Author: I. E. Leonard,J. E. Lewis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119022665

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

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### Geometry of Convex Sets

A gentle introduction to the geometry of convex sets in n–dimensional space Geometry of Convex Sets begins with basic definitions of the linear concepts of addition and scalar multiplication and then defines the notion of convexity for subsets of n–dimensional space. Many properties of convex sets can be discovered using just the linear structure. However, for more interesting results, it is necessary to discuss the notion of distance about open sets, closed sets, bounded sets, and compact sets. The book illustrates the interplay between these linear and topological concepts, which makes the notion of convexity so appealing. Thoroughly class–tested, the book discusses topology and convexity in the context of normed linear spaces, specifically with a norm topology on an n–dimensional space. Geometry of Convex Sets also features: An introduction to n–dimensional geometry including points; lines; vectors; distance; norms; inner products; orthogonality; convexity; hyperplanes; and linear functionals An introduction to n–dimensional norm topology including interior points and open sets; accumulation points and closed sets; boundary points and closed sets; compact subsets of n–dimensional space; completeness of n–dimensional space; sequences; equivalent norms; distance between sets; and support hyperplanes Basic properties of convex sets; convex hulls; interior and closure of convex sets; closed convex hulls; accessibility lemma; regularity of convex sets; affine hulls; flats or affine subspaces; affine basis theorem; separation theorems; extreme points of convex sets; supporting hyperplanes and extreme points; existence of extreme points; Krein–Milman theorem; polyhedral sets and polytopes; and Birkhoff s theorem on doubly stochastic matrices Discussions on Helly s theorem; the Art Gallery theorem; Vincensini s problem; Hadwiger s theorems; theorems of Radon and Caratheodory; Kirchberger s theorem; Helly–type theorems for circles; covering problems; piercing problems; sets of constant width; Reuleaux triangles; Barbier s theorem; and Borsuk s problem Geometry of Convex Sets is a useful textbook for upper–undergraduate level courses in geometry of convex sets and is essential for graduate level courses in convex analysis. An excellent reference for academics and readers interested in learning the various applications of higher geometry, the book is also appropriate for teachers who would like to convey a better understanding and appreciation of the field to students.

### Solutions Manual to Accompany Geometry of Convex Sets

A Solutions Manual to accompany Geometry of Convex Sets Geometry of Convex Sets begins with basic definitions of the concepts of vector addition and scalar multiplication and then defines the notion of convexity for subsets of n-dimensional space. Many properties of convex sets can be discovered using just the linear structure. However, for more interesting results, it is necessary to introduce the notion of distance in order to discuss open sets, closed sets, bounded sets, and compact sets. The book illustrates the interplay between these linear and topological concepts, which makes the notion of convexity so interesting. Thoroughly class-tested, the book discusses topology and convexity in the context of normed linear spaces, specifically with a norm topology on an n-dimensional space. Geometry of Convex Sets also features: An introduction to n-dimensional geometry including points; lines; vectors; distance; norms; inner products; orthogonality; convexity; hyperplanes; and linear functionals Coverage of n-dimensional norm topology including interior points and open sets; accumulation points and closed sets; boundary points and closed sets; compact subsets of n-dimensional space; completeness of n-dimensional space; sequences; equivalent norms; distance between sets; and support hyperplanes · Basic properties of convex sets; convex hulls; interior and closure of convex sets; closed convex hulls; accessibility lemma; regularity of convex sets; affine hulls; flats or affine subspaces; affine basis theorem; separation theorems; extreme points of convex sets; supporting hyperplanes and extreme points; existence of extreme points; Krein–Milman theorem; polyhedral sets and polytopes; and Birkhoff’s theorem on doubly stochastic matrices Discussions of Helly’s theorem; the Art Gallery theorem; Vincensini’s problem; Hadwiger’s theorems; theorems of Radon and Caratheodory; Kirchberger’s theorem; Helly-type theorems for circles; covering problems; piercing problems; sets of constant width; Reuleaux triangles; Barbier’s theorem; and Borsuk’s problem Geometry of Convex Sets is a useful textbook for upper-undergraduate level courses in geometry of convex sets and is essential for graduate-level courses in convex analysis. An excellent reference for academics and readers interested in learning the various applications of convex geometry, the book is also appropriate for teachers who would like to convey a better understanding and appreciation of the field to students. I. E. Leonard, PhD, was a contract lecturer in the Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences at the University of Alberta. The author of over 15 peer-reviewed journal articles, he is a technical editor for the Canadian Applied Mathematical Quarterly journal. J. E. Lewis, PhD, is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Alberta. He was the recipient of the Faculty of Science Award for Excellence in Teaching in 2004 as well as the PIMS Education Prize in 2002.

### Join Geometries

The main object of this book is to reorient and revitalize classical geometry in a way that will bring it closer to the mainstream of contemporary mathematics. The postulational basis of the subject will be radically revised in order to construct a broad-scale and conceptually unified treatment. The familiar figures of classical geometry-points, segments, lines, planes, triangles, circles, and so on-stem from problems in the physical world and seem to be conceptually unrelated. However, a natural setting for their study is provided by the concept of convex set, which is compara tively new in the history of geometrical ideas. The familiarfigures can then appear as convex sets, boundaries of convex sets, or finite unions of convex sets. Moreover, two basic types of figure in linear geometry are special cases of convex set: linear space (point, line, and plane) and halfspace (ray, halfplane, and halfspace). Therefore we choose convex set to be the central type of figure in our treatment of geometry. How can the wealth of geometric knowledge be organized around this idea? By defini tion, a set is convex if it contains the segment joining each pair of its points; that is, if it is closed under the operation of joining two points to form a segment. But this is precisely the basic operation in Euclid.

### Theorie der konvexen Körper

Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.

### Convex Sets and Their Applications

Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this text introduces the broad scope of convexity. It leads students to open questions and unsolved problems, and it highlights diverse applications. Author Steven R. Lay, Professor of Mathematics at Lee University in Tennessee, reinforces his teachings with numerous examples, plus exercises with hints and answers. The first three chapters form the foundation for all that follows, starting with a review of the fundamentals of linear algebra and topology. They also survey the development and applications of relationships between hyperplanes and convex sets. Subsequent chapters are relatively self-contained, each focusing on a particular aspect or application of convex sets. Topics include characterizations of convex sets, polytopes, duality, optimization, and convex functions. Hints, solutions, and references for the exercises appear at the back of the book.

### Proceedings of the Seminar on Random Series, Convex Sets and Geometry of Banach Spaces, Aarhus, October 14 - October 20, 1974, Denmark

### Convexity and Optimization in Finite Dimensions I

Dantzig's development of linear programming into one of the most applicable optimization techniques has spread interest in the algebra of linear inequalities, the geometry of polyhedra, the topology of convex sets, and the analysis of convex functions. It is the goal of this volume to provide a synopsis of these topics, and thereby the theoretical back ground for the arithmetic of convex optimization to be treated in a sub sequent volume. The exposition of each chapter is essentially independent, and attempts to reflect a specific style of mathematical reasoning. The emphasis lies on linear and convex duality theory, as initiated by Gale, Kuhn and Tucker, Fenchel, and v. Neumann, because it represents the theoretical development whose impact on modern optimi zation techniques has been the most pronounced. Chapters 5 and 6 are devoted to two characteristic aspects of duality theory: conjugate functions or polarity on the one hand, and saddle points on the other. The Farkas lemma on linear inequalities and its generalizations, Motzkin's description of polyhedra, Minkowski's supporting plane theorem are indispensable elementary tools which are contained in chapters 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The treatment of extremal properties of polyhedra as well as of general convex sets is based on the far reaching work of Klee. Chapter 2 terminates with a description of Gale diagrams, a recently developed successful technique for exploring polyhedral structures.

### Lectures on Convex Sets

This book provides a systematic treatment of algebraic and topological properties of convex sets (possibly non-closed or unbounded) in the n-dimensional Euclidean space. Topics under consideration include general properties of convex sets and convex hulls, cones and conic hulls, polyhedral sets, the extreme structure, support and separation properties of convex sets. Lectures on Convex Sets is self-contained and unified in presentation. The book grew up out of various courses on geometry and convexity, taught by the author for more than a decade. It can be used as a textbook for graduate students and even ambitious undergraduates in mathematics, optimization, and operations research. It may also be viewed as a supplementary book for a course on convex geometry or convex analysis, or as a source for independent study of the subject, suitable for non-geometers. Contents:The Affine Structure of ℝnConvex SetsConvex HullsConvex Cones and Conic HullsRecession and Normal DirectionsSupport and Separation PropertiesThe Extreme Structure of Convex SetsThe Exposed Structure of Convex SetsPolyhedra Readership: Graduate students in mathematics, optimization and operations research. Key Features:The exposition is self-contained and detailed and provides multiple cross-references, which makes the book accessible to a very large audienceAn essential part of the text is adapted from various research articles, never presented before in a textbook formatThe book has a multidisciplinary character; it can be useful to specialists in geometry, convex analysis, operations research, and optimizationKeywords:Convex Set;Convex Hull;Cone;Support;Separation;Extreme;Exposed;Polyhedron

### Extrinsic Geometry of Convex Surfaces

### Measures of Symmetry for Convex Sets and Stability

This textbook treats two important and related matters in convex geometry: the quantification of symmetry of a convex set—measures of symmetry—and the degree to which convex sets that nearly minimize such measures of symmetry are themselves nearly symmetric—the phenomenon of stability. By gathering the subject’s core ideas and highlights around Grünbaum’s general notion of measure of symmetry, it paints a coherent picture of the subject, and guides the reader from the basics to the state-of-the-art. The exposition takes various paths to results in order to develop the reader’s grasp of the unity of ideas, while interspersed remarks enrich the material with a behind-the-scenes view of corollaries and logical connections, alternative proofs, and allied results from the literature. Numerous illustrations elucidate definitions and key constructions, and over 70 exercises—with hints and references for the more difficult ones—test and sharpen the reader’s comprehension. The presentation includes: a basic course covering foundational notions in convex geometry, the three pillars of the combinatorial theory (the theorems of Carathéodory, Radon, and Helly), critical sets and Minkowski measure, the Minkowski–Radon inequality, and, to illustrate the general theory, a study of convex bodies of constant width; two proofs of F. John’s ellipsoid theorem; a treatment of the stability of Minkowski measure, the Banach–Mazur metric, and Groemer’s stability estimate for the Brunn–Minkowski inequality; important specializations of Grünbaum’s abstract measure of symmetry, such as Winternitz measure, the Rogers–Shepard volume ratio, and Guo’s Lp -Minkowski measure; a construction by the author of a new sequence of measures of symmetry, the kth mean Minkowski measure; and lastly, an intriguing application to the moduli space of certain distinguished maps from a Riemannian homogeneous space to spheres—illustrating the broad mathematical relevance of the book’s subject.

### Lectures on Discrete Geometry

The main topics in this introductory text to discrete geometry include basics on convex sets, convex polytopes and hyperplane arrangements, combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations, intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets, geometric Ramsey-type results, and embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. In each area, the text explains several key results and methods.

### A Survey of Finite Mathematics

Outstanding undergraduate text, suitable for non-mathematics majors, introduces fundamentals of linear algebra and theory of convex sets. Includes 150 worked examples and over 1,200 exercises. Answers to selected exercises. Bibliography. 1969 edition.

### Convex and Discrete Geometry

Convex and Discrete Geometry is an area of mathematics situated between analysis, geometry and discrete mathematics with numerous relations to other subdisciplines. This book provides a comprehensive overview of major results, methods and ideas of convex and discrete geometry and its applications. Besides being a graduate-level introduction to the field, it is a practical source of information and orientation for convex geometers, and useful to people working in the applied fields.

### Selected Topics in Convex Geometry

Examines in detail those topics in convex geometry that are concerned with Euclidean space Enriched by numerous examples, illustrations, and exercises, with a good bibliography and index Requires only a basic knowledge of geometry, linear algebra, analysis, topology, and measure theory Can be used for graduates courses or seminars in convex geometry, geometric and convex combinatorics, and convex analysis and optimization

### The Volume of Convex Bodies and Banach Space Geometry

A self-contained presentation of results relating the volume of convex bodies and Banach space geometry.

### Convex Optimization & Euclidean Distance Geometry

The study of Euclidean distance matrices (EDMs) fundamentally asks what can be known geometrically given onlydistance information between points in Euclidean space. Each point may represent simply locationor, abstractly, any entity expressible as a vector in finite-dimensional Euclidean space.The answer to the question posed is that very much can be known about the points;the mathematics of this combined study of geometry and optimization is rich and deep.Throughout we cite beacons of historical accomplishment.The application of EDMs has already proven invaluable in discerning biological molecular conformation.The emerging practice of localization in wireless sensor networks, the global positioning system (GPS), and distance-based pattern recognitionwill certainly simplify and benefit from this theory.We study the pervasive convex Euclidean bodies and their various representations.In particular, we make convex polyhedra, cones, and dual cones more visceral through illustration, andwe study the geometric relation of polyhedral cones to nonorthogonal bases biorthogonal expansion.We explain conversion between halfspace- and vertex-descriptions of convex cones,we provide formulae for determining dual cones,and we show how classic alternative systems of linear inequalities or linear matrix inequalities and optimality conditions can be explained by generalized inequalities in terms of convex cones and their duals.The conic analogue to linear independence, called conic independence, is introducedas a new tool in the study of classical cone theory; the logical next step in the progression:linear, affine, conic.Any convex optimization problem has geometric interpretation.This is a powerful attraction: the ability to visualize geometry of an optimization problem.We provide tools to make visualization easier.The concept of faces, extreme points, and extreme directions of convex Euclidean bodiesis explained here, crucial to understanding convex optimization.The convex cone of positive semidefinite matrices, in particular, is studied in depth.We mathematically interpret, for example,its inverse image under affine transformation, and we explainhow higher-rank subsets of its boundary united with its interior are convex.The Chapter on "Geometry of convex functions",observes analogies between convex sets and functions:The set of all vector-valued convex functions is a closed convex cone.Included among the examples in this chapter, we show how the real affinefunction relates to convex functions as the hyperplane relates to convex sets.Here, also, pertinent results formultidimensional convex functions are presented that are largely ignored in the literature;tricks and tips for determining their convexityand discerning their geometry, particularly with regard to matrix calculus which remains largely unsystematizedwhen compared with the traditional practice of ordinary calculus.Consequently, we collect some results of matrix differentiation in the appendices.The Euclidean distance matrix (EDM) is studied,its properties and relationship to both positive semidefinite and Gram matrices.We relate the EDM to the four classical axioms of the Euclidean metric;thereby, observing the existence of an infinity of axioms of the Euclidean metric beyondthe triangle inequality. We proceed byderiving the fifth Euclidean axiom and then explain why furthering this endeavoris inefficient because the ensuing criteria (while describing polyhedra)grow linearly in complexity and number.Some geometrical problems solvable via EDMs,EDM problems posed as convex optimization, and methods of solution arepresented;\eg, we generate a recognizable isotonic map of the United States usingonly comparative distance information (no distance information, only distance inequalities).We offer a new proof of the classic Schoenberg criterion, that determines whether a candidate matrix is an EDM. Our proofrelies on fundamental geometry; assuming, any EDM must correspond to a list of points contained in some polyhedron(possibly at its vertices) and vice versa.It is not widely known that the Schoenberg criterion implies nonnegativity of the EDM entries; proved here.We characterize the eigenvalues of an EDM matrix and then devisea polyhedral cone required for determining membership of a candidate matrix(in Cayley-Menger form) to the convex cone of Euclidean distance matrices (EDM cone); \ie,a candidate is an EDM if and only if its eigenspectrum belongs to a spectral cone for EDM^N.We will see spectral cones are not unique.In the chapter "EDM cone", we explain the geometric relationship betweenthe EDM cone, two positive semidefinite cones, and the elliptope.We illustrate geometric requirements, in particular, for projection of a candidate matrixon a positive semidefinite cone that establish its membership to the EDM cone. The faces of the EDM cone are described,but still open is the question whether all its faces are exposed as they are for the positive semidefinite cone.The classic Schoenberg criterion, relating EDM and positive semidefinite cones, isrevealed to be a discretized membership relation (a generalized inequality, a new Farkas''''''''-like lemma)between the EDM cone and its ordinary dual. A matrix criterion for membership to the dual EDM cone is derived thatis simpler than the Schoenberg criterion.We derive a new concise expression for the EDM cone and its dual involvingtwo subspaces and a positive semidefinite cone."Semidefinite programming" is reviewedwith particular attention to optimality conditionsof prototypical primal and dual conic programs,their interplay, and the perturbation method of rank reduction of optimal solutions(extant but not well-known).We show how to solve a ubiquitous platonic combinatorial optimization problem from linear algebra(the optimal Boolean solution x to Ax=b)via semidefinite program relaxation.A three-dimensional polyhedral analogue for the positive semidefinite cone of 3X3 symmetricmatrices is introduced; a tool for visualizing in 6 dimensions.In "EDM proximity"we explore methods of solution to a few fundamental and prevalentEuclidean distance matrix proximity problems; the problem of finding that Euclidean distance matrix closestto a given matrix in the Euclidean sense.We pay particular attention to the problem when compounded with rank minimization.We offer a new geometrical proof of a famous result discovered by Eckart \& Young in 1936 regarding Euclideanprojection of a point on a subset of the positive semidefinite cone comprising all positive semidefinite matriceshaving rank not exceeding a prescribed limit rho.We explain how this problem is transformed to a convex optimization for any rank rho.

### Foundations of Convex Geometry

This book on the foundations of Euclidean geometry aims to present the subject from the point of view of present day mathematics, taking advantage of all the developments since the appearance of Hilbert's classic work. Here real affine space is characterised by a small number of axioms involving points and line segments making the treatment self-contained and thorough, many results being established under weaker hypotheses than usual. The treatment should be totally accessible for final year undergraduates and graduate students, and can also serve as an introduction to other areas of mathematics such as matroids and antimatroids, combinatorial convexity, the theory of polytopes, projective geometry and functional analysis.

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Author: I. E. Leonard,J. E. Lewis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119022665

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

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Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119184185

Category: Mathematics

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