The euro crisis is tearing Europe apart. But the heart of the matter is that, as the crisis unfolds, the basic rules of European democracy are being subverted or turned into their opposite, bypassing parliaments, governments and EU institutions. Multilateralism is turning into unilateralism, equality into hegemony, sovereignty into the dependency and recognition into disrespect for the dignity of other nations. Even France, which long dominated European integration, must submit to Berlin’s strictures now that it must fear for its international credit rating. How did this happen? The anticipation of the European catastrophe has already fundamentally changed the European landscape of power. It is giving birth to a political monster: a German Europe. Germany did not seek this leadership position - rather, it is a perfect illustration of the law of unintended consequences. The invention and implementation of the euro was the price demanded by France in order to pin Germany down to a European Monetary Union in the context of German unification. It was a quid pro quo for binding a united Germany into a more integrated Europe in which France would continue to play the leading role. But the precise opposite has happened. Economically the euro turned out to be very good for Germany, and with the euro crisis Chancellor Angela Merkel became the informal Queen of Europe. The new grammar of power reflects the difference between creditor and debtor countries; it is not a military but an economic logic. Its ideological foundation is ‘German euro nationalism’ - that is, an extended European version of the Deutschmark nationalism that underpinned German identity after the Second World War. In this way the German model of stability is being surreptitiously elevated into the guiding idea for Europe. The Europe we have now will not be able to survive in the risk-laden storms of the globalized world. The EU has to be more than a grim marriage sustained by the fear of the chaos that would be caused by its breakdown. It has to be built on something more positive: a vision of rebuilding Europe bottom-up, creating a Europe of the citizen. There is no better way to reinvigorate Europe than through the coming together of ordinary Europeans acting on their own behalf.
Author: Ulrich Beck
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Business & Economics
In the second half of the twentieth century, Germany became the dominant political and economic power in Europe – and the arbiter of all important EU decisions. Yet Germany’s leadership of the EU is geared principally to the defence of German national interests. Germany exercises power in order to protect the German economy and to enable it to play an influential role in the wider world. Beyond that there is no underlying vision or purpose. In this book, former British ambassador in Berlin Paul Lever provides a unique insight into modern Germany. He shows how the country’s history has influenced its current economic and political structures and provides important perspectives on its likely future challenges and choices, especially in the context of the 2015 refugee crisis which saw over 1 million immigrants offered a home in Germany. As Britain prepares to leave the European Union, this book will be essential reading and suggests the future shape of a Germany dominated Europe.
Europe and the German Way
Author: Paul Lever
Ethnic conflicts have shaped the 20th century in significant ways. While the legacy of the last century is primarily one of many unresolved conflicts, the author contends that Western Europe has a track record in containing and settling ethnic conflicts which provides valuable lessons for conflict management elsewhere. Focusing on ethno-territorial crossborder conflicts in Alsace, the Saarland, South Tyrol, and Northern Ireland, Andorra and the New Hebrides, the author develops a four-dimensional analytical framework that synthesizes the distinct factors that influence the complex relationship between host-state, kin-state, actors in the disputed territory, and in the international context.
Ethnic Identity and Cultural Belonging
Author: Stefan Wolff
Publisher: Berghahn Books
Describes the events surrounding the unification of Germany in 1990
A Study in Statecraft
Author: Philip Zelikow,Condoleezza Rice
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
From the end of the Baroque age and the death of Bach in 1750 to the rise of Hitler in 1933, Germany was transformed from a poor relation among western nations into a dominant intellectual and cultural force more influential than France, Britain, Italy, Holland, and the United States. In the early decades of the 20th century, German artists, writers, philosophers, scientists, and engineers were leading their freshly-unified country to new and undreamed of heights, and by 1933, they had won more Nobel prizes than anyone else and more than the British and Americans combined. But this genius was cut down in its prime with the rise and subsequent fall of Adolf Hitler and his fascist Third Reich-a legacy of evil that has overshadowed the nation's contributions ever since. Yet how did the Germans achieve their pre-eminence beginning in the mid-18th century? In this fascinating cultural history, Peter Watson goes back through time to explore the origins of the German genius, how it flourished and shaped our lives, and, most importantly, to reveal how it continues to shape our world. As he convincingly demonstarates, while we may hold other European cultures in higher esteem, it was German thinking-from Bach to Nietzsche to Freud-that actually shaped modern America and Britain in ways that resonate today.
Europe's Third Renaissance, the Second Scientific Revolution and the Twentieth Century
Author: Peter Watson
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
The relationship between Germans and their non-German counterparts in Central and East Europe has been a fundamental feature of European History. The twelve essays in this volume address key aspects of this complex and multifaceted relationship which has been marked by friendship and cooperation as well as enmity and strife. The topics range from medieval peasant settlement to present-day relations between Germans and Poles. Central themes are national identity, the emergence and development of mixed communities and inter-cultural communication.
Essays on the History of their Social, Cultural and Political Relations
Author: Karen Schönwälder,Roger Bartlett
Category: Political Science
Since the Euro crisis began, Germany has emerged as Europe's dominant power. During the last three years, German Chancellor Angela Merkel has been compared with Bismarck and even Hitler in the European media. And yet few can deny that Germany today is very different from the stereotype of nineteenth- and twentieth-century history. After nearly seventy years of struggling with the Nazi past, Germans think that they more than anyone have learned its lessons. Above all, what the new Germany thinks it stands for is peace. Germany is unique in this combination of economic assertiveness and military abstinence. So what does it mean to have a "German Europe" in the twenty-first century? In The Paradox of German Power, Hans Kundnani explains how Germany got to where it is now and where it might go in future. He explores German national identity and foreign policy through a series of tensions in German thinking and action: between continuity and change, between "normality" and "abnormality," between economics and politics, and between Europe and the world.
Author: Hans Kundnani
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Now available in paperback, this is a uniquely authoritative study of Germany from the mid-eighteenth century to the formation of the Bismarckian Reich. James J. Sheehan gives an extensive account of social and cultural, as well as political developments, and shows that the creation of a Prussian-led nation-state should not be seen as `natural' or inevitable. He shows how German history in this period was shaped by three separable yet closely linked developments: the rise of sovereign territorial states, the expansion of economic activity and social mobility, and the emergence of a literary culture.
Author: James J. Sheehan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Foreign Language Study
Damien Stankiewicz's ground-breaking ethnographic study of the various contexts of media production work at ARTE (the newsroom, the editing studio, the screening room), reveals how ideas about French, German, and European culture coalesce and circulate at the channel.
Nation and Culture at a French-German Television Channel
Author: Damien Stankiewicz
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Category: Performing Arts
This book surveys Franco-German relations from the French Revolution to the 1990s, collecting the most current research from area specialists.
From "Hereditary Enemies" to Partners
Author: C. Germond,H. Türk
The exodus of refugees from Nazi Germany in the 1930s has received far more attention from historians, social scientists, and demographers than many other migrations and persecutions in Europe. However, as a result of the overwhelming attention that has been given to the Holocaust within the historiography of Europe and the Second World War, the issues surrounding the flight of people from Nazi Germany prior to 1939 have been seen as Vorgeschichte (pre-history), implicating the Western European democracies and the United States as bystanders only in the impending tragedy. Based on a comparative analysis of national case studies, this volume deals with the challenges that the pre-1939 movement of refugees from Germany and Austria posed to the immigration controls in the countries of interwar Europe. Although Europe takes center-stage, this volume also looks beyond, to the Middle East, Asia and America. This global perspective outlines the constraints under which European policy makers (and the refugees) had to make decisions. By also considering the social implications of policies that became increasingly protectionist and nationalistic, and bringing into focus the similarities and differences between European liberal states in admitting the refugees, it offers an important contribution to the wider field of research on political and administrative practices.
Author: Frank Caestecker,Bob Moore
Publisher: Berghahn Books
Discusses how the goals of the Federal Republic of Germany -- security, political and economic integration into the West, and German unity -- were shaped by the conditions of the post-war state system and the Germans' response to them. The author's views on the fall of the Berlin Wall are included.
Forty Years of German Foreign Policy
Author: Wolfram F. Hanrieder
This book breaks new ground by analyzing the reciprocal relationship between a fascism that had reached the power phase (Nazi Germany) and fascist movements in two neighbouring countries which were attempting to come to power in their respective societies.
German Nazis, Dutch and French Fascists, 1933-1939
Author: D. Orlow
The news agency Reuters reported in 2009 that a mass grave containing 1,800 bodies was found in Malbork, Poland. Polish authorities suspected that they were German civilians that were killed by advancing Soviet forces. A Polish archeologist supervising the exhumation, said, "We are dealing with a mass grave of civilians, probably of German origin. The presence of children . . . suggests they were civilians." During World War II, the German Nazi regime committed great crimes against innocent civilian victims: Jews, Poles, Russians, Serbs, and other people of Central and Eastern Europe. At war's end, however, innocent German civilians in turn became victims of crimes against humanity. Forgotten Voices lets these victims of ethnic cleansing tell their story in their own words, so that they and what they endured are not forgotten. This volume is an important supplement to the voices of victims of totalitarianism and has been written in order to keep the historical record clear. The root cause of this tragedy was ultimately the Nazi German regime. As a leading German historian, Hans-Ulrich Wehler has noted, "Germany should avoid creating a cult of victimization, and thus forgetting Auschwitz and the mass killing of Russians." Ulrich Merten argues that applying collective punishment to an entire people is a crime against humanity. He concludes that this should also be recognized as a European catastrophe, not only a German one, because of its magnitude and the broad violation of human rights that occurred on European soil. Supplementary maps and pictures are available online at http://www.forgottenvoices.net
The Expulsion of the Germans from Eastern Europe after World War II
Author: Ulrich Merten
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
Examines the people, parties, and pressure groups that shaped Germany's domestic and foreign policy from 1866 onward and the factors and events leading to two world wars and to the Third Reich
Author: Gordon Alexander Craig
Publisher: Oxford : Clarendon Press
This companion volume to The Courtly Consort Suite in German-Speaking Europe surveys an area of music neglected by modern scholars: the consort suites and dance music by musicians working in the seventeenth-century German towns. Conditions of work in the German towns are examined in detail, as are the problems posed by the many untrained travelling players who were often little more than beggars. The central part of the book explores the organisation, content and assembly of town suites into carefully ordered printed collections, which refutes the concept of the so-called 'classical' suite. The differences between court and town suites are dealt with alongside the often-ignored variation suite from the later decades of the seventeenth century and the separate suite-writing traditions of Leipzig and Hamburg. While the seventeenth-century keyboard suite has received a good deal of attention from modern scholars, its often symbiotic relationship with the consort suite has been ignored. This book aims to redress the balance and to deal with one very important but often ignored aspect of seventeenth-century notation: the use of blackened notes, which are rarely notated in a meaningful way in modern editions, with important implications for performance.
Author: Michael Robertson