Handbook of Deontic Logic and Normative Systems

Author: Dov Gabbay,John Horty,Xavier Parent

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781848901322

Category: Mathematics

Page: 646

View: 6464

The Handbook of Deontic Logic and Normative Systems presents a detailed overview of the main lines of research on contemporary deontic logic and related topics. Although building on decades of previous work in the field, it is the first collection to take into account the significant changes in the landscape of deontic logic that have occurred in the past twenty years. These changes have resulted largely, though not entirely, from the interaction of deontic logic with a variety of other fields, including computer science, legal theory, organizational theory, economics, and linguistics. This first volume of the Handbook is divided into three parts, containing nine chapters in all, each written by leading experts in the field. The first part concentrates on historical foundations. The second examines topics of central interest in contemporary deontic logic. The third presents some new logical frameworks that have now become part of the mainstream literature. A second volume of the Handbook is currently in preparation, and there may be a third after that.

Deontic Logic and Normative Systems

12th International Conference, DEON 2014, Ghent, Belgium, July 12-15, 2014. Proceedings

Author: Fabrizio Cariani,Davide Grossi,Joke Meheus,Xavier Parent

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319086154

Category: Mathematics

Page: 273

View: 2197

This volume presents the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Deontic Logic and Normative Systems, DEON 2014, held in Ghent, Belgium, in July 2014. The 17 revised papers and the 2 invited papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 31 submissions. Topics covered include challenges from natural language for deontic logic; the relationship between deontic and other types of modality: epistemic modality, imperatives, supererogatory, etc.; the deontic paradoxes; the modeling of normative concepts other than obligation and permission, e.g., values; the game-theoretical aspects of deontic reasoning; the emergence of norms; norms from a conversational and pragmatic point of view; and norms and argumentation.

Agency and Deontic Logic

Author: John F. Horty

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195391985

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

View: 5725

John Horty effectively develops deontic logic (the logic of ethical concepts like obligation and permission) against the background of a formal theory of agency. He incorporates certain elements of decision theory to set out a new deontic account of what agents ought to do under various conditions over extended periods of time. Offering a conceptual rather than technical emphasis, Horty's framework allows a number of recent issues from moral theory to be set out clearly and discussed from a uniform point of view.

Following the Rules

Practical Reasoning and Deontic Constraint

Author: Joseph Heath

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 0195370295

Category: Philosophy

Page: 344

View: 5680

For centuries, philosophers have been puzzled by the fact that people often respect moral obligations as a matter of principle, setting aside considerations of self-interest. This text shows how rule-following can be understood as an essential element of rational action.

Deontic Logic and Legal Systems

Author: Pablo E. Navarro,Jorge L. Rodríguez

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521767393

Category: Law

Page: 288

View: 8509

"Logic and law have a long history in common, but the influence has been mostly one-sided, except perhaps in the 5th and 6th centuries B.C., where disputes at the market place or in tribunals in Greece seem to have stimulated a lot of reflection among sophistic philosophers on such topics as language and truth. Most of the time it was logic that influenced legal thinking, but in the last 50 years logicians began to be interested in normative concepts and hence in law"--

Reasons as Defaults

Author: John F. Horty

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 0199744076

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 8492

In this volume, John Horty brings to bear his work in logic to present a framework that allows for answers to key questions about reasons and reasoning, namely: What are reasons, and how do they support actions or conclusions?

Deontic logic in computer science

normative system specification

Author: John-Jules Ch Meyer,Roel Wieringa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471937432

Category: Computers

Page: 317

View: 3534

Deontic logic originated from moral philosophy and the philosophy of law as an attempt to formalise normative and legal reasoning. This book draws on the experience of researchers - working in fields as diverse as Artificial Intelligence, linguistics, computer system specification and law - who have discovered the benefits of deontic logic when applied to solving computer science and AI problems. A useful logic in which to specify normative system behaviour, deontic logic has a broad spectrum of possible applications within the field: from legal expert systems to natural language processing, database integrity to electronic contracting and the specification of fault-tolerant software. This book provides a unique and timely assessment of the practical value of deontic logic for computer scientists in AI and law and, more particularly, in such areas as distributed AI and intelligent cooperative information systems.

Deontic Logic and Artificial Normative Systems

8th International Workshop on Deontic Logic in Computer Science, DEON 2006, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 12-14, 2006, Proceedings

Author: Lou Goble,John-Jules Ch. Meyer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540358420

Category: Computers

Page: 271

View: 2413

This volume presents the papers contributed to DEON 2006, the 8th Inter- tional Workshop on Deontic Logic in Computer Science, held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 12–14, 2006. These biennial DEON (more properly, ?EON) workshops are designed to promote international cooperation among scholars across disciplines who are interested in deontic logic and its use in computer science. They support research that links the formal-logical study of normative concepts and normative systems with computer science, arti?cial intelligence, philosophy, organization theory, and law. Papers for these workshops might address such general themes as the dev- opment of formal systems of deontic logic and related areas of logic, such as logics of action and agency, or the formal analysis of all sorts of normative concepts, such as the notions of rule, role, regulation, authority, power, rights, respon- bility, etc. , or the formal representation of legal knowledge. They might also be more concerned with applications, such as the formal speci?cation of systems for the management of bureaucratic processes in public or private administration, or the speci?cation of database integrity constraints or computer security protocols, and more. Of particular interest is the interaction between computer systems and their users. (The DEON 2006 website, http://www. cs. uu. nl/deon2006/,c- tains links to previous workshops and their papers. This history reveals a vibrant interdisciplinary research program.

Handbook of Epistemic Logic

Author: Hans van Ditmarsch,Joseph Y. Halpern,Wiebe van der Hoek

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781848901582

Category: Mathematics

Page: 676

View: 9546

Epistemic logic and, more generally, logics of knowledge and belief, originated with philosophers such as Jaakko Hintikka and David Lewis in the early 1960s. Since then, such logics have played a significant role not only in philosophy, but also in computer science, artificial intelligence, and economics. This handbook reports significant progress in a field that, while more mature, continues to be very active. This book should make it easier for new researchers to enter the field, and give experts a chance to appreciate work in related areas. The book starts with a gentle introduction to the logics of knowledge and belief; it gives an overview of the area and the material covered in the book. The following eleven chapters, each written by a leading researcher (or researchers), cover the topics of only knowing, awareness, knowledge and probability, knowledge and time, the dynamics of knowledge and of belief, model checking, game theory, agency, knowledge and ability, and security protocols. The chapters have been written so that they can be read independently and in any order. Each chapter ends with a section of notes that provides some historical background, including references, and a detailed bibliography.

Deontic Logic, Agency and Normative Systems

?EON ’96: Third International Workshop on Deontic Logic in Computer Science, Sesimbra, Portugal, 11 – 13 January 1996

Author: Mark A. Brown,Jose Carmo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447114884

Category: Computers

Page: 235

View: 7901

This volume presents a variety of papers bearing on the relation between deontic logics, logics of action, and normative systems, i.e. systems of or about interacting agents (computers, human beings, corporations, etc.) whose behaviour is subject to ideal constraints that may not always be fulfilled in practice. The papers range from theoretical studies of the logical and conceptual tools needed, to studies of various applications. The set of papers collected in this book should be of interest to investigators working in a variety of fields, from philosophy, logic and legal theory to artificial intelligence, computer and management sciences, since it covers topics ranging from theoretical research on foundational issues in deontic and action logics, defeasible reasoning, decision theory, ethical theory, and legal theory, to research on a variety of issues relevant to applications connected with expert systems in the law, document specification, automation of defeasible reasoning, specification of responsibilities and powers in organizations, normative systems specification, confidentiality in database systems, and a host of other applications.

Handbook of Legal Reasoning and Argumentation

Author: Giorgio Bongiovanni,Gerald Postema,Antonino Rotolo,Giovanni Sartor,Chiara Valentini,Douglas Walton

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9048194520

Category: Philosophy

Page: 764

View: 4578

This handbook addresses legal reasoning and argumentation from a logical, philosophical and legal perspective. The main forms of legal reasoning and argumentation are covered in an exhaustive and critical fashion, and are analysed in connection with more general types (and problems) of reasoning. Accordingly, the subject matter of the handbook divides in three parts. The first one introduces and discusses the basic concepts of practical reasoning. The second one discusses the general structures and procedures of reasoning and argumentation that are relevant to legal discourse. The third one looks at their instantiations and developments of these aspects of argumentation as they are put to work in the law, in different areas and applications of legal reasoning.

Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine

Author: Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401795797

Category: Medical

Page: 1224

View: 5430

Medical practice is practiced morality, and clinical research belongs to normative ethics. The present book elucidates and advances this thesis by: 1. analyzing the structure of medical language, knowledge, and theories; 2. inquiring into the foundations of the clinical encounter; 3. introducing the logic and methodology of clinical decision-making, including artificial intelligence in medicine; 4. suggesting comprehensive theories of organism, life, and psyche; of health, illness, and disease; of etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and therapy; and 5. investigating the moral and metaphysical issues central to medical practice and research. Many systems of (classical, modal, non-classical, probability, and fuzzy) logic are introduced and applied. Fuzzy medical deontics, fuzzy medical ontology, fuzzy medical concept formation, fuzzy medical decision-making and biomedicine and many other techniques of fuzzification in medicine are introduced for the first time.

Handbook of Philosophical Logic

Author: Dov M. Gabbay,Franz Guenthner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792371267

Category: Philosophy

Page: 408

View: 7984

It is with great pleasure that we are presenting to the community the second edition of this extraordinary handbook. It has been over 15 years since the publication of the first edition and there have been great changes in the landscape of philosophical logic since then. The first edition has proved invaluable to generations of students and researchers in formal philosophy and language, as weIl as to consumers of logic in many applied areas. The main logic artiele in the Encyelopaedia Britannica 1999 has described the first edition as 'the best starting point for exploring any of the topics in logic'. We are confident that the second edition will prove to be just as good. ! The first edition was the second handbook published for the logic commu nity. It followed the North Holland one volume Handbook 0/ Mathematical Logic, published in 1977, edited by the late Jon Barwise. The four volume Handbook 0/ Philosophical Logic, published 1983-1989 came at a fortunate at the evolution of logic. This was the time when logic temporal junction was gaining ground in computer science and artificial intelligence cireles. These areas were under increasing commercial pressure to provide devices which help andjor replace the human in his daily activity. This pressure required the use of logic in the modelling of human activity and organisa tion on the one hand and to provide the theoretical basis for the computer program constructs on the other.

First-Order Modal Logic

Author: M. Fitting,Richard L. Mendelsohn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401152926

Category: Philosophy

Page: 292

View: 3095

This is a thorough treatment of first-order modal logic. The book covers such issues as quantification, equality (including a treatment of Frege's morning star/evening star puzzle), the notion of existence, non-rigid constants and function symbols, predicate abstraction, the distinction between nonexistence and nondesignation, and definite descriptions, borrowing from both Fregean and Russellian paradigms.

What Is Populism?

Author: Jan-Werner Muller

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812248988

Category: Political Science

Page: 136

View: 5896

Donald Trump, Silvio Berlusconi, Marine Le Pen, Hugo Chávez—populists are on the rise across the globe. But what exactly is populism? Should everyone who criticizes Wall Street or Washington be called a populist? What precisely is the difference between right-wing and left-wing populism? Does populism bring government closer to the people or is it a threat to democracy? Who are "the people" anyway and who can speak in their name? These questions have never been more pressing. In this groundbreaking volume, Jan-Werner Müller argues that at populism's core is a rejection of pluralism. Populists will always claim that they and they alone represent the people and their true interests. Müller also shows that, contrary to conventional wisdom, populists can govern on the basis of their claim to exclusive moral representation of the people: if populists have enough power, they will end up creating an authoritarian state that excludes all those not considered part of the proper "people." The book proposes a number of concrete strategies for how liberal democrats should best deal with populists and, in particular, how to counter their claims to speak exclusively for "the silent majority" or "the real people." Analytical, accessible, and provocative, What Is Populism? is grounded in history and draws on examples from Latin America, Europe, and the United States to define the characteristics of populism and the deeper causes of its electoral successes in our time.

Methods of Legal Reasoning

Author: Jerzy Stelmach,Bartosz Brozek

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402049390

Category: Law

Page: 233

View: 9096

Methods of Legal Reasoning describes and criticizes four methods used in legal practice, legal dogmatics and legal theory: logic, analysis, argumentation and hermeneutics. The book takes the unusual approach of discussing in a single study four different, sometimes competing concepts of legal method. Sketched this way, the panorama allows the reader to reflect deeply on questions concerning the methodological conditioning of legal science and the existence of a unique, specific legal method.

First-Order Logic and Automated Theorem Proving

Author: Melvin Fitting

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468403575

Category: Mathematics

Page: 242

View: 2390

There are many kinds of books on formal logic. Some have philosophers as their intended audience, some mathematicians, some computer scientists. Although there is a common core to all such books they will be very dif ferent in emphasis, methods, and even appearance. This book is intended for computer scientists. But even this is not precise. Within computer sci ence formal logic turns up in a number of areas, from program verification to logic programming to artificial intelligence. This book is intended for computer scientists interested in automated theorem proving in classical logic. To be more precise yet, it is essentially a theoretical treatment, not a how-to book, although how-to issues are not neglected. This does not mean, of course, that the book will be of no interest to philosophers or mathematicians. It does contain a thorough presentation of formal logic and many proof techniques, and as such it contains all the material one would expect to find in a course in formal logic covering completeness but not incompleteness issues. The first item to be addressed is, what are we talking about and why are we interested in it. We are primarily talking about truth as used in mathematical discourse, and our interest in it is, or should be, self-evident. Truth is a semantic concept, so we begin with models and their properties. These are used to define our subject.