxes showcase how public managers are affected by statutes, regulations, and court decisions. Concepts in Action boxes show how sense-making, deliberation and decision making are common features in everday news stories, opinion pieces, and government reports. How the World Works boxes aptly illustrate how human nature creates conundrums, irony, and surprise in the practice of public management&BAD:—a reminder that theory cannot fully explain the variety and complexity of human and organizational behavior. Analysis and Argument sections at the end of every chapter guide students in case analysis and help them build the elements of an argument (Claim, Reason, Evidence, Warrant, Acknowledgment and Response).Rich with vivid, &BAD:“ripped-from-the-headlines&BAD:” examples of managerial situations as well as noteworthy scholarship, Public Management underlines the challenges and art of balancing structure, culture, and craft.
Author: Carolyn J Hill,Laurence E Lynn Jr
Publisher: Cq Press
Category: Political Science
This valuable and updated reference focuses on the implementator and impact of judicial policies in America. Introducing a hierarchies model of "populations" affected by judicial decisions, the authors highlight the substantial influence of how lower courts, administrative agencies, local groups, the media, Congress, and other political actors respond to judicial policies.This new edition features: -- Illustrative boxes providing real-life examples of the impact of judicial policies.-- A summary table assessing the major theories explaining judicial impact.-- Summary actions and activities in the 25 years since Roe v. Wade.-- Analysis of all the important research findings about how people react to judicial decisions.-- Extensive bibliography for further research and abundant references to contemporary policies.Judicial Policies: Implementation and Impact offers a thorough discussion of the events and possibilities that follow a court's declaring a judicial policy. The authors look,at both successful and unsuccessful implementation of judicial policies to show that political factors are often more important than legal doctrines in explaining the impact of judicial decisions.
implementation and impact
Author: Bradley C. Canon,Charles A. Johnson
Publisher: Cq Pr
Law and Justice: An Introduction to the American Legal System, Sixth Edition offers a thorough examination of the system of justice used in the United States: civil and criminal, juvenile, and therapeutic. This new edition continues its critical review of the legal system and examines issues such as the conflict between the legal system's need for predictability and the desire for flexibility; the pros and cons of therapeutic jurisprudence and restorative justice; the issues involved with medical malpractice and more! Provides a comprehensive look at the justice system from various perspectives. Discusses many aspects of law and judicial process such as: the role of natural law, statutory law, legal reasoning, case law, legal education, the legal profession, the court systems, the appellate court process, the constitution, judges, prosecutors, criminal defense attorneys etc. Ideal for anyone interested in the American Legal System.
An Introduction to the American Legal System
Author: Howard Abadinsky
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Author: Waldo E. Martin
Publisher: MacMillan Reference Library
Category: Political Science
One of the most widely used constitutional law textbooks is back in a new edition. The only book that develops constitutional law in the comprehensive sense, American Constitutional Law, 4th ed. not only contains the results of court decisions but also highlights the efforts of legislatures, executives, the states, and the general public. Most constitutional law books focus only on case law and judicial pronouncements, but American Constitutional Law illustrates how both judicial and non-judicial forces shape constitutional law. Compared to other texts written by political scientists, this book offers much more in the way of citations to earlier decisions. These citations allow the reader to research areas in greater depth and also highlight the process of trial and error used by the Supreme Court to clarify constitutional principles. Presenting a broad range of cases, rather than merely focusing on landmark cases, allows the reader to understand the development of constitutional law. Fisher also covers state involvement in constitutional law through examples of how states, by interpreting their own constitutions, may depart from Supreme Court doctrines. Readings include not only court cases but presidential statements and congressional debates. This is the perfect book for undergraduate political science courses as well as an invaluable resource for anyone interested in the development of constitutional law in the United States. This book will be available in two formats: a one-volume, casebound edition and a two-volume paperback edition, with volume 1 being Constitutional Structures: Separated Powers and Federalism and volume 2 being Constitutional Rights and Civil Liberties.
Author: Louis Fisher
Category: Constitutional law
Category: Electronic journals
The fourth edition of this authoritative text has been completely updated through the 1991-1992 term. New material is presented on the Rehnquist Court, the Court's recourd on civil liberties, and the Clarence Thomas nomination. The text focuses on the Supreme Court, but also analyzes other federal courts and the entire court system. The Court's political roles are discussed first. The structure of the judicial system and the ways of selecting federal judges follows. A separate chapter is devoted to the role of lawyers and interest groups. The book concludes with an account of the impact of court rulings.
Author: Stephen L. Wasby
Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company