The aim of this book is to examine the geometry of our world and, by blending theory with a variety of every-day examples, to stimulate the imagination of the readers and develop their geometric intuition. It tries to recapture the excitement that surrounded geometry during the Renaissance as the development of perspective drawing gathered pace, or more recently as engineers sought to show that all the world was a machine. The same excitement is here still, as enquiring minds today puzzle over a random-dot stereogram or the interpretation of an image painstakingly transmitted from Jupiter. The book will give a solid foundation for a variety of undergraduate courses, to provide a basis for a geometric component of graduate teacher training, and to provide background for those who work in computer graphics and scene analysis. It begins with a self-contained development of the geometry of extended Euclidean space. This framework is then used to systematically clarify and develop the art of perspective drawing and its converse discipline of scene analysis and to analyze the behavior of bar-and-joint mechanisms and hinged-panel mechanisms. Spherical polyhedra are introduced and scene analysis is applied to drawings of these and associated objects. The book concludes by showing how a natural relaxation of the axioms developed in the early chapters leads to the concept of a matroid and briefly examines some of the attractive properties of these natural structures.
Author: Don Row,Talmage James Reid
Publisher: World Scientific
This book consists of chapters that focus specifically on single figures that worked on Descriptive Geometry and also in Mechanisms Sciences and contain biographical notes, a survey of their work and their achievements, together with a modern interpretation of their legacy. Since Vitruvius in ancient times, and with Brunelleschi in the Renaissance, the two disciplines began to share a common direction which, over the centuries, took shape through less well-known figures until the more recent times in which Gaspard Monge worked. Over the years, a gap has been created between Descriptive Geometry and Mechanism Science, which now appear to belong to different worlds. In reality, however, there is a very close relationship between the two disciplines, with a link based on extremely solid foundations. Without the theoretical foundations of Geometry it would not be possible to draw and design mechanical parts such as gears, while in Kinematics it would be less easy to design and predict the reciprocal movements of parts in a complex mechanical assembly.
From the Middle Ages to the 17th Century
Author: Michela Cigola
Category: Technology & Engineering
Geometry: The Line and the Circle is an undergraduate text with a strong narrative that is written at the appropriate level of rigor for an upper-level survey or axiomatic course in geometry. Starting with Euclid's Elements, the book connects topics in Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry in an intentional and meaningful way, with historical context. The line and the circle are the principal characters driving the narrative. In every geometry considered—which include spherical, hyperbolic, and taxicab, as well as finite affine and projective geometries—these two objects are analyzed and highlighted. Along the way, the reader contemplates fundamental questions such as: What is a straight line? What does parallel mean? What is distance? What is area? There is a strong focus on axiomatic structures throughout the text. While Euclid is a constant inspiration and the Elements is repeatedly revisited with substantial coverage of Books I, II, III, IV, and VI, non-Euclidean geometries are introduced very early to give the reader perspective on questions of axiomatics. Rounding out the thorough coverage of axiomatics are concluding chapters on transformations and constructibility. The book is compulsively readable with great attention paid to the historical narrative and hundreds of attractive problems.
Author: Maureen T. Carroll,Elyn Rykken
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
Author: George Sydenham Clarke Baron Sydenham of Combe
Category: Geometrical drawing
This book grew out of a graduate student paper  in which I set down some criticisms of J. R. Lucas' attempt to refute mechanism by means of G6del's theorem. I had made several such abortive attempts myself and had become familiar with their pitfalls, and especially with the double edged nature of incompleteness arguments. My original idea was to model the refutation of mechanism on the almost universally accepted G6delian refutation of Hilbert's formalism, but I kept getting stuck on questions of mathematical philosophy which I found myself having to beg. A thorough study of the foundational works of Hilbert and Bernays finally convinced me that I had all too naively and uncritically bought this refutation of formalism. I did indeed discover points of surprisingly close contact between formalism and mechanism, but also that it was possible to under mine certain strong arguments against these positions precisely by invok ing G6del's and related work. I also began to realize that the Church Turing thesis itself is the principal bastion protecting mechanism, and that G6del's work was perhaps the best thing that ever happened to both mechanism and formalism. I pushed these lines of argument in my dis sertation with the patient help of my readers, Raymond Nelson and Howard Stein. I would especially like to thank the latter for many valuable criticisms of my dissertation as well as some helpful suggestions for reor ganizing it in the direction of the present book.
An Essay on Finitism
Author: J. Webb
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Author: United States. Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command
Die „Geometrie und ihre Anwendungen“ ist für Personen geschrieben, die von relativ einfachen Problemen der ebenen Geometrie bis hin zu schwierigeren Aufgaben der Raumgeometrie Interesse an geometrischen Zusammenhängen haben. Ähnlich wie beim „mathematischen Werkzeugkasten“ stehen Anwendungen aus verschiedenen Disziplinen wie dem Ingenieurwesen, der Biologie, Physik, Astronomie, Geografie, Fotografie, Kunstgeschichte, ja sogar der Musik im Vordergrund. Die Anwendungsbeispiele veranschaulichen wichtige Begriffe der Geometrie wie Normalprojektion und Zentralprojektion, Krümmung von Kurven und Flächen, der Geometrie der Bewegung und sogar der Geometrie nichteuklidischer Räume. Stets hat die Raumvorstellung Vorrang. Das Buch kann daher auch von Personen ohne spezielle mathematische Vorbildung gelesen werden. Die 3. Auflage ist um gut 60 Seiten erweitert und enthält zahlreiche neue Anwendungen mit hochwertigen Grafiken.
Author: Georg Glaeser
Offering complete coverage of all the elements of drafting, this second edition remains the most up-to-date compendium on engineering drawing and design available. Based on the latest ANSI/ASME standards, this encyclopedic resource spans the engineering disciplines, including fluid power, structural, civil, electrical, piping, and HVAC/sheet metal. Includes updated CADD applications. 1,400 illus.
Author: David A. Madsen
Publisher: Arden Shakespeare
Category: Engineering design
Author: Lyman Pierson Powell
Author: United States. Office of Education
um Einiges gekürzt und neuerem Sprachgebrauch angepasst
Author: Albrecht Dürer,Alfred Peltzer
Your one-stop idea guide for time-saving, ready-to-use mechanical component designs! Whatever you design, engineer, or invent-from locomotives to tape recorders-if your application requires components that MOVE GRIP or LOCK... you need this book. An unmatched compilation of proven design ideas and solutions, Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook-describes and illlustrates over 1,700 tested mechanisms, linkages, cams, variable-speed drives, gears, clutches, brakes, belts, glexures, chucks, clamps, and springs you can use is-or modify to meet your needs; shows you how these components combine successfully with electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, optical, thermal, or photoelectric devices-to let you creat integrated designs that perform a range of complex tasks; includes key design curves, graphs, tables, and equations for designing a variety of components-geared five-bar mechanisms, internal, and external Geneva wheels, crank-and-rocker links, snap-action toggles, angular-motion and curvilinear-motion feeder mechanisms, slider cranks, ratchet wheels, and more; organizes all mechanisms and devices by application and principle of operation-to give you fast on-the-job access; Carefully compiled from major product-design design-engineering publications and from other authoritative sources, Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook is the most extensive, thoroughly researched ready reference of its kind. It's the place to turn first for the time-saving approaches that can get your design started off right... break you out of conceptual logjams... suggest more cost-efficient alternatives... or just fine-tune a good design to make it even better.
Author: Neil Sclater,Nicholas P. Chironis
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
Category: Technology & Engineering
Over 2000 drawings make this sourcebook a gold mine of information for learning and innovating in mechanical design The fourth edition of this unique engineering reference book covers the past, present, and future of mechanisms and mechanical devices. Among the thousands of proven mechanisms illustrated and described are many suitable for recycling into new mechanical, electromechanical, or mechatronic products and systems. Overviews of robotics, rapid prototyping, MEMS, and nanotechnology will get you up-to-speed on these cutting-edge technologies. Easy-to-read tutorial chapters on the basics of mechanisms and motion control will introduce those subjects to you or refresh your knowledge of them. Comprehensive index to speed your search for topics of interest Glossaries of terms for gears, cams, mechanisms, and robotics New industrial robot specifications and applications Mobile robots for exploration, scientific research, and defense INSIDE Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook, 4th Edition Basics of Mechanisms • Motion Control Systems • Industrial Robots • Mobile Robots • Drives and Mechanisms That Include Linkages, Gears, Cams, Genevas, and Ratchets • Clutches and Brakes • Devices That Latch, Fasten, and Clamp • Chains, Belts, Springs, and Screws • Shaft Couplings and Connections • Machines That Perform Specific Motions or Package, Convey, Handle, or Assure Safety • Systems for Torque, Speed, Tension, and Limit Control • Pneumatic, Hydraulic, Electric, and Electronic Instruments and Controls • Computer-Aided Design Concepts • Rapid Prototyping • New Directions in Mechanical Engineering
Author: Neil Sclater,Nicholas Chironis
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech
Category: Technology & Engineering
Dealing with dynamics of processes that repeat themselves regularly, this revised and updated edition extends the thread from 1980 to the present day, concentrating on areas of interest where there will be much activity in the future. This involves going through spatial biochemical, electrophysiological, and organismic dynamical systems and patterns that were discovered by pursuing the theme of phase singularities introduced in the original book. In particular the work on excitability in cell membranes will be thoroughly updated as will the references throughout the book.
Author: Arthur T. Winfree
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The three-volume work Perceiving in Depth is a sequel to Binocular Vision and Stereopsis and to Seeing in Depth, both by Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers. This work is much broader in scope than the previous books and includes mechanisms of depth perception by all senses, including aural, electrosensory organs, and the somatosensory system. Volume 1 reviews sensory coding, psychophysical and analytic procedures, and basic visual mechanisms. Volume 2 reviews stereoscopic vision. Volume 3 reviews all mechanisms of depth perception other than stereoscopic vision. The three volumes are extensively illustrated and referenced and provide the most detailed review of all aspects of perceiving the three-dimensional world. Volume 3 addresses all depth-perception mechanisms other than stereopsis. The book starts with an account of monocular cues to depth, including accommodation, vergence eye movements, perspective, interposition, shading, and motion parallax. A chapter on constancies in depth perception, such as the ability to perceive the sizes and shapes of objects as they move or rotate in depth, is followed by a chapter on the ways in which depth cues interact. The next chapter reviews sources of information, such as changing disparity, image looming, and vergence eye movements, used in the perception of objects moving in depth. Various pathologies of depth perception, including visual neglect, stereoanomalies, and albanism are reviewed. Visual depth-perception mechanisms through the animal kingdom are described, starting with insects and progressing through crustaceans, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The chapter includes a discussion of how stereoscopic vision may have evolved. The next chapter describes how visual depth perception is used to guide reaching movements of the hand, avoiding obstacles, and walking to a distant object. The next three chapters review non-visual mechanisms of depth perception. Auditory mechanisms include auditory localization, echolocation in bats and marine mammals, and the lateral-line system of fish. Some fish emit electric discharges and then use electric sense organs to detect distortions of the electric field produced by nearby objects. Some beetles and snakes use heat-sensitive sense organs to detect sources of heat. The volume ends with a discussion of mechanisms used by animals to navigate to a distant site. Ants find their way back to the nest by using landmarks and by integrating their walking movements. Several animals navigate by the stars or by polarized sunlight. It seems that animals in several phyla navigate by detecting the Earths magnetic field.
Author: Ian P. Howard
Publisher: Oxford University Press