Handcuffed

What Holds Policing Back, and the Keys to Reform

Author: Malcolm K. Sparrow

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815727828

Category: Political Science

Page: 270

View: 1867

Whatever happened to community and problem-oriented policing? How the current crisis in policing can be traced to failures of reform. The police shooting of an unarmed young black man in the St. Louis suburb of Ferguson, Missouri, in August 2014 sparked riots and the beginning of a national conversation on race and policing. Much of the ensuing discussion has focused on the persistence of racial disparities and the extraordinarily high rate at which American police kill civilians (an average of roughly three per day). Malcolm Sparrow, who teaches at Harvard’s Kennedy School and is a former British police detective, argues that other factors in the development of police theory and practice over the last twenty-five years have also played a major role in contributing to these tragedies and to a great many other cases involving excessive police force and community alienation. Sparrow shows how the core ideas of community and problem-solving policing have failed to thrive. In many police departments these foundational ideas have been reduced to mere rhetoric. The result is heavy reliance on narrow quantitative metrics, where police define how well they are doing by tallying up traffic tickets issued (Ferguson), or arrests made for petty crimes (in New York). Sparrow’s analysis shows what it will take for police departments to escape their narrow focus and perverse metrics and turn back to making public safety and public cooperation their primary goals. Police, according to Sparrow, are in the risk-control business and need to grasp the fundamental nature of that challenge and develop a much more sophisticated understanding of its implications for mission, methods, measurement, partnerships, and analysis.

The War on Cops

How the New Attack on Law and Order Makes Everyone Less Safe

Author: Heather Mac Donald

Publisher: Encounter Books

ISBN: 1594039690

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 8436

Violent crime has been rising sharply in many American cities after two decades of decline. Homicides jumped nearly 17 percent in 2015 in the largest 50 cities, the biggest one-year increase since 1993. The reason is what Heather Mac Donald first identified nationally as the “Ferguson effect”: Since the 2014 police shooting death of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, officers have been backing off of proactive policing, and criminals are becoming emboldened. This book expands on Mac Donald’s groundbreaking and controversial reporting on the Ferguson effect and the criminal-justice system. It deconstructs the central narrative of the Black Lives Matter movement: that racist cops are the greatest threat to young black males. On the contrary, it is criminals and gangbangers who are responsible for the high black homicide death rate. The War on Cops exposes the truth about officer use of force and explodes the conceit of “mass incarceration.” A rigorous analysis of data shows that crime, not race, drives police actions and prison rates. The growth of proactive policing in the 1990s, along with lengthened sentences for violent crime, saved thousands of minority lives. In fact, Mac Donald argues, no government agency is more dedicated to the proposition that “black lives matter” than today’s data-driven, accountable police department. Mac Donald gives voice to the many residents of high-crime neighborhoods who want proactive policing. She warns that race-based attacks on the criminal-justice system, from the White House on down, are eroding the authority of law and putting lives at risk. This book is a call for a more honest and informed debate about policing, crime, and race.

Governing the Police

Experience in Six Democracies

Author: David Bayley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351516817

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 4397

Every modern democracy in our increasingly complex world must confront a fundamental problem: how should politicians manage police, ensuring that they act in the public interest while avoiding the temptation to utilize them in a partisan manner? Drawing on first-hand experiences from six democracies, the authors describe how frequently disagreements arise between politicians and police commanders, what issues are involved, and how they are resolved.Governing the Police is organized into three parts: the intellectual and governmental context of democratic governance; the experience of chief officers in that relationship; and the reflections on lessons learned. Instead of describing practices within each individual country, it compares them across countries, developing generalizations about practices, explanations for differences, and assessments of success in managing the police/political relationship.Focusing mainly on the daily, informal interactions between politicians and police as they balance their respective duties, this book compares the experiences and opinions of chief police officers in Australia, Britain, Canada, India, New Zealand, and the United States. By examining the experiences of important officials, the authors explain how the balance between accountability and independence can be managed and what challenges leaders face. The authors conclude by posing well-informed recommendations for improving police governance.

The Character of Harms

Operational Challenges in Control

Author: Malcolm K. Sparrow

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139470132

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 271

View: 2575

How should we deal with societal ills such as crime, poverty, pollution, terrorism, and corruption? The Character of Harms argues that control or mitigation of 'bad' things involves distinctive patterns of thought and action which turn out to be broadly applicable across a range of human endeavors, and which need to be better understood. Malcolm Sparrow demonstrates that an explicit focus on the bads, rather than on the countervailing goods (safety, prosperity, environmental stewardship, etc.) can provide rich opportunities for surgically efficient and effective interventions - an operational approach which he terms 'the sabotage of harms'. The book explores the institutional arrangements and decision-frameworks necessary to support this emerging operational model. Written for reflective practitioners charged with risk-control responsibilities across the public, private, and non-governmental sectors, The Character of Harms makes a powerful case for a new approach to tackling the complex problems facing society.

To Protect and Serve

How to Fix America's Police

Author: Norm Stamper

Publisher: Nation Books

ISBN: 1568585411

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 1222

American policing is in crisis. The last decade witnessed a vast increase in police aggression, misconduct, and militarization, along with a corresponding reduction in transparency and accountability. Nowhere is this more noticeable and painful than in African American and other ethnic minority communities. Racism—from raw, individualized versions to insidious systemic examples—appears to be on the rise in our police departments. Overall, our police officers have grown more and more alienated from the people they've been hired to serve. In To Protect and To Serve, Norm Stamper offers new insights into the conditions that have created this crisis, reminding us that police in a democratic society belong to the people–and not the other way around. To Protect and To Serve also delivers a revolutionary new model for American law enforcement: the community-based police department. It calls for citizen participation in all aspects of police operations: policymaking, program development, crime fighting and service delivery, entry-level and ongoing education and training, oversight of police conduct, and, especially relevant to today's challenges, joint community-police crisis management. Nothing will ever change until the system itself is radically restructured, and here Norm Stamper shows us how.

Police Innovation

Contrasting Perspectives

Author: David Weisburd,Anthony A. Braga

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139454331

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 1469

Over the last three decades American policing has gone through a period of significant change and innovation. In what is a relatively short historical time frame the police began to reconsider their fundamental mission, the nature of the core strategies of policing, and the character of their relationships with the communities that they serve. This volume brings together leading police scholars to examine eight major innovations which emerged during this period: community policing, broken windows policing, problem oriented policing, pulling levers policing, third party policing, hot spots policing, Compstat and evidence-based policing. Including advocates and critics of each of the eight police innovations, this comprehensive book assesses the evidence on impacts of police innovation on crime and public safety, the extent of the implementation of these new approaches in police departments, and the dilemmas these approaches have created for police management. This book will appeal to students, scholars and researchers.

Federal Reports on Police Killings

Ferguson, Cleveland, Baltimore, and Chicago

Author: United States. Department of Justice

Publisher: Melville House

ISBN: 1612196543

Category: Discrimination in criminal justice administration

Page: 585

View: 1566

Federal Reports on Police Killings is a collection of the complete reports from the Department of Justice's landmark investigations of police violence in three major American cities. Rather than frame the collection with an introduction, the book will open with the brief DOJ statement about the decision to close the investigation into the death of Trayvon Martin in 2012 - an event that animated the Black Lives Matter movement and can be interpreted as a catalyst for the DOJ's inquiries into law enforcement. The reports that follow speak for themselves.

The Regulatory Craft

Controlling Risks, Solving Problems, and Managing Compliance

Author: Malcolm K. Sparrow

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815798286

Category: Law

Page: 370

View: 3603

The Regulatory Craft tackles one of the most pressing public policy issues of our time—the reform of regulatory and enforcement practice. Malcolm K. Sparrow shows how the vogue prescriptions for reform (centered on concepts of customer service and process improvement) fail to take account of the distinctive character of regulatory responsibilities—which involve the delivery of obligations rather than just services.In order to construct more balanced prescriptions for reform, Sparrow invites us to reconsider the central purpose of social regulation—the abatement or control of risks to society. He recounts the experiences of pioneering agencies that have confronted the risk-control challenge directly, developing operational capacities for specifying risk-concentrations, problem areas, or patterns of noncompliance, and then designing interventions tailored to each problem. At the heart of a new regulatory craftsmanship, according to Sparrow, lies the central notion, "pick important problems and fix them." This beguilingly simple idea turns out to present enormously complex implementation challenges and carries with it profound consequences for the way regulators organize their work, manage their discretion, and report their performance. Although the book is primarily aimed at regulatory and law-enforcement practitioners, it will also be invaluable for legislators, overseers, and others who care about the nature and quality of regulatory practice, and who want to know what kind of performance to demand from regulators and how it might be delivered. It stresses the enormous benefit to society that might accrue from development of the risk-control art as a core professional skill for regulators.

Evidence-Based Policing

Translating Research Into Practice

Author: Cynthia Lum,Christopher S. Koper

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198719946

Category:

Page: 348

View: 5200

Today's police agencies are in a period of both crisis and reform as they try to improve their ability to deliver public safety to citizens in ways that are effective, legitimate, and sustainable. Evidence-based policing offers one such solution - an approach which emphasises the value that research can bring to police officers and, by extension, the public they serve. However, evidence-based policing is not just about the process of understanding and evaluating police practices. It is also about translating and using that knowledge in daily police activities. This unique book examines the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of various police practices and provides tools to help turn research into practice. Part I gives a practitioner's definition of evidence-based policing, a primer on how to judge and interpret research findings, and a review of the Evidence-Based Policing Matrix, a tool for translating research on police crime control interventions. In Part II the authors review the breadth of knowledge about policing interventions for people, places, communities, and technology, focusing on how to optimize operations based on this information. Tools and ideas that can assist in implementing evidence-based practices into patrol, investigations, supervision, management, crime analysis, and leadership are provided in Part III. Finally, in Part IV the authors speak to researchers about how they might continue to work with police agencies to advance evidence-based policing.

The New Guardians

Policing in America's Communities for the 21st Century

Author: Cedric Alexander

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781532797453

Category:

Page: 242

View: 1464

The New Guardians: Policing in America's Communities for the 21st Century embodies nearly forty years of experience in law enforcement in addition to a career in clinical psychology. In search of a better way to police our nation, Dr. Cedric L. Alexander takes us back some 200 years to the Constitution-and then some 2,400 to Plato's Republic-and shows us how to remodel the warrior cop into the Guardian at the heart of community policing. Amid today's explosion of homicide in our most-challenged neighborhoods and the bid of international terrorism for the allegiance of marginalized youth everywhere, healing wounded relations between the police and the people has never been more urgent. This is the story of one man's quiet, courageous leadership. Cedric L. Alexander entered law enforcement in 1977, as a deputy sheriff in Leon County, Florida, on the brink of profound transformations in America and American policing. In many cities, the nation was in civil war, the police on one side, the community on the other. Wars are about winning by inflicting defeat. As a young deputy, Alexander saw that unending combat was destroying police-community relations. He devoted the next four decades to creating something new and something better. His background combines a long career as a deputy, a police officer, and a detective in the Tallahassee area, in Orlando, and in Miami-Dade, Florida, with a career in clinical psychology, both as a practitioner and an assistant professor at the University of Rochester (New York). He holds a Doctorate of Clinical Psychology from Wright State University (Dayton, Ohio) and provided senior-level administrative and clinical leadership of mental health services within the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Rochester School of Medicine, with special emphasis on counseling police officers, firefighters, and their families. He served as Deputy Chief and then as Chief of Police of the Rochester Police Department and subsequently was appointed Deputy Commissioner in the New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services before joining the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as Federal Security Director for Dallas/ Fort Worth International Airport (DFW). In 2013, Dr. Alexander was appointed Chief of Police for DeKalb County and, at the end of the year, became Deputy Chief Operating Officer/Public Safety Director. About the Author Cedric L. Alexander, Psy.D., is Director of Public Safety and Deputy Chief Operating Officer, DeKalb County Office of Public Safety, responsible for leading the Police and Fire Departments in the second-largest county in the metro-Atlanta area. He has served as President of the National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives (NOBLE) and was appointed in 2015 to the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing. Dr. Alexander has appeared on MSNBC's Morning Joe, CBS Evening News, ABC World News with Diane Sawyer, and NBC Nightly News, and has have written numerous opinion editorials for CNN, for which he is an on-air Law Enforcement Analyst.

Unfair

The New Science of Criminal Injustice

Author: Adam Benforado

Publisher: Crown

ISBN: 0770437761

Category: LAW

Page: 379

View: 8051

"A crusading legal scholar exposes the powerful psychological forces that undermine our criminal justice system--and affect us all Our nation is founded on the notion that the law is impartial, that legal cases are won or lost on the basis of evidence, careful reasoning and nuanced argument. But they may, in fact, turn on the temperature of the courtroom, the camera angle of a defendant's taped confession, or a simple word choice or gesture during a cross-examination. In Unfair, law professor Adam Benforado shines a light on this troubling new research, showing, for example, that people with certain facial features receive longer sentences and that judges are far more likely to grant parole first thing in the morning. In fact, over the last two decades, psychologists and neuroscientists have uncovered many cognitive forces that operate beyond our conscious awareness--and Benforado argues that until we address these hidden biases head-on, the social inequality we see now will only widen, as powerful players and institutions find ways to exploit the weaknesses in our legal system. Weaving together historical examples, scientific studies, and compelling court cases--from the border collie put on trial in Kentucky to the five teenagers who falsely confessed in the Central Park Jogger case--Benforado shows how our judicial processes fail to uphold our values and protect society's weakest members, convicting the innocent while letting dangerous criminals go free. With clarity and passion, he lays out the scope of the problem and proposes a wealth of reforms that could prevent injustice and help us achieve true fairness and equality before the law"--

Advances in Evidence-Based Policing

Author: Johannes Knutsson,Lisa Tompson

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1315518287

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 3181

The evidence-based policing (EBP) movement has intensified in many countries around the world in recent years, resulting in a proliferation of policies and infrastructure to support such a transformation. This movement has come to be associated with particular methods of evaluation and systematic review, which have been drawn from what is assumed to prevail in medicine. Given the credibility EBP is currently enjoying with both practitioners and government, it is timely to subject its underpinning logic to thoughtful scrutiny. This involves deliberating upon the meaning of evidence and what different models of knowledge accumulation and research methods have to offer in realising the aims of EBP. The communication and presentation of evidence to practitioner audiences is another important aspect of EBP, as are collaborative efforts to ‘co-produce’ new knowledge on police practice. This is the first book that takes a kaleidoscopic approach to depict what EBP presently is and how it could develop. The chapters individually and collectively challenge the underlying logic to the mainstream EBP position, and the book concludes with an agenda for a more inclusive conceptualisation of evidence and EBP for the future. It is aimed at students and academics who are interested in being part of this movement, as well as policymakers and practitioners interested in integrating EBP principles into their practices.

Risk-Based Policing

Evidence-Based Crime Prevention with Big Data and Spatial Analytics

Author: Leslie W. Kennedy,Joel M. Caplan,Eric L. Piza

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 0520295633

Category: Social Science

Page: 168

View: 3262

"Risk-based policing is the latest advancement in the long history of policing innovations, where research and planning have combined to manage crime risks, prevent crime, and enhance public safety. In Risk-Based Policing the authors share case studies from different agencies to demonstrate how focusing police resources at risky places, based on smart uses of data and strong analytical work, can address the worst effects of disorder and crime while improving public safety and community relations. Topics include the role of big data; the evolution of modern policing; dealing with high-risk targets; designing, implementing, and evaluating risk-based policing strategies; and the role of multiple stakeholders in risk-based policing. Case studies explore cities such as Colorado Springs, Glendale, Newark, Kansas City, and others. The book also demonstrates how Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) can be extended to offer a more comprehensive view of prevention and deterrence"--Provided by publisher.

Just Mercy (Adapted for Young Adults)

A True Story of the Fight for Justice

Author: Bryan A. Stevenson

Publisher: Delacorte Press

ISBN: 0525580050

Category: Young Adult Nonfiction

Page: 288

View: 9342

In this young adult adaptation of the acclaimed bestselling Just Mercy, which the New York Times calls "as compelling as To Kill a Mockingbird, and in some ways more so," Bryan Stevenson delves deep into the broken U.S. justice system, detailing from his personal experience his many challenges and efforts as a lawyer and social advocate, especially on behalf of America's most rejected and marginalized people. In this very personal work--proceeds of which will go to charity--Bryan Stevenson recounts many and varied stories of his work as a lawyer in the U.S. criminal justice system on behalf of those in society who have experienced some type of discrimination and/or have been wrongly accused of a crime and who deserve a powerful advocate and due justice under the law. Through the Equal Justice Initiative (EJI), an organization Stevenson founded as a young lawyer and for which he currently serves as Executive Director, this important work continues. EJI strives to end mass incarceration and excessive punishment in the United States, working to protect basic human rights for the most vulnerable people in American society. "A deeply moving collage of true stories . . . .This is required reading." --Kirkus, Starred Review Praise for Just Mercy: A Story of Justice and Redemption: "Important and compelling." --Pulitzer Prize-winning author TRACY KIDDER "Gripping. . . . What hangs in the balance is nothing less than the soul of a great nation." --DESMOND TUTU, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate "An inspiring and powerful story." --#1 New York Times bestselling author JOHN GRISHAM

The Use of Force in Criminal Justice

Author: Richard M. Hough

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315410397

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 7805

The Use of Force in Criminal Justice addresses the how, why, and when of utilizing force against citizens in a democracy. This is the first true textbook on this topic, offering students and instructors a balanced, research-based approach to understanding the use of force in law enforcement, as well as in corrections and juvenile justice. Hough includes features to reinforce key concepts, including "What-Why," "Try This," "Going Global," and "Research Results" boxes. The Use of Force in Criminal Justice combines academic and practitioner perspectives, making the book well-suited for undergraduate and graduate courses in criminal justice as well as professional training and executive education. The text is accompanied by online resources such as PowerPoints, lesson notes, and a test bank. The Use of Force in Criminal Justice is an invaluable aid for force trainers, risk managers, and attorneys who must understand the research on force and force issues rather than the rhetoric of individual anecdotes and personal system-of-force concepts. ​

Proactive Policing

Effects on Crime and Communities

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime, Communities, and Civil Liberties

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309467136

Category: Law

Page: 408

View: 8855

Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism regarding the effectiveness of standard approaches to policing. In response, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, innovative police practices and policies that took a more proactive approach began to develop. This report uses the term “proactive policing†to refer to all policing strategies that have as one of their goals the prevention or reduction of crime and disorder and that are not reactive in terms of focusing primarily on uncovering ongoing crime or on investigating or responding to crimes once they have occurred. Proactive policing is distinguished from the everyday decisions of police officers to be proactive in specific situations and instead refers to a strategic decision by police agencies to use proactive police responses in a programmatic way to reduce crime. Today, proactive policing strategies are used widely in the United States. They are not isolated programs used by a select group of agencies but rather a set of ideas that have spread across the landscape of policing. Proactive Policing reviews the evidence and discusses the data and methodological gaps on: (1) the effects of different forms of proactive policing on crime; (2) whether they are applied in a discriminatory manner; (3) whether they are being used in a legal fashion; and (4) community reaction. This report offers a comprehensive evaluation of proactive policing that includes not only its crime prevention impacts but also its broader implications for justice and U.S. communities.

Police Leadership and Administration

A 21st-Century Strategic Approach

Author: William F. Walsh,Gennaro F. Vito

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351244418

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 7707

William Walsh and Gennaro Vito have adapted the strategic management process to the police organizational world in this innovative new text, Police Leadership and Administration: A 21st-Century Approach. Focusing principally on the police executive, this book covers pioneering management techniques for leaders facing the challenges of today’s complex environment, providing the police practitioner instruction in planning, setting direction, developing strategy, assessing internal and external environments, creating learning organizations, and managing and evaluating the change process. It also tackles how to handle the political, economic, social, and technical considerations that differ from one community to the next. Police Leadership and Administration trains individuals to search for solutions, rather than relying on old formulas and scientific management principles. It shows how to tailor responses to the unique problems and issues that professionals are likely to face in the field of law enforcement, providing a foundation with which to adapt to an ever-changing criminal justice climate. This book is essential for forward-thinking police leadership courses in colleges and professional training programs.

Blue

The LAPD and the Battle to Redeem American Policing

Author: Joe Domanick

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1451641109

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 1643

American policing is in crisis. Here, award-winning investigative journalist Joe Domanick reveals the troubled history of American policing over the past quarter century. He begins in the early 1990s with the beating of Rodney King and the L.A. riots, when the Los Angeles Police Department was caught between a corrupt and racist past and the demands of a rapidly changing urban population. Across the country, American cities faced similar challenges to law and order. In New York, William J. Bratton was spearheading the reorganization of the New York City Transit Police and later the 35,000-strong New York Police Department. His efforts resulted in a dramatic decrease in crime, yet introduced highly controversial policing strategies. In 2002, when Bratton was named the LAPD's new chief, he implemented the lessons learned in New York to change a department that previously had been impervious to reform. Blue ends in 2015 with the LAPD on its unfinished road to reform, as events in Los Angeles, New York, Baltimore, and Ferguson, Missouri, raise alarms about the very strategies Bratton pioneered, and about aggressive racial profiling and the militarization of police departments throughout the United States. Domanick tells his story through the lives of the people who lived it. Along with Bratton, he introduces William Parker, the legendary LAPD police chief; Tom Bradley, the first black mayor of Los Angeles; and Charlie Beck, the hard-nosed ex-gang cop who replaced Bratton as LAPD chief. The result is both intimate and expansive: a gripping narrative that asks big questions about what constitutes good and bad policing and how best to prevent crime, control police abuse, and ease tensions between the police and the powerless. Blue is not only a page-turning read but an essential addition to our scholarship.--Adapted from book jacket.

Are Prisons Obsolete?

Author: Angela Y. Davis

Publisher: Seven Stories Press

ISBN: 1609801040

Category: Political Science

Page: 129

View: 3181

With her characteristic brilliance, grace and radical audacity, Angela Y. Davis has put the case for the latest abolition movement in American life: the abolition of the prison. As she quite correctly notes, American life is replete with abolition movements, and when they were engaged in these struggles, their chances of success seemed almost unthinkable. For generations of Americans, the abolition of slavery was sheerest illusion. Similarly,the entrenched system of racial segregation seemed to last forever, and generations lived in the midst of the practice, with few predicting its passage from custom. The brutal, exploitative (dare one say lucrative?) convict-lease system that succeeded formal slavery reaped millions to southern jurisdictions (and untold miseries for tens of thousands of men, and women). Few predicted its passing from the American penal landscape. Davis expertly argues how social movements transformed these social, political and cultural institutions, and made such practices untenable. In Are Prisons Obsolete?, Professor Davis seeks to illustrate that the time for the prison is approaching an end. She argues forthrightly for "decarceration", and argues for the transformation of the society as a whole.

Law and Society

Author: Steven Vago,Steven E. Barkan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351762230

Category: Social Science

Page: 326

View: 5712

In the 11th edition of Law and Society, Steven E. Barkan preserves Dr. Vago’s voice while making this classic text more accessible for today’s students. Each chapter now includes an outline, learning objectives, key terms, and chapter summaries. A new epilogue chapter examines law and inequality in the United States as it moves into the third decade of this century. The 11th edition reflects new developments in law and society literature as well as recent real-life events with legal relevance for the United States and other nations. Law and Society is for one-semester undergraduate courses in Law and Society, Sociology of Law, Introduction to Law, and a variety of criminal justice courses offered in departments of Sociology, Criminal Justice, and Political Science.