Genocide, Mass Atrocity, and War Crimes in Modern History: Blood and Conscience [2 volumes]

Author: James Larry Taulbee

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440829853

Category: Political Science

Page: 696

View: 5014

Defining "genocide" as an international crime, this two-volume set provides a comparative study of historical cases of genocide and mass atrocity—clearly identifying the factors that produced the attitudes and behaviors that led to them—discusses the reasons for rules in war, and examines how the five principles laid out in the Geneva Conventions and other international agreements have functioned in modern warfare. • Presents a comparative perspective and detailed historical background for each case that emphasizes how many different factors may lead to atrocity/genocide • Discusses the difficulty of organizing international efforts to intervene to prevent atrocities or to respond at the moment they are occurring • Explains why international prosecutions for genocide are difficult even though the goal of the law is to hold responsible those in charge as well as the planners and instigators • Identifies how cultural factors affect individual attitudes toward what is accepted as legitimate behavior in combat • Focuses on the "law in action" with illustrations from specific cases

Japanese War Crimes During WWII

Atrocity and the Psychology of Collective Violence

Author: Frank Jacob

Publisher: Praeger

ISBN: 9781440844492

Category: History

Page: 245

View: 4400

A challenging examination of Japanese war crimes during World War II offers a fresh perspective on the Pacific War--and a better understanding of reasons for the wartime use of extreme mass violence. * Covers the full expanse of Japanese war crimes during the Second World War from 1937 to 1945 * Examines the social and political reasons for an increase in the severity of the violence the Japanese used against women and foreign soldiers during the war * Explains how political relations between the United States and Japan were responsible for increased violence against American soldiers * Discusses hotly contested issues surrounding the denial of war crimes by the Japanese and the resulting impact on regional and international relations * Serves to stimulate discussion about the evaluation of mass violence and genocide

Re-Imagining Rwanda

Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Late Twentieth Century

Author: Johan Pottier

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521528733

Category: Political Science

Page: 251

View: 1895

The tragic conflict in Rwanda and the Great Lakes in 1994–1996 attracted the horrified attention of the world's media. Journalists, diplomats and aid workers struggled to find a way to make sense of the bloodshed. Johan Pottier's troubling study shows that the post-genocide regime in Rwanda was able to impose a simple yet persuasive account of Central Africa's crises upon international commentators new to the region, and he explains the ideological underpinnings of this official narrative. He also provides a sobering analysis of the way in which this simple, persuasive, but fatally misleading analysis of the situation on the ground led to policy errors that exacerbated the original crisis. Professor Pottier has extensive field experience in the region, from before and after the genocide, and he has also worked among refugees in eastern Zaire.

Women, War, and Violence: Topography, Resistance, and Hope [2 volumes]

Topography, Resistance, and Hope

Author: Mariam M Kurtz,Lester R. Kurtz

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440828814

Category: Social Science

Page: 709

View: 1190

This set of original articles probes the breadth of vital issues surrounding the impact of war and violence on women globally—and examines what is being done to mitigate their effects. • Provides a comprehensive overview of issues related to women, war, civil unrest, sexual assault, and violence • Tackles a wide range of topics using multiple perspectives from ethnography to scholarly analysis to on-the-ground journalism • Examines the tragic contours of the problem but also depicts hope for the future via the creative solutions being forged, especially by women empowered to counter violence • Explores best practices of violence prevention from United Nations and state-sponsored programs as well as from movements within civil society • Includes case studies from key conflict zones to further the understanding of the issues discussed

Norway’s Peace Policy

Soft Power in a Turbulent World

Author: J. Taulbee,A. Kelleher,P. Grosvenor

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9781349502998

Category: Political Science

Page: 247

View: 7271

The post-Cold War world allows space for less powerful states to develop influential roles in responding to specific international problems. Norway has focused on the persistent issue of violent ethno-political conflict. This book explains why Norway chose its peace policy and demonstrates what is has been able to achieve.

Energy Security Challenges for the 21st Century

A Reference Handbook

Author: Gal Luft

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0275999971

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 372

View: 8521

This timely and comprehensive book is a one stop shop for anyone interested in the nexus between energy and security. Bringing the perspectives of the best experts in the field it sheds light on the role of energy in modern life and the various approaches countries use to achieve energy security.

Propaganda and Information Warfare in the Twenty-First Century

Altered Images and Deception Operations

Author: Scot Macdonald

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135983518

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 4587

This is the first book to analyze how the technology to alter images and rapidly distribute them can be used for propaganda and to support deception operations. In the past, propagandists and those seeking to conduct deception operations used crude methods to alter images of real people, events and objects, which could usually be detected relatively easily. Today, however, computers allow propagandists to create any imaginable image, still or moving, with appropriate accompanying audio. Furthermore, it is becoming extremely difficult to detect that an image has been manipulated, and the Internet, television and global media make it possible to disseminate altered images around the world almost instantaneously. Given that the United States is the sole superpower, few, if any, adversaries will attempt to fight the US military conventionally on the battlefield. Therefore, adversaries will use propaganda and deception, especially altered images, in an attempt to level the battlefield or to win a war against the United States without even having to fight militarily. Propaganda and Information Warfare in the 21st Century will be of great interest to students of information war, propaganda, public diplomacy and security studies in general.

The Media and the Rwanda Genocide

Author: Allan Thompson

Publisher: IDRC

ISBN: 0745326250

Category: History

Page: 463

View: 6445

The news media played a crucial role in the 1994 Rwanda genocide. Local media fueled the killings, while international media either ignored or seriously misunderstood what was happening. This is the first book to explore both sides of the media equation. Examining how local radio was used as a tool of hate, encouraging neighbors to turn against each other, the book also presents a critique of international media coverage. Bringing together local reporters, high-profile Western journalists, and leading media theorists, this is the only book to identify the extent of the media's accountability. It also examines deliberations by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda on the role of the media in the genocide. This book is a startling record of the negative influence that the media can have. The authors put forward suggestions for the future, outlining how we can avoid censorship and propaganda and they argue for a new responsibility in media reporting.

Power Kills

Democracy As a Method of Nonviolence

Author: R. J. Rummel

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412831703

Category: Political Science

Page: 246

View: 1049

This volume, newly published in paperback, is part of a comprehensive effort by R. J. Rummel to understand and place in historical perspective the entire subject of genocide and mass murder, or what he calls democide. It is the fifth in a series of volumes in which he offers a detailed analysis of the 120,000,000 people killed as a result of government action or direct intervention. In Power Kills, Rummel offers a realistic and practical solution to war, democide, and other collective violence. As he states it, "The solution...is to foster democratic freedom and to democratize coercive power and force. That is, mass killing and mass murder carried out by government is a result of indiscriminate, irresponsible Power at the center." Rummel observes that well-established democracies do not make war on and rarely commit lesser violence against each other. The more democratic two nations are, the less likely is war or smaller-scale violence between them. The more democratic a nation is, the less severe its overall foreign violence, the less likely it will have domestic collective violence, and the less its democide. Rummel argues that the evidence supports overwhelmingly the most important fact of our time: democracy is a method of nonviolence.

Reconciliation, Civil Society, and the Politics of Memory

Transnational Initiatives in the 20th and 21st Century

Author: Birgit Schwelling

Publisher: transcript Verlag

ISBN: 383941931X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 372

View: 9743

How did civil society function as a locus for reconciliation initiatives since the beginning of the 20th century? The essays in this volume challenge the conventional understanding of reconciliation as a benign state-driven process. They explore how a range of civil society actors - from Turkish intellectuals apologizing for the Armenian Genocide to religious organizations working towards the improvement of Franco-German relations - have confronted and coped with the past. These studies offer a critical perspective on local and transnational reconciliation acts by questioning the extent to which speech became an alternative to silence, remembrance to forgetting, engagement to oblivion.

The Khmer Rouge and the Crime of Genocide

Issues of Genocidal Intent with Regard to the Khmer Rouge Mass Atrocities

Author: Thomas Karl Forster

Publisher: Dike Verlag Ag

ISBN: 9783037514405

Category: Law

Page: 250

View: 4558

More than one million people died in Cambodia from 1975 to 1979 under the regime of the Khmer Rouge. Thirty years later, a Cambodian court, supported by the UN, seeks to hold legally accountable those most responsible for the crimes committed. This study presents some of the major legal issues relevant to possible genocide charges against the Khmer Rouge at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. The first part of the book examines the basic structure and elements of the crime of genocide under international criminal law, with a focus on the particular intent requirement and the issue of groups as targets of genocidal intent. The second part looks at the specific case of the Khmer Rouge mass atrocities - based on the legal framework elaborated - discussing the questions involved in the legal characterization of Khmer Rouge policies. These questions include the auto-genocide debate, the distinction between discriminatory mass killings and genocidal intent, as well as the legal relevance of motives for group targeting. (Series: International Criminal Law - Vol. 2)

Manufacturing Consent

The Political Economy of the Mass Media

Author: Edward S. Herman,Noam Chomsky

Publisher: Pantheon

ISBN: 0307801624

Category: Social Science

Page: 480

View: 6146

An intellectual dissection of the modern media to show how an underlying economics of publishing warps the news. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Beyond Convergence

World Without Order

Author: National Defense University (US)

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781975720421

Category: Computer networks

Page: 402

View: 1900

The world order built upon the Peace of Westphalia is faltering. State fragility or failure are endemic, with no fewer than one-third of the states in the United Nations earning a "high warning"-or worse-in the Fragile States Index, and an equal number suffering a decline in sustainability over the past decade.1 State weakness invites a range of illicit actors, including international terrorists, globally networked insurgents, and transnational criminal organizations (TCOs). The presence and operations of these entities keep states weak and incapable of effective governance, and limit the possibility of fruitful partnerships with the United States and its allies. Illicit organizations and their networks fuel corruption, eroding state legitimacy among the governed, and sowing doubt that the state is a genuine guardian of the public interest. These networks can penetrate the state, leading to state capture, and even criminal sovereignty.2 A growing number of weak and corrupt states is creating gaping holes in the global rule-based system of states that we depend on for our security and prosperity. Indeed, the chapters of this book suggest the emergence of a highly adaptive and parasitic alternative ecosystem, based on criminal commerce and extreme violence, with little regard for what we commonly conceive of as the public interest or the public good. The last 10 years have seen unprecedented growth in interactivity between and among a wide range of illicit networks, as well as the emergence of hybrid organizations that use methods characteristic of both terrorist and criminal groups. In a convergence of interests, terrorist organizations collaborate with cartels, and trafficking organizations collude with insurgents. International terrorist organizations, such as al-Qaeda and Hezbollah, engage energetically in transnational crime to raise funds for their operations. Prominent criminal organizations like Los Zetas in Mexico and D-Company in Pakistan have adopted the symbolic violence of terrorists-the propaganda of the deed-to secure their "turf." And networked insurgents, such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), have adopted the techniques of both crime and terror.

The Great Terror

A Reassessment

Author: Robert Conquest

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195316995

Category: History

Page: 574

View: 2597

The definitive work on Stalin's purges, the author's The Great Terror was universally acclaimed when it first appeared in 1968. It was "hailed as the only scrupulous, nonpartisan, and adequate book on the subject". And in recent years it has received equally high praise in the Soviet Union, where it is now considered the authority on the period, and has been serialized in Neva, one of their leading periodicals. Of course, when the author wrote the original volume two decades ago, he relied heavily on unofficial sources. Now, with the advent of glasnost, an avalanche of new material is available, and he has mined this enormous cache to write a substantially new edition of his classic work. It is remarkable how many of the most disturbing conclusions have born up under the light of fresh evidence. But the author has added enormously to the detail, including hitherto secret information on the three great "Moscow Trials," on the fate of the executed generals, on the methods of obtaining confessions, on the purge of writers and other members of the intelligentsia, on life in the labor camps, and many other key matters. Both a leading Sovietologist and a highly respected poet, the author blends research with prose, providing not only an authoritative account of Stalin's purges, but also a compelling chronicle of one of this century's most tragic events. A timely revision of a book long out of print, this is the updated version of the author's original work.

Human Security and the UN

A Critical History

Author: S. Neil MacFarlane,Yuen Foong Khong

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253111999

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 5772

How did the individual human being become the focus of the contemporary discourse on security? What was the role of the United Nations in "securing" the individual? What are the payoffs and costs of this extension of the concept? Neil MacFarlane and Yuen Foong Khong tackle these questions by analyzing historical and contemporary debates about what is to be secured. From Westphalia through the 19th century, the state's claim to be the object of security was sustainable because it offered its subjects some measure of protection. The state's ability to provide security for its citizens came under heavy strain in the 20th century as a result of technological, strategic, and ideological innovations. By the end of World War II, efforts to reclaim the security rights of individuals gathered pace, as seen in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and a host of United Nations covenants and conventions. MacFarlane and Khong highlight the UN's work in promoting human security ideas since the 1940s, giving special emphasis to its role in extending the notion of security to include development, economic, environmental, and other issues in the 1990s.

The History Problem

The Politics of War Commemoration in East Asia

Author: Hiro Saito

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780824856748

Category: East Asia

Page: 264

View: 3284

Seventy years have passed since the end of the Asia-Pacific War, yet Japan remains embroiled in controversy with its neighbors over the war s commemoration. Among the many points of contention between Japan, China, and South Korea are interpretations of the Tokyo War Crimes Trial, apologies and compensation for foreign victims of Japanese aggression, prime ministerial visits to the Yasukuni Shrine, and the war s portrayal in textbooks. Collectively, these controversies have come to be called the history problem. But why has the problem become so intractable? Can it ever be resolved, and if so, how? To answer these questions author Hiro Saito mobilizes the sociology of collective memory and social movements, political theories of apology and reconciliation, psychological research on intergroup conflict, and philosophical reflections on memory and history. The history problem, he argues, is essentially a relational phenomenon caused when nations publicly showcase self-serving versions of the past at key ceremonies and events: Japan, South Korea, and China all focus on what happened to their own citizens with little regard for foreign others. Saito goes on to explore the emergence of a cosmopolitan form of commemoration taking humanity, rather than nationality, as its primary frame of reference, an approach increasingly used by a transnational network of advocacy NGOs, victims of Japan s past wrongdoings, historians, and educators. When cosmopolitan commemoration is practiced as a collective endeavor by both perpetrators and victims, Saito argues, a resolution of the history problem and eventual reconciliation will finally become possible. The History Problem examines a vast corpus of historical material in both English and Japanese, offering provocative findings that challenge orthodox explanations. Written in clear and accessible prose, this uniquely interdisciplinary book will appeal to sociologists, political scientists, and historians researching collective memory, nationalism and cosmopolitanism, and international relations and to anyone interested in the commemoration of historical wrongs.

The Palgrave Handbook of State-Sponsored History After 1945

Author: Berber Bevernage,Nico Wouters

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349953067

Category: History

Page: 877

View: 2415

This handbook provides the first systematic integrated analysis of the role that states or state actors play in the construction of history and public memory after 1945. The book focuses on many different forms of state-sponsored history, including memory laws, monuments and memorials, state-archives, science policies, history in schools, truth commissions, historical expert commissions, the use of history in courts and tribunals etc. The handbook contributes to the study of history and public memory by combining elements of state-focused research in separate fields of study. By looking at the state’s memorialising capacities the book introduces an analytical perspective that is not often found in classical studies of the state. The handbook has a broad geographical focus and analyses cases from different regions around the world. The volume mainly tackles democratic contexts, although dictatorial regimes are not excluded.

Balkan Holocausts?

Serbian and Croatian Victim Centred Propaganda and the War in Yugoslavia

Author: David Bruce Macdonald

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 1847795706

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 2099

Comparing and contrasting Serbian and Croatian propaganda from 1986 to 1999, this text analyses each group's contemporary interpretations of history and current events. It offers a detailed discussion of holocaust imagery and the history of victim-centred writing in nationalist theory, including the links between the comparative genocide debate, the so-called holocaust industry and Serbian and Croatian nationalism. There is a detailed analysis of Serbian and Croatian propaganda over the Internet, detailing how and why the Internet war was as important as the ground wars in Kosovo, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, and a theme-by-theme analysis of Serbian and Croatian propaganda, using contemporary media sources, novels, academic works and journals.