This book presents a unique and up-to-date summary of what is known about groundwater on our planet, from a global perspective and in terms of area-specific factual information. Unlike most textbooks on groundwater, it does not deal with theoretical principles, but rather with the overall picture that emerges as a result of countless observations, studies and other activities related to groundwater in all parts of the world. The focus is on showing the role and geographical diversity of groundwater—a natural resource of great importance in daily life, but poorly understood by the general public and even by many water sector professionals. The book starts by analysing groundwater in the context of the hydrological cycle. Subsequently, groundwater systems as physical units, with their boundaries mainly defined by geological conditions, are reviewed. The next chapter looks at groundwater as a resource, paying attention, among others, to its quantity and quality, to the differentiation between renewable and non-renewable resources, and to the techniques for withdrawing groundwater. This is followed by a systematic documentation of the quantities of groundwater withdrawn and used around the world, and of the corresponding shares of groundwater in each of the main water use sectors. After that, steadily growing needs for groundwater management interventions are identified, resulting from local human activities and global change (including demography, economic development and climate change). Finally, groundwater resources management is addressed and real-life cases are described that illustrate actions taken and experiences with different issues in different parts of the world. The authors attempted to write this book in such a way that it is accessible to a wider readership than just groundwater professionals. It will also benefit non-groundwater specialists who work in groundwater-related fields (water managers, land use planners, environmentalists, agronomists, engineers, economists, lawyers, and journalists), by broadening their understanding of groundwater and making them aware of the huge variety of groundwater settings. Groundwater specialists will use the book as a convenient reference on the geographical diversity of groundwater. Part of the contents or interpretations offered may even be new to them or enhance their knowledge of some aspects. The many maps, tables, and references will save much time for those who would otherwise have to search elsewhere for basic information on the globe’s groundwater.
A Geographic Synopsis
Author: Jean Margat,Jac van der Gun
Publisher: CRC Press
The fourth edition of this bestselling textbook has been fully revised in order to present the most up-to-date and comprehensive guide to completing a hydrogeological study. Beautifully presented with full colour photos and diagrams throughout, Field Hydrogeology retains its practical pocket size for easy use in the field. This new edition includes all the recent developments in the environmental regulations, with particular focus on the use of innovative technology. New topics include geothermal energy, soakaways, marrying manual water level readings with logger records, prediction of long-term drawdown and lateral extent of impacts, and flow measurement in locations with small head gradients. With case studies and text boxes to aid comprehension, and a particular emphasis on practical application, this is an essential tool for students taking Hydrogeology and/or field course modules in Geology, Earth Sciences, Hydrogeology and Engineering courses.
Author: Rick Brassington
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering
This collection of papers is a snapshot of modern hydrogeology in which highly technical methods and approaches sit side-by-side with overlapping legal, social, organisational, institutional and governance considerations. Groundwater is integral to many human and environmental systems. Indeed, there appears to be a growing realisation that some of the most pressing physical problems in the field of hydrogeology - over-abstraction, salinization or pollution - can only really be solved by taking a multi-disciplinary approach to the issues that takes all other related professions into account. Whilst a ‘technical’ solution may be readily deciphered, the larger challenge usually lies in the sustainably-funded and widely-accepted implementation of that measure. This book ranges from discussion and debate on the hot topic of hydraulic fracturing of wells or ‘fraccing’ for shale gas and its potential to disrupt groundwater systems, to the application of highly technical modelling procedures to help solve complex, real world problems. It is a window on the preoccupations of modern hydrogeologists and an insight into the way in which hydrogeological techniques and methods are being holistically adapted to address problems in the real world. This book is targeted at professional hydrogeologists, sociologists, experts in governance, law and policy as well as ecologists and other professionals that nowadays all sit alongside groundwater understanding. The book will also appeal to politicians, resource managers, regulators and others interested in sustainable water supply.
Author: Jude Cobbing,Shafick Adams,Ingrid Dennis,Kornelius Riemann
Publisher: CRC Press
Your Guide to Effective Groundwater Management Groundwater Assessment, Modeling, and Management discusses a variety of groundwater problems and outlines the solutions needed to sustain surface and ground water resources on a global scale. Contributors from around the world lend their expertise and provide an international perspective on groundwater management. They address the management of groundwater resources and pollution, waste water treatment methods, and the impact of climate change on groundwater and water availability (specifically in arid and semi-arid regions such as India and Africa). Incorporating management with science and modeling, the book covers all areas of groundwater resource assessment, modeling, and management, and combines hands-on applications with relevant theory. For Water Resource Managers and Decision Makers The book describes techniques for the assessment of groundwater potential, pollution, prevention, and remedial measures, and includes a new approach for groundwater modeling based on connections (network theory). Approximately 30 case studies and six hypothetical studies are introduced reflecting a range of themes that include: groundwater basics and the derivation of groundwater flow equations, exploration and assessment, aquifer parameterization, augmentation of aquifer, water and environment, water and agriculture, the role of models and their application, and water management policies and issues. The book describes remote sensing (RS) applications, geographical information systems (GIS), and electrical resistivity methods to delineate groundwater potential zones. It also takes a look at: Inverse modeling (pilot-points method) Simulation optimization models Radionuclide migration studies through mass transport modeling Modeling for mapping groundwater potential Modeling for vertical 2-D and 3-D groundwater flow Groundwater Assessment, Modeling, and Management explores the management of water resources and the impact of climate change on groundwater. Expert contributors provide practical information on hydrologic engineering and groundwater resources management for students, researchers, scientists, and other practicing professionals in environmental engineering, hydrogeology, irrigation, geophysics, and environmental science.
Author: M. Thangarajan,Vijay P. Singh
Publisher: CRC Press
A history of the Ogallala aquifer traces its formation after the retreat of the glaciers; its use by ancient tribes, center-pivot sprinkler systems, and sophisticated extraction technologies; and the risk factors for its eventual drying out.
Water and Life on the High Plains
Author: William Ashworth
Publisher: W. W. Norton
Water scarcity is spreading and intensifying in many regions of the world, with dire consequences for local communities, economies, and freshwater ecosystems. Current approaches tend to rely on policies crafted at the state or national level, which on their own have proved insufficient to arrest water scarcity. To be durable and effective, water plans must be informed by the culture, economics, and varied needs of affected community members. International water expert Brian Richter argues that sustainable water sharing in the twenty-first century can only happen through open, democratic dialogue and local collective action. In Chasing Water, Richter tells a cohesive and complete story of water scarcity: where it is happening, what is causing it, and how it can be addressed. Through his engaging and nontechnical style, he strips away the complexities of water management to its bare essentials, providing information and practical examples that will empower community leaders, activists, and students to develop successful and long-lasting water programs. Chasing Water will provide local stakeholders with the tools and knowledge they need to take an active role in the watershed-based planning and implementation that are essential for water supplies to remain sustainable in perpetuity.
A Guide for Moving from Scarcity to Sustainability
Author: Brian Richter
Publisher: Island Press
In recent decades use of groundwater has grown exponentially. Over 2 billion people depend on it for their daily supply. Not only have population increases and economic growth laid claim to an ever larger share of groundwater, but the quality of the resource is also increasingly under strain. This book provides ideas on different aspects of groundwater management, ranging from areas where there is an abundance of groundwater to areas where the resource is scarce.
Author: Simon Chevalking,Lenneke Knoop,Frank Van Steenbergen
Publisher: World Conservation Union
This guidebook, now thoroughly updated and revised in its second edition, gives comprehensive advice on the designing and setting up of monitoring programmes for the purpose of providing valid data for water quality assessments in all types of freshwater bodies. It is clearly and concisely written in order to provide the essential information for all agencies and individuals responsible for the water quality.
A guide to the use of biota, sediments and water in environmental monitoring, Second Edition
Author: Deborah V Chapman
Publisher: CRC Press
Managing water resources is one of the most pressing challenges of our times - fundamental to how we feed 2 billion more people in coming decades, eliminate poverty, and reverse ecosystem degradation. This Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, involving more than 700 leading specialists, evaluates current thinking on water and its interplay with agriculture to help chart the way forward. It offers actions for water management and water policy - to ensure more equitable and effective use.This assessment describes key water-food-environment trends that influence our lives today and uses scenarios to explore the consequences of a range of potential investments. It aims to inform investors and policymakers about water and food choices in light of such crucial influences as poverty, ecosystems, governance, and productivity. It covers rainfed agriculture, irrigation, groundwater, marginal-quality water, fisheries, livestock, rice, land, and river basins. Ample tables, graphs, and references make this an invaluable work for practitioners, academics, researchers, and policymakers in water management, agriculture, conservation, and development.Published with IWMI.
A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture
Author: David Molden
Category: Business & Economics
This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license. This revised, updated textbook presents a systems approach to the planning, management, and operation of water resources infrastructure in the environment. Previously published in 2005 by UNESCO and Deltares (Delft Hydraulics at the time), this new edition, written again with contributions from Jery R. Stedinger, Jozef P. M. Dijkman, and Monique T. Villars, is aimed equally at students and professionals. It introduces readers to the concept of viewing issues involving water resources as a system of multiple interacting components and scales. It offers guidelines for initiating and carrying out water resource system planning and management projects. It introduces alternative optimization, simulation, and statistical methods useful for project identification, design, siting, operation and evaluation and for studying post-planning issues. The authors cover both basin-wide and urban water issues and present ways of identifying and evaluating alternatives for addressing multiple-purpose and multi-objective water quantity and quality management challenges. Reinforced with cases studies, exercises, and media supplements throughout, the text is ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in water resource planning and management as well as for practicing planners and engineers in the field.
An Introduction to Methods, Models, and Applications
Author: Daniel P. Loucks,Eelco van Beek
Category: Technology & Engineering
“An urgent and at times terrifying dispatch from a distinguished reporter who has given heart and soul to his subject.”—Hampton Sides When the demographer Robert Malthus (1766–1834) famously outlined the brutal relationship between food and population, he never imagined the success of modern scientific agriculture. In the mid-twentieth century, an unprecedented agricultural advancement known as the Green Revolution brought hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizers, and improved irrigation that drove the greatest population boom in history—but left ecological devastation in its wake. In The End of Plenty, award-winning environmental journalist Joel K. Bourne Jr. puts our race to feed the world in dramatic perspective. With a skyrocketing world population and tightening global grain supplies spurring riots and revolutions, humanity must produce as much food in the next four decades as it has since the beginning of civilization to avoid a Malthusian catastrophe. Yet climate change could render half our farmland useless by century’s end. Writing with an agronomist’s eye for practical solutions and a journalist’s keen sense of character, detail, and the natural world, Bourne takes readers from his family farm to international agricultural hotspots to introduce the new generation of farmers and scientists engaged in the greatest challenge humanity has ever faced. He discovers young, corporate cowboys trying to revive Ukraine as Europe’s breadbasket, a Canadian aquaculturist channeling ancient Chinese traditions, the visionary behind the world’s largest organic sugar-cane plantation, and many other extraordinary individuals struggling to increase food supplies—quickly and sustainably—as droughts, floods, and heat waves hammer crops around the globe. Part history, part reportage and advocacy, The End of Plenty is a panoramic account of the future of food, and a clarion call for anyone concerned about our planet and its people.
Author: Joel K. Bourne
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
Category: Technology & Engineering
December 2004, a tsunami swept over the coasts of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, and other South Asian countries, leaving hundreds of thousands dead and many more without the resources to rebuild their lives. With casualties as far away as Africa, the aftermath was overwhelming: ships could be spotted miles inland; cars floated in the ocean; legions of the unidentified deadùan estimated 225,000ùwere buried in mass graves; relief organizations struggled to reach rural areas and provide adequate aid to survivors. The Indian Ocean Tsunami: The Global Response to a Natural Disaster is the first comprehensive assessment of the environmental, social, and economic costs of this tragedy. Soon after the tsunami, an international team of geographers, geologists, anthropologists, and political scientists traveled to the most damaged areas to observe and document the tsunami's impact. The Indian Ocean Tsunami draws on data collected by this team. Editors Pradyumna P. Karan and Shanmugam P. Subbiah, along with contributors from multiple disciplines, examine numerous issues that arose in the aftermath of the tsunami, such as inequities in response efforts, unequal distribution of disaster relief aid, and relocation and housing problems. The Indian Ocean Tsunami is organized into several sections, the first of which deals with the ecological destruction of the tsunami. It includes case studies and photographs of the damage in Japan, Indonesia, South India, and other areas. The second section analyzes the economic and social aspects of the aid responses, specifically discussing the role of NGOs in tsunami relief, the strengths and weaknesses of the reconstruction process, and the lessons the tsunami offers to those who are responsible for dealing with future disasters. In the tsunami's aftermath, the inadequacies of governmental and privately funded aid and the challenge of rehabilitating devastated ecosystems quickly became apparent. With this volume, Karan and Suhbiah illuminate the need for the development of efficient, socially and environmentally sustainable practices to cope with environmental disasters. They suggest that education about the ongoing process of recovery will mitigate the effects of future natural disasters. Including maps, photographs, and statistical analyses, The Indian Ocean Tsunami is a clear and definitive evaluation of the tsunami's impact and the world's response to it.
The Global Response to a Natural Disaster
Author: Pradyumna Prasad Karan,Shanmugam P. Subbiah
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Since the need to protect ground water from pollution was recognized, researchers have made progress in understanding the vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Yet, there are substantial uncertainties in the vulnerability assessment methods now available. With a wealth of detailed information and practical advice, this volume will help decisionmakers derive the most benefit from available assessment techniques. It offers Three laws of ground water vulnerability. Six case studies of vulnerability assessment. Guidance for selecting vulnerability assessments and using the results. Reviews of the strengths and limitations of assessment methods. Information on available data bases, primarily at the federal level. This book will be indispensable to policymakers and resource managers, environmental professionals, researchers, faculty, and students involved in ground water issues, as well as investigators developing new assessment methods.
Predicting Relative Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty
Author: Committee for Assessing Ground Water Vulnerability,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources
Publisher: National Academies Press
This book addresses groundwater governance, a subject internationally recognized as crucial and topical for enhancing and safeguarding the benefits of groundwater and groundwater-dependent ecosystems to humanity, while ensuring water and food security under global change. The multiple and complex dimensions of groundwater governance are captured in 28 chapters, written by a team of leading experts from different parts of the world and with a variety of relevant professional backgrounds. The book aims to describe the state-of-the-art and latest developments regarding each of the themes addressed, paying attention to the wide variation of conditions observed around the globe. The book consists of four parts. The first part sets the stage by defining groundwater governance, exploring its emergence and evolution, framing it through a socio-ecological lens and describing groundwater policy and planning approaches. The second part discusses selected key aspects of groundwater governance. The third part zooms in on the increasingly important linkages between groundwater and other resources or sectors, and between local groundwater systems and phenomena or actions at the international or even global level. The fourth part, finally, presents a number of interesting case studies that illustrate contemporary practice in groundwater governance. In one volume, this highly accessible text not only familiarizes water professionals, decision-makers and local stakeholders with groundwater governance, but also provides them with ideas and inspiration for improving groundwater governance in their own environment.
Author: Karen G. Villholth,Elena Lopez-Gunn,Kirstin Conti,Alberto Garrido,Jac Van Der Gun
Publisher: CRC Press
This book focuses on scientific and technological aspects of groundwater-resources assessment and surveillance. It describes relevant risks and investigates selected techniques for the monitoring and mitigation of the individuated threats to groundwater quality. The authors discuss the concepts of groundwater-resources protection and offer examples of both geogenic and anthropogenic degradation of groundwater quality, such as heavy metals from mining activities and natural water-rock interactions, as well as risk of contamination due to geological CO2 storage practices etc. The volume also covers non-invasive monitoring techniques and briefly addresses innovative sensor technologies for the online assessment of water quality. Furthermore, the role played by geochemical techniques, the potential of environmental isotopes and the support provided by physical modelling are highlighted. The chapters guide the reader through various viewpoints, according to the diverse disciplines involved, without aiming to be exhaustive, but instead picking representative topics for their relevance in the context of groundwater protection and control. This book will be of interest to advanced students, researchers, policy-makers and stakeholders at various levels.
Prevention and Control
Author: Andrea Scozzari,Elissavet Dotsika
Calcium and magnesium are abundant in groundwater, but the role of groundwater as the essential source of these important nutrients is very often neglected. Hydrogeochemical studies have focused mainly on the distribution and behaviour of constituents that cause deterioration of water quality, such as: nitrate, nitrite or iron and manganese. Therefore, most recent books and papers concentrate mainly on these constituents and only a small number of papers describe the results of groundwater studies on other important water components such as calcium or magnesium. Calcium and magnesium are of great importance to human wellbeing and inadequate intake of either nutrient can impair health. The main objective of this book is to present a selection of studies on calcium and magnesium in groundwater and to highlight their importance for human health. The chapters in this book are written by hydrogeologists and hydrochemists as well as medical doctors and include: methods of investigation of calcium and magnesium in groundwaters, distribution and behaviour of calcium and magnesium in different aquifers, calcium and magnesium in bottled mineral and spring waters, and the significance of calcium and magnesium in waters for human health.
Occurrence and Significance for Human Health
Author: Lidia Razowska-Jaworek
Publisher: CRC Press
While addressing the issues of using groundwater in agriculture for irrigation in the developing world, this book discusses the problems associated with the degradation and overexploitation of using it. It explores the practiced and potential methods for its management in the context of agricultural development.
Opportunities and Threats to Development
Author: Mark Giordano,Karen G. Villholth
Category: Technology & Engineering
This volume covers major advances in the study of the geomorphology, hydrology, engineering geology and management of these specialized and fragile environments. The book will be valuable for geologists, engineers and geophysicists interested in karst, along with land planners, developers, and managers of show caves, natural parks and reserves in karst areas.
Theory, Fieldwork and Applications
Author: M. Parise,F. Gabrovsek,G. Kaufmann,N. Ravbar
Publisher: Geological Society of London
Assesses the impact of humanity on twentieth century Earth, exploring the indirect effects of politics, international relations, technological change, key scientists, and environmental disasters and policies.
Author: J. R. McNeill
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company