Exploration, Environments, Resources

Author: Geological Society of London

Publisher: Geological Society of London

ISBN: 9781862390539

Category: Social Science

Page: 180

View: 5027

Geology and archaeology have a long history of fruitful collaborations stretching back to the early 19th century. Geoarchaeology - the application of the geosciences to solve research problems in archaeology - has now emerged as a recognised sub-discipline of archaeology, especially in the United States. traditionally, the methods used include geomorphology, sedimentology, pedology, and stratigraphy, reflecting the fact that most archaeological evidence is recovered from the sedimentary environment. as reflected in the sub-title, this volume embraces a broader definition, including geophysics and geochemistry.


Exploration, Environments, Resources

Author: Geological Society of London

Publisher: Geological Society of London

ISBN: 9781862390539

Category: Social Science

Page: 180

View: 2633

Geology and archaeology have a long history of fruitful collaborations stretching back to the early 19th century. Geoarchaeology - the application of the geosciences to solve research problems in archaeology - has now emerged as a recognised sub-discipline of archaeology, especially in the United States. traditionally, the methods used include geomorphology, sedimentology, pedology, and stratigraphy, reflecting the fact that most archaeological evidence is recovered from the sedimentary environment. as reflected in the sub-title, this volume embraces a broader definition, including geophysics and geochemistry.


The Earth-science Approach to Archaeological Interpretation

Author: George Robert Rapp,Christopher L. Hill

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300109665

Category: Science

Page: 339

View: 7259

A detailed and far-ranging textbook which frames geologic concepts within an archaeological context, offering specific examples that demonstrate how geologic methods can be used to interpret the human past. The contents list is huge, but a few of the topics covered are: sediments and soils, provenance studies, geologic surveying, mapping and remote sensing, artifact identification and human-environment interaction. The second edition builds on the success and innovation of the first, and includes updates, new concepts and examples, an enhanced bibliography, and many new illustrations.

Geoarchaeology in Action

Studies in Soil Micromorphology and Landscape Evolution

Author: Charles French

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134482337

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 5249

Geoarchaeology in Action provides much-needed 'hands on' methodologies to assist anyone conducting or studying geoarchaeological investigations on sites and in landscapes, irrespective of date, place and environment. The book sets out the essential features of geoarchaeological practice and geomorphological processes, and is deliberately aimed at the archaeologist as practitioner in the field. It explains the basics - what can be expected, what approaches may be taken, and what outcomes might be forthcoming, and asks what we can reasonably expect a micromorphological approach to archaeological contexts, data and problems to tell us. The twelve case studies are taken from Britain, Europe and the Near East. They illustrate how past landscape change can be discovered and deciphered whether you are primarily a digger, environmentalist or soil micromorphologist. Based on the author's extensive experience of investigating buried and eroded landscapes, the book develops new ways of looking at conventional models of landscape change. With an extensive glossary, bibliography and more than 100 illustrations it will be an essential text and reference tool for students, academics and professionals.

Geoarchaeology in the Great Plains

Author: Rolfe D. Mandel

Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press

ISBN: 9780806132617

Category: Social Science

Page: 306

View: 1204

Geoarchaeology is the application of geoscience to the study of archaeological deposits and the archaeological record. Employing techniques from pedology, geomorphology, sedimentology, geochronology, and stratigraphy, geoarchaeologists investigate and interpret sediments, soils and landforms at the focal points of archaeological research. Edited by Rolfe D. Mandel and with contributions by John Albanese, Joe Allen Artz, E. Arthur Bettis III, C. Reid Ferring, Vance T. Holliday, David W. May, and Mandel, this volume traces the history of all major projects, researchers, theoretical developments, and sites contributing to our geoarchaeological knowledge of North America's Great Plains. The book provides a historical overview and explores theoretical questions that confront geoarchaeologists working in the Great Plains, where North American geoarchaeology emerged as a discipline.

Geoarchaeology, Climate Change, and Sustainability

Author: Antony G. Brown,Laura S. Basell,Karl W. Butzer

Publisher: Geological Society of America

ISBN: 0813724767

Category: Science

Page: 194

View: 3805

This volume provides a broad survey of recent advances in geoarchaeology with particular attention to environmental change. The fourteen chapters include methodologically innovative research, case studies valuable for teaching, and the use of geological techniques to answer archaeological questions from lower Paleolithic hunting to the location of Homer's Ithaca. Geoarchaeology, Climate Change, and Sustainability also includes a major position paper and, unusually, two papers on the management of the geoarchaeological resource. Both the geographical and chronological coverage are broad ranging from the Lower Paleolithic (lower Pleistocene) to the Iron Age (late Holocene), and from rural Iran to urban Manhattan. The research presented here clearly demonstrates the value and practical application of geoarchaeological techniques from sediment-based dating to geographic information systems.

Ground-penetrating Radar for Geoarchaeology

Author: Lawrence B. Conyers

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118950003

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 859

There has long been a strong collaboration between geologists and archaeologists, and the sub-field of geoarchaeology is well developed as a discipline in its own right. This book now bridges the gap between those fields and the geophysical technique of ground-penetrating radar (GPR), which allows for three-dimensional analysis of the ground to visualize both geological and archaeological materials. This method has the ability to produce images of the ground that display complex packages of materials, and allows researchers to integrate sedimentary units, soils and associated archaeological features in ways not possible using standard excavation techniques. The ability of GPR to visualize all these buried units can help archaeologists place ancient people within the landscapes and environments of their time, and understand their burial and preservation phenomena in three-dimensions. Readership: Advanced students in archaeology and geoarchaeology, as well as practicing archaeologists with an interest in GPS techniques.

Geology and Geoarchaeology of the Black Sea Region

Beyond the Flood Hypothesis

Author: Ilya Val Buynevich

Publisher: Geological Society of America

ISBN: 0813724732

Category: Science

Page: 196

View: 4457

"Contributors from twelve countries wrote the twelve chapters in this Special Paper, and they address a range of topics, including climatic and hydrologic modeling, paleogeographic reconstruction of Late Quaternary landscapes, palynology and paleoclimate reconstruction, and geoarchaeological studies, both onshore and offshore. The volume serves as a timely reference for continuing research in a region harboring a number of newly independent states that are now faced with population pressure and a variety of environmental issues."--

Principles of Geoarchaeology

A North American Perspective

Author: Michael R. Waters

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816517701

Category: Science

Page: 398

View: 1596

Geoarchaeological studies can significantly enhance interpretations of human prehistory by allowing archaeologists to decipher from sediments and soils the effects of earth processes on the evidence of human activity. While a number of previous books have provided broad geographic and temporal treatments of geoarchaeology, this new volume presents a single author's view intended for North American archaeologists. Waters deals with those aspects of geoarchaeologyÑstratigraphy, site formation processes, and landscape reconstructionÑmost fundamental to archaeology, and he focuses on the late Quaternary of North America, permitting in-depth discussions of the concepts directly applicable to that research. Assuming no prior geologic knowledge on the part of the reader, Waters provides a background in fundamental geological processes and the basic tools of geoarchaeology. He then proceeds to relate specific physical processes, microenvironments, deposits, and landforms associated with riverine, desert, lake, glacial, cave, coastal, and other environments to archaeological site formation, location, and context. This practical volume illustrates the contributions of geoarchaeological investigations and demonstrates the need to make such studies an integral part of archaeological research. The text is enhanced by more than a hundred line drawings and photographs. CONTENTS 1. Research Objectives of Geoarchaeology 2. Geoarchaeological Foundations: The Archaeological Site Matrix: Sediments and Soils / Stratigraphy / The Geoarchaeological Interpretation of Sediments, Soils, and Stratigraphy 3. Alluvial Environments: Streamflow / Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition / Alluvial Environments: Rivers, Arroyos, Terraces, and Fans / Alluvial Landscapes Evolution and the Archaeological Record / Alluvial Landscape Reconstruction 4. Eolian Environments: Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition / Sand Dunes / Loess and Dust / Stone Pavements / Eolian Erosion / Volcanic Ash (Tephra) 5. Springs, Lakes, Rockshelters, and Other Terrestrial Environments: Springs / Lakes / Slopes / Glaciers / Rockshelters and Caves 6. Coastal Environments: Coastal Processes / Late Quaternary Sea Level Changes / Coastal Environments / Coastal Landscape Evolution and the Archaeological Record / Coastal Landscape Reconstruction 7. The Postburial Disturbance af Archaeological Site Contexts: Cryoturbation / Argilliturbation / Graviturbation / Deformation / Other Physical Disturbances / Floralturbation / Faunalturbation 8. Geoarchaeological Research Appendix A: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating the Effects of Fluvial Landscape Evolution on the Archaeological Record Appendix B: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating Site-Specific Synchronic and Diachronic Alluvial Landscape Reconstructions Appendix C: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating Regional Synchronic and Diachronic Alluvial Landscape Reconstructions

Alluvial Geoarchaeology

Floodplain Archaeology and Environmental Change

Author: A. G. Brown

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521568203

Category: Social Science

Page: 377

View: 6117

This comprehensive technical manual is designed to give archaeologists the necessary background knowledge in environmental science required to excavate and analyze archaeological sites by rivers and on floodplains. Bringing together information on the evolution and exploitation of floodplain and river landscapes, this text draws on examples from Britain, Europe, North America and Australasia. An important theme is the interaction between climatic and cultural forces and the transformation of riverine environments.

Geoarchaeology of Aboriginal Landscapes in Semi-arid Australia

Author: Simon Holdaway,Patricia Fanning


ISBN: 0643108963

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 4682

This book provides readers with a unique understanding of the ways in which Aboriginal people interacted with their environment in the past at one particular location in western New South Wales. It also provides a statement showing how geoarchaeology should be conducted in a wide range of locations throughout Australia. One of the key difficulties faced by all those interested in the interaction between humans and their environment in the past is the complex array of processes acting over different spatial and temporal scales. The authors take account of this complexity by integrating three key areas of study – geomorphology, geochronology and archaeology – applied at a landscape scale, with the intention of understanding the record of how Australian Aboriginal people interacted with the environment through time and across space. This analysis is based on the results of archaeological research conducted at the University of New South Wales Fowlers Gap Arid Zone Research Station between 1999 and 2002 as part of the Western New South Wales Archaeology Program. The interdisciplinary geoarchaeological program was targeted at expanding the potential offered by archaeological deposits in western New South Wales, Australia. The book contains six chapters: the first two introduce the study area, then three data analysis chapters deal in turn with the geomorphology, geochronology and archaeology of Fowlers Gap Station. A final chapter considers the results in relation to the history of Aboriginal occupation of Fowlers Gap Station, as well as the insights they provide into Aboriginal ways of life more generally. Analyses are well illustrated through the tabulation of results and the use of figures created through Geographic Information System software.

Luminescence Dating in Archaeology, Anthropology, and Geoarchaeology

An Overview

Author: Ioannis Liritzis,Ashok Kumar Singhvi,James K. Feathers,Gunther A. Wagner,Annette Kadereit,Nikolaos Zacharias,Sheng-Hua Li

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319001701

Category: Science

Page: 70

View: 4946

The field of Luminescence Dating has reached a level of maturity. Both research and applications from all fields of archaeological science, from archaeological materials to anthropology and geoarchaeology, now routinely employ luminescence dating. The advent of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques and the potential for exploring a spectrum of grain aliquots enhanced the applicability, accuracy and the precision of luminescence dating. The present contribution reviews the physical basis, mechanisms and methodological aspects of luminescence dating; discusses advances in instrumentations and facilities, improvements in analytical procedures, and statistical treatment of data along with some examples of applications across continents, covering all periods (Middle Palaeolithic to Medieval) and both Old and New World archaeology. They also include interdisciplinary applications that contribute to palaeo-landscape reconstruction.

Paleoindian Geoarchaeology of the Southern High Plains

Author: Vance T. Holliday

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292784538

Category: Social Science

Page: 319

View: 1395

The Southern High Plains of northwestern Texas and eastern New Mexico are rich in Paleoindian archaeological sites, including such well-known ones as Clovis, Lubbock Lake, Plainview, and Midland. These sites have been extensively researched over decades, not only by archaeologists but also by geoscientists, whose studies of soils and stratigraphy have yielded important information about cultural chronology and paleoenvironments across the region. In this book, Vance T. Holliday synthesizes the data from these earlier studies with his own recent research to offer the most current and comprehensive overview of the geoarchaeology of the Southern High Plains during the earliest human occupation. He delves into twenty sites in depth, integrating new and old data on site geomorphology, stratigraphy, soils, geochronology, and paleoenvironments. He also compares the Southern High Plains sites with other sites across the Great Plains, for a broader chronological and paleoenvironmental perspective. With over ninety photographs, maps, cross sections, diagrams, and artifact drawings, this book will be essential reading for geoarchaeologists, archaeologists, and Quaternary geoscientists, as well as avocational archaeologists who take part in Paleoindian site study throughout the American West.

Gold and Gold Mining in Ancient Egypt and Nubia

Geoarchaeology of the Ancient Gold Mining Sites in the Egyptian and Sudanese Eastern Deserts

Author: Rosemarie Klemm,Dietrich Klemm

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364222508X

Category: Social Science

Page: 649

View: 6402

The book presents the historical evolution of gold mining activities in the Egyptian and Nubian Desert (Sudan) from about 4000 BC until the Early Islamic Period (~800–1350 AD), subdivided into the main classical epochs including the Early Dynastic – Old and Middle Kingdoms – New Kingdom (including Kushitic) – Ptolemaic – Roman and Early Islamic. It is illustrated with many informative colour images, maps and drawings. An up to date comprehensive geological introduction gives a general overview on the gold production zones in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and northern (Nubian) Sudan, including the various formation processes of the gold bearing quartz veins mined in these ancient periods. The more than 250 gold production sites presented, are described both, from their archaeological (as far as surface inventory is concerned) and geological environmental conditions, resulting in an evolution scheme of prospection and mining methods within the main periods of mining activities. The book offers for the first time a complete catalogue of the many gold production sites in Egypt and Nubia under geological and archaeological aspects. It provides information about the importance of gold for the Pharaohs and the spectacular gold rush in Early Arab times.

X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) in Geoarchaeology

Author: M. Steven Shackley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441968869

Category: Social Science

Page: 231

View: 355

Since the 1960s, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), both wavelength and energy-dispersive have served as the workhorse for non-destructive and destructive analyses of archaeological materials. Recently eclipsed by other instrumentation such as LA-ICP-MS, XRF remains the mainstay of non-destructive chemical analyses in archaeology, particularly for volcanic rocks, and most particularly for obsidian. In a world where heritage and repatriation issues drive archaeological method and theory, XRF remains an important tool for understanding the human past, and will remain so for decades to come. Currently, there is no comprehensive book in XRF applications in archaeology at a time when the applications of portable XRF and desktop XRF instrumentation are exploding particularly in anthropology and archaeology departments worldwide. The contributors to this volume are the experts in the field, and most are at the forefront of the newest applications of XRF to archaeological problems. It covers all relevant aspects of the field for those using the newest XRF technologies to deal with very current issues in archaeology.


Earth Science and the Past : [papers]

Author: Donald A. Davidson,Myra L. Shackley

Publisher: N.A


Category: Archaeological geology

Page: 408

View: 1600


Underwater Archaeology in the Canopic Region in Egypt

Author: Jean-Daniel Stanley,Alessio Bandelli,Daniel J. Stanley,Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology,Maria Pia Bernasconi

Publisher: Oxford Ctr for Maritime Archeology


Category: History

Page: 128

View: 3448

This volume presents the geoarchaeological analysis of the Akboukir Bay by the Smithsonian Institute. This study outlines the reasons for the submergence of the ancient coast line through detailed analysis of geological core samples.

Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology

Author: Paul Goldberg,Richard I. Macphail

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118688198

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 472

View: 1599

Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology provides aninvaluable overview of geoarchaeology and how it can be usedeffectively in the study of archaeological sites and contexts.Taking a pragmatic and functional approach, this bookpresents: a fundamental, broad-based perspective of the essentials ofmodern geoarchaeology in order to demonstrate the breadth of theapproaches and the depth of the problems that it can tackle. the rapid advances made in the area in recent years, but alsogives the reader a firm grasp of conventional approaches. covers traditional topics with the emphasis on landscapes, aswell as anthropogenic site formation processes and theirinvestigation. provides guidelines for the presentation of field andlaboratory methods and the reporting of geoarchaeologicalresults. essential reading for archaeology undergraduate and graduatestudents, practicing archaeologists and geoscientists who need tounderstand and apply geoarchaeological methodologies. Artwork from the book is available to instructors online “This is one of the best textbooks that I have read inyears. I enjoyed reviewing it, and found it well-written andthorough in its coverage of the traditional earth science aspectsof geoarchaeology. The non-traditional aspects were intriguing andequally thorough... I predict that this book will become thetextbook of choice for geoarchaeology classes for severalyears.” Geomorphology 101 (2008) 740–743