Handcuffed

What Holds Policing Back

Author: Malcolm K. Sparrow

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780815727811

Category: Police

Page: 270

View: 9406

The current crisis in policing can be traced to failures of reform. "Sparrow surely is right to condemn policing directed only at crime rates rather than community satisfaction.” -The New York Times Book Review In the past two years, America has witnessed incendiary milestones in the poor relations between police and the African-American community: Ferguson, Baltimore, and more recently Baton Rouge, St. Paul, and Dallas. Malcolm Sparrow, who teaches at Harvard Kennedy School of Government and is a former British police detective, argues that other factors in the development of police theory and practice over the last twenty-five years have also played a major role in contributing to these tragedies and to a great many other cases involving excessive police force and community alienation. Sparrow shows how the core ideas of community and problem-solving policing have failed to thrive. In many police departments these foundational ideas have been reduced to mere rhetoric. The result is heavy reliance on narrow quantitative metrics, where police define how well they are doing by tallying up traffic stops, or arrests made for petty crimes. Sparrow’s analysis shows what it will take for police departments to escape their narrow focus and perverse metrics and turn back to making public safety and public cooperation their primary goals. Police, according to Sparrow, are in the risk-control business and need to grasp the fundamental nature of that challenge and develop a much more sophisticated understanding of its implications for mission, methods, measurement, partnerships, and analysis.

Handcuffed

What Holds Policing Back, and the Keys to Reform

Author: Malcolm K. Sparrow

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815727828

Category: Political Science

Page: 270

View: 2457

Whatever happened to community and problem-oriented policing? How the current crisis in policing can be traced to failures of reform. The police shooting of an unarmed young black man in the St. Louis suburb of Ferguson, Missouri, in August 2014 sparked riots and the beginning of a national conversation on race and policing. Much of the ensuing discussion has focused on the persistence of racial disparities and the extraordinarily high rate at which American police kill civilians (an average of roughly three per day). Malcolm Sparrow, who teaches at Harvard’s Kennedy School and is a former British police detective, argues that other factors in the development of police theory and practice over the last twenty-five years have also played a major role in contributing to these tragedies and to a great many other cases involving excessive police force and community alienation. Sparrow shows how the core ideas of community and problem-solving policing have failed to thrive. In many police departments these foundational ideas have been reduced to mere rhetoric. The result is heavy reliance on narrow quantitative metrics, where police define how well they are doing by tallying up traffic tickets issued (Ferguson), or arrests made for petty crimes (in New York). Sparrow’s analysis shows what it will take for police departments to escape their narrow focus and perverse metrics and turn back to making public safety and public cooperation their primary goals. Police, according to Sparrow, are in the risk-control business and need to grasp the fundamental nature of that challenge and develop a much more sophisticated understanding of its implications for mission, methods, measurement, partnerships, and analysis.

Police Innovation

Contrasting Perspectives

Author: David Weisburd,Anthony A. Braga

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139454331

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 7763

Over the last three decades American policing has gone through a period of significant change and innovation. In what is a relatively short historical time frame the police began to reconsider their fundamental mission, the nature of the core strategies of policing, and the character of their relationships with the communities that they serve. This volume brings together leading police scholars to examine eight major innovations which emerged during this period: community policing, broken windows policing, problem oriented policing, pulling levers policing, third party policing, hot spots policing, Compstat and evidence-based policing. Including advocates and critics of each of the eight police innovations, this comprehensive book assesses the evidence on impacts of police innovation on crime and public safety, the extent of the implementation of these new approaches in police departments, and the dilemmas these approaches have created for police management. This book will appeal to students, scholars and researchers.

The War on Cops

How the New Attack on Law and Order Makes Everyone Less Safe

Author: Heather Mac Donald

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781594039683

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 4159

New York Times Best Seller

Evidence-Based Policing

Translating Research Into Practice

Author: Cynthia Lum,Christopher S. Koper

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198719946

Category:

Page: 348

View: 3308

Today's police agencies are in a period of both crisis and reform as they try to improve their ability to deliver public safety to citizens in ways that are effective, legitimate, and sustainable. Evidence-based policing offers one such solution - an approach which emphasises the value that research can bring to police officers and, by extension, the public they serve. However, evidence-based policing is not just about the process of understanding and evaluating police practices. It is also about translating and using that knowledge in daily police activities. This unique book examines the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of various police practices and provides tools to help turn research into practice. Part I gives a practitioner's definition of evidence-based policing, a primer on how to judge and interpret research findings, and a review of the Evidence-Based Policing Matrix, a tool for translating research on police crime control interventions. In Part II the authors review the breadth of knowledge about policing interventions for people, places, communities, and technology, focusing on how to optimize operations based on this information. Tools and ideas that can assist in implementing evidence-based practices into patrol, investigations, supervision, management, crime analysis, and leadership are provided in Part III. Finally, in Part IV the authors speak to researchers about how they might continue to work with police agencies to advance evidence-based policing.

To Protect and Serve

How to Fix America's Police

Author: Norm Stamper

Publisher: Nation Books

ISBN: 1568585411

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 5785

American policing is in crisis. The last decade witnessed a vast increase in police aggression, misconduct, and militarization, along with a corresponding reduction in transparency and accountability. Nowhere is this more noticeable and painful than in African American and other ethnic minority communities. Racism—from raw, individualized versions to insidious systemic examples—appears to be on the rise in our police departments. Overall, our police officers have grown more and more alienated from the people they've been hired to serve. In To Protect and To Serve, Norm Stamper offers new insights into the conditions that have created this crisis, reminding us that police in a democratic society belong to the people–and not the other way around. To Protect and To Serve also delivers a revolutionary new model for American law enforcement: the community-based police department. It calls for citizen participation in all aspects of police operations: policymaking, program development, crime fighting and service delivery, entry-level and ongoing education and training, oversight of police conduct, and, especially relevant to today's challenges, joint community-police crisis management. Nothing will ever change until the system itself is radically restructured, and here Norm Stamper shows us how.

The Character of Harms

Operational Challenges in Control

Author: Malcolm K. Sparrow

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139470132

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 271

View: 2088

How should we deal with societal ills such as crime, poverty, pollution, terrorism, and corruption? The Character of Harms argues that control or mitigation of 'bad' things involves distinctive patterns of thought and action which turn out to be broadly applicable across a range of human endeavors, and which need to be better understood. Malcolm Sparrow demonstrates that an explicit focus on the bads, rather than on the countervailing goods (safety, prosperity, environmental stewardship, etc.) can provide rich opportunities for surgically efficient and effective interventions - an operational approach which he terms 'the sabotage of harms'. The book explores the institutional arrangements and decision-frameworks necessary to support this emerging operational model. Written for reflective practitioners charged with risk-control responsibilities across the public, private, and non-governmental sectors, The Character of Harms makes a powerful case for a new approach to tackling the complex problems facing society.

Federal Reports on Police Killings

Ferguson, Cleveland, Baltimore, and Chicago

Author: U.S. Department of Justice

Publisher: Melville House

ISBN: 1612196551

Category: Political Science

Page: 456

View: 1481

After a series of incidents in which police officers in Chicago, Cleveland, Baltimore and Ferguson, Missouri, killed four unarmed African Americans--Laquan McDonald, Tamir Rice, Freddie Gray, and Michael Brown--resulting in widespread civic unrest and violent protests, the Department of Justice launched investigations into each incident, including in-depth probes into the police departments behind them. This is the complete and unexpurgated text of their findings.

The Rise of the Alt-Right

Author: Thomas J. Main

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815732902

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 809

What is the Alt-Right, and how will it affect America? Donald Trump’s election as president in 2016 suddenly brought to prominence a political movement that few in political circles or the mainstream media had paid much attention to: the so-called Alt-Right. Steven Bannon, Trump's campaign manager, was a leading figure in the movement, and the election results seemed to give it a real opportunity to gain some political power. But what is the Alt-Right? Is it a movement, a theory, a trend, or just an unorganized group of people far outside of what used to be the political mainstream in America? Or, could it be all of these things? Why has it suddenly emerged into prominence? What impact is it having on American politics today, and what are the prospects for the Alt-Right in the future? Through careful research and analysis, The Rise of the Alt-Right addresses these and other questions, tracing the movement’s history from the founding of modern conservatism in postwar America to the current Trump era. Although the Alt-Right might seem to be just the latest extremist group to arise in the United States—one likely to take its place in the graveyard of its many predecessors—Thomas J. Main analyzes evidence that the Alt-Right is having a greater influence on the American political mainstream than did past extremist tendencies. The Rise of the Alt-Right is thus an important study for anyone interested in the future of American politics and public life.

The Regulatory Craft

Controlling Risks, Solving Problems, and Managing Compliance

Author: Malcolm K. Sparrow

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815798286

Category: Law

Page: 370

View: 1353

The Regulatory Craft tackles one of the most pressing public policy issues of our time—the reform of regulatory and enforcement practice. Malcolm K. Sparrow shows how the vogue prescriptions for reform (centered on concepts of customer service and process improvement) fail to take account of the distinctive character of regulatory responsibilities—which involve the delivery of obligations rather than just services.In order to construct more balanced prescriptions for reform, Sparrow invites us to reconsider the central purpose of social regulation—the abatement or control of risks to society. He recounts the experiences of pioneering agencies that have confronted the risk-control challenge directly, developing operational capacities for specifying risk-concentrations, problem areas, or patterns of noncompliance, and then designing interventions tailored to each problem. At the heart of a new regulatory craftsmanship, according to Sparrow, lies the central notion, "pick important problems and fix them." This beguilingly simple idea turns out to present enormously complex implementation challenges and carries with it profound consequences for the way regulators organize their work, manage their discretion, and report their performance. Although the book is primarily aimed at regulatory and law-enforcement practitioners, it will also be invaluable for legislators, overseers, and others who care about the nature and quality of regulatory practice, and who want to know what kind of performance to demand from regulators and how it might be delivered. It stresses the enormous benefit to society that might accrue from development of the risk-control art as a core professional skill for regulators.

Advances in Evidence-Based Policing

Author: Johannes Knutsson,Lisa Tompson

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1315518287

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 2750

The evidence-based policing (EBP) movement has intensified in many countries around the world in recent years, resulting in a proliferation of policies and infrastructure to support such a transformation. This movement has come to be associated with particular methods of evaluation and systematic review, which have been drawn from what is assumed to prevail in medicine. Given the credibility EBP is currently enjoying with both practitioners and government, it is timely to subject its underpinning logic to thoughtful scrutiny. This involves deliberating upon the meaning of evidence and what different models of knowledge accumulation and research methods have to offer in realising the aims of EBP. The communication and presentation of evidence to practitioner audiences is another important aspect of EBP, as are collaborative efforts to ‘co-produce’ new knowledge on police practice. This is the first book that takes a kaleidoscopic approach to depict what EBP presently is and how it could develop. The chapters individually and collectively challenge the underlying logic to the mainstream EBP position, and the book concludes with an agenda for a more inclusive conceptualisation of evidence and EBP for the future. It is aimed at students and academics who are interested in being part of this movement, as well as policymakers and practitioners interested in integrating EBP principles into their practices.

Risk-Based Policing

Evidence-Based Crime Prevention with Big Data and Spatial Analytics

Author: Leslie W. Kennedy,Joel M. Caplan,Eric L. Piza

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 0520295633

Category: Social Science

Page: 168

View: 7684

"Risk-based policing is the latest advancement in the long history of policing innovations, where research and planning have combined to manage crime risks, prevent crime, and enhance public safety. In Risk-Based Policing the authors share case studies from different agencies to demonstrate how focusing police resources at risky places, based on smart uses of data and strong analytical work, can address the worst effects of disorder and crime while improving public safety and community relations. Topics include the role of big data; the evolution of modern policing; dealing with high-risk targets; designing, implementing, and evaluating risk-based policing strategies; and the role of multiple stakeholders in risk-based policing. Case studies explore cities such as Colorado Springs, Glendale, Newark, Kansas City, and others. The book also demonstrates how Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) can be extended to offer a more comprehensive view of prevention and deterrence"--Provided by publisher.

Problem-Oriented Policing

Author: Herman Goldstein

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781514809488

Category:

Page: 224

View: 2005

The classic book on problem-oriented policing (POP), is now back in print. Written by Professor Herman Goldstein, one of the most highly regarded scholars in the field of policing who originated the POP concept, this monograph presents a new model for developing police services that corrects for the inadequacies and conflicts inherent in the traditional model. While originally published in 1990, the concept is even more relevant today as a response to meeting current concerns regarding the complex role of the police in a society that seeks to increase police effectiveness while placing the highest value on operating in accord with democratic principles. It calls for reorienting police agencies so that they place highest emphasis on: (1) analyzing each of the specific behavioral problems that the public expects them to handle; (2) developing new, creative, tailor-made responses to each such problem, giving top priority to preventive measures and trying to avoid over dependence on the criminal justice system, and engaging the community more fully; (3) realigning their organization, leadership, recruitment and training to support this orientation.

Evidence based policing

An introduction

Author: Mitchell, Renée,Huey, Laura

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447339754

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 2355

Over the past ten years, the field of evidence-based policing (EBP) has grown substantially, evolving from a novel idea at the fringes of policing to an increasingly core component of contemporary policing research and practice. Examining what makes something evidence-based and not merely evidence-informed, this book unifies the voices of police practitioners, academics, and pracademics. It provides real world examples of evidence-based police practices and how police research can be created and applied in the field. Includes contributions from leading international EBP researchers and practitioners such as Larry Sherman, University of Cambridge, Lorraine Mazerrolle, University of Queensland, Anthony Braga, Northeastern and Craig Bennell, Carelton University.

Proactive Policing

Effects on Crime and Communities

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime, Communities, and Civil Liberties

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309467136

Category: Law

Page: 408

View: 2048

Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism regarding the effectiveness of standard approaches to policing. In response, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, innovative police practices and policies that took a more proactive approach began to develop. This report uses the term “proactive policing†to refer to all policing strategies that have as one of their goals the prevention or reduction of crime and disorder and that are not reactive in terms of focusing primarily on uncovering ongoing crime or on investigating or responding to crimes once they have occurred. Proactive policing is distinguished from the everyday decisions of police officers to be proactive in specific situations and instead refers to a strategic decision by police agencies to use proactive police responses in a programmatic way to reduce crime. Today, proactive policing strategies are used widely in the United States. They are not isolated programs used by a select group of agencies but rather a set of ideas that have spread across the landscape of policing. Proactive Policing reviews the evidence and discusses the data and methodological gaps on: (1) the effects of different forms of proactive policing on crime; (2) whether they are applied in a discriminatory manner; (3) whether they are being used in a legal fashion; and (4) community reaction. This report offers a comprehensive evaluation of proactive policing that includes not only its crime prevention impacts but also its broader implications for justice and U.S. communities.

Police Leadership and Administration

A 21st-Century Strategic Approach

Author: William F. Walsh,Gennaro F. Vito

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351244418

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 4874

William Walsh and Gennaro Vito have adapted the strategic management process to the police organizational world in this innovative new text, Police Leadership and Administration: A 21st-Century Approach. Focusing principally on the police executive, this book covers pioneering management techniques for leaders facing the challenges of today’s complex environment, providing the police practitioner instruction in planning, setting direction, developing strategy, assessing internal and external environments, creating learning organizations, and managing and evaluating the change process. It also tackles how to handle the political, economic, social, and technical considerations that differ from one community to the next. Police Leadership and Administration trains individuals to search for solutions, rather than relying on old formulas and scientific management principles. It shows how to tailor responses to the unique problems and issues that professionals are likely to face in the field of law enforcement, providing a foundation with which to adapt to an ever-changing criminal justice climate. This book is essential for forward-thinking police leadership courses in colleges and professional training programs.