From Soldiers to Politicians

Transforming Rebel Movements After Civil War

Author: Jeroen de Zeeuw

Publisher: Lynne Rienner Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 891

"The authors present eight theoretically grounded studies on El Salvador, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Burundi, Palestine, Sudan, Afghanistan, and Sri Lanka, each focusing on a rebel movement's historical background, its attempted transformation into a political party, and the factors explaining its success or failure. Bridging the academic-policy divide, the country studies identify concrete lessons from past transformation processes, as well as options for future international involvement."--Jacket.

Promoting Party Politics in Emerging Democracies

Author: Peter Burnell,Andre W. M. Gerrits

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317985982

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 8755

This book offers a critical and comparative examination of international support to political parties and party systems in emerging and prospective new democracies in several world regions. It combines the insights of a strong international grouping of leading academics and pioneering doctoral studies, and draws on extensive new field work inquiries. The wide-ranging coverage pools evidence from countries in Europe and Eurasia, Africa, East Asia and Central America. The book shows how far international support still has to go if it is to achieve its aims of helping party politics make a constructive contribution to furthering democracy. It advances our understanding both of the role the political parties are playing in the different polities and the sometimes negative impact of democracy promotion actors from outside. By contributing original theoretical perspectives and empirical findings, the book points the way forward to agendas for future research and new courses of action. It will be of interest to academics and the policy-making and practitioner communities alike. This book was published as a special issue of Democratizations.

Soldiers to Citizens

The G.I. Bill and the Making of the Greatest Generation

Author: Suzanne Mettler

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199887098

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 7176

"A hell of a gift, an opportunity." "Magnanimous." "One of the greatest advantages I ever experienced." These are the voices of World War II veterans, lavishing praise on their beloved G.I. Bill. Transcending boundaries of class and race, the Bill enabled a sizable portion of the hallowed "greatest generation" to gain vocational training or to attend college or graduate school at government expense. Its beneficiaries had grown up during the Depression, living in tenements and cold-water flats, on farms and in small towns across the nation, most of them expecting that they would one day work in the same kinds of jobs as their fathers. Then the G.I. Bill came along, and changed everything. They experienced its provisions as inclusive, fair, and tremendously effective in providing the deeply held American value of social opportunity, the chance to improve one's circumstances. They become chefs and custom builders, teachers and electricians, engineers and college professors. But the G.I. Bill fueled not only the development of the middle class: it also revitalized American democracy. Americans who came of age during World War II joined fraternal groups and neighborhood and community organizations and took part in politics at rates that made the postwar era the twentieth century's civic "golden age." Drawing on extensive interviews and surveys with hundreds of members of the "greatest generation," Suzanne Mettler finds that by treating veterans as first-class citizens and in granting advanced education, the Bill inspired them to become the active participants thanks to whom memberships in civic organizations soared and levels of political activity peaked. Mettler probes how this landmark law produced such a civic renaissance. Most fundamentally, she discovers, it communicated to veterans that government was for and about people like them, and they responded in turn. In our current age of rising inequality and declining civic engagement, Soldiers to Citizens offers critical lessons about how public programs can make a difference.

Tribe

Das verlorene Wissen um Gemeinschaft und Menschlichkeit

Author: Sebastian Junger

Publisher: Karl Blessing Verlag

ISBN: 3641203619

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 309

Unser Trauma: eine Gesellschaft ohne Gemeinschaft. »Entbehrungen machen dem Menschen nichts aus, er ist sogar auf sie angewiesen; worunter er jedoch leidet, ist das Gefühl, nicht gebraucht zu werden. Die moderne Gesellschaft hat die Kunst perfektioniert, Menschen das Gefühl der Nutzlosigkeit zu geben. Es ist an der Zeit, dem ein Ende zu setzen.« Sebastian Junger Warum beschließen Soldaten nach ihrer Rückkehr aus dem Krieg und in die Heimat, sich zu neuen Einsätzen zu melden? Warum sind Belastungsstörungen und Depressionen in unserer modernen Gesellschaft so virulent? Warum erinnern sich Menschen oft sehnsüchtiger an Katastrophenerfahrungen als an Hochzeiten oder Karibikurlaube? Mit Tribe hat Sebastian Junger eines der meistdiskutierten Werke des Jahres vorgelegt. Er erklärt, was wir von Stammeskulturen über Loyalität, Gemeinschaftsgefühl und die ewige Suche des Menschen nach Sinn lernen können.

Eroding Military Influence in Brazil

Politicians Against Soldiers

Author: Wendy Hunter

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807862207

Category: Political Science

Page: 260

View: 7766

Wendy Hunter explores civil-military relations in Brazil following the transition to civilian leadership in 1985. She documents a marked, and surprising, decline in the political power of the armed forces, even as they have remained involved in national policy making. To account for the success of civilian politicians, Hunter invokes rational-choice theory in arguing that politicians will contest even powerful forces in order to gain widespread electoral support. Many observers expected Brazil's fledgling democracy to remain under the firm direction of the military, which had tightly controlled the transition from authoritarian to civilian rule. Hunter carefully refutes this conventional wisdom by demonstrating the ability of even a weak democratic regime to expand its autonomy relative to a once-powerful military, thanks to the electoral incentives that motivate civilian politicians. Based on interviews with key participants and on extensive archival research, Hunter's analysis of developments in Brazil suggests a more optimistic view of the future of civilian democratic rule in Latin America.

The Politics of War Commemoration in the UK and Russia

Author: Nataliya Danilova

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137395710

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 6003

This book analyses contemporary war commemoration in Britain and Russia. Focusing on the political aspects of remembrance, it explores the instrumentalisation of memory for managing civil-military relations and garnering public support for conflicts. It explains the nexus between remembrance, militarisation and nationalism in modern societies.

Furcht

Trump im Weißen Haus

Author: Bob Woodward

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644002738

Category: Political Science

Page: 512

View: 9294

Bob Woodward, die Ikone des investigativen Journalismus in den USA, hat alle amerikanischen Präsidenten aus nächster Nähe beobachtet. Nun nimmt er sich den derzeitigen Präsidenten vor und enthüllt den erschütternden Zustand des Weißen Hauses unter Donald Trump. Woodward beschreibt, wie dieser Präsident Entscheidungen trifft, er berichtet von eskalierenden Debatten im Oval Office und in der Air Force One, dem volatilen Charakter Trumps und dessen Obsessionen und Komplexen. Woodwards Buch ist ein Dokument der Zeitgeschichte: Hunderte Stunden von Interviews mit direkt Beteiligten, Gesprächsprotokolle, Tagebücher, Notizen – auch von Trump selbst – bieten einen dramatischen Einblick in die Machtzentrale der westlichen Welt, in der vor allem eines herrscht: Furcht. Woodward ist das Porträt eines amtierenden amerikanischen Präsidenten gelungen, das es in dieser Genauigkeit noch nicht gegeben hat.

Lincoln's Political Generals

Author: David Work

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252078616

Category: History

Page: 287

View: 9529

In this book, David Work examines Lincoln's policy of appointing political generals to build a national coalition to fight and win the Civil War. Work follows the careers of sixteen generals through the war to assess their contributions and to ascertain how Lincoln assessed them as commander-in-chief. Eight of the generals began the war as Republicans and eight as Democrats. Some commanded armies, some regiments. Among them were some of the most famous generals of the Union--such as Francis P. Blair Jr., John A. Dix, John A. Logan, James S. Wadsworth--and others whose importance has been obscured by more dramatic personalities. As the war proceeded, the value of the political generals became a matter of serious dispute. Could politicians make the shift from a political campaign to a military one? Could they be trusted to fight? Could they avoid destructive jealousies and the temptations of corruption? And with several of the generals being Irish or German immigrants, what effect would ethnic prejudices have on their success or failure? Work finds that Lincoln's policy was ultimately successful, as these generals provided effective political support and made important contributions in military administration and on the battlefield. Although several of them proved to be poor commanders, others were effective in exercising influence on military administration and recruitment, slavery policy, and national politics.

The British Approach to Counterinsurgency

From Malaya and Northern Ireland to Iraq and Afghanistan

Author: P. Dixon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137284684

Category: Political Science

Page: 442

View: 311

This timely and critical volume questions the effectiveness of Britain's 'hearts and minds' approach, challenging conventional counterinsurgency thinking by drawing on the expertise of regional and thematic specialists.

The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War

New Edition

Author: Hew Strachan

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191640417

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 7990

The First World War, now a century ago, still shapes the world in which we live, and its legacy lives on, in poetry, in prose, in collective memory and political culture. By the time the war ended in 1918, millions lay dead. Three major empires lay shattered by defeat, those of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottomans. A fourth, Russia, was in the throes of a revolution that helped define the rest of the twentieth century. The Oxford History of the First World War brings together in one volume many of the most distinguished historians of the conflict, in an account that matches the scale of the events. From its causes to its consequences, from the Western Front to the Eastern, from the strategy of the politicians to the tactics of the generals, they chart the course of the war and assess its profound political and human consequences. Chapters on economic mobilization, the impact on women, the role of propaganda, and the rise of socialism establish the wider context of the fighting at sea and in the air, and which ranged on land from the trenches of Flanders to the mountains of the Balkans and the deserts of the Middle East. First published for the 90th anniversary of the 1918 Armistice, this highly illustrated revised edition contains significant new material to mark the 100th anniversary of the war's outbreak.

Endgame for ETA

Elusive Peace in the Basque Country

Author: Teresa Whitfield

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190238046

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 1854

The violent Basque separatist group ETA took shape in Franco's Spain, yet claimed the majority of its victims under democracy. For most Spaniards it became an aberration, a criminal and terrorist band whose persistence defied explanation. Others, mainly Basques (but only some Basques) understood ETA as the violent expression of a political conflict that remained the unfinished business of Spain's transition to democracy. Such differences hindered efforts to 'defeat' ETA's terrorism on the one hand and 'resolve the Basque conflict' on the other for more than three decades. Endgame for ETA offers a compelling account of the long path to ETA's declaration of a definitive end to its armed activity in October 2011. Its political surrogates remain as part of a resurgence of regional nationalism - in the Basque Country as in Catalonia - that is but one element of multiple crises confronting Spain. The Basque case has been cited as an ex- ample of the perils of 'talking to terrorists'. Drawing on extensive field research, Teresa Whitfield argues that while negotiations did not prosper, a form of 'virtual peacemaking' was an essential complement to robust police action and social condemnation. Together they helped to bring ETA's violence to an end and return its grievances to the channels of normal politics.

The Man on Horseback

The Role of the Military in Politics

Author: Samuel Edward Finer

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412837712

Category: Political Science

Page: 268

View: 6995

The role of the military in a society raises a number of issues: How much separation should there be between a civil government and its army? Should the military be totally subordinate to the polity? Or should the armed forces be allowed autonomy in order to provide national security? Recently, the dangers of military dictatorships-as have existed in countries like Panama, Chile, and Argentina-have become evident. However, developing countries often lack the administrative ability and societal unity to keep the state functioning in an orderly and economically feasible manner without military intervention. Societies, of course, have dealt with the realities of these problems throughout their histories, and the action they have taken at any particular point in time has depended on numerous factors. In the "first world" of democratic countries, the civil-military relationship has been thoroughly integrated, and indeed by most modern standards this is seen as essential. However, several influential Western thinkers have developed theories arguing for the separation of the military from any political or social role. Samuel Huntington, emphasized that professionalism would presuppose that the military should intervene as little as possible in the political sphere. Samuel E. Finer, in contrast, emphasizes that a government can be efficient enough way to keep the civil-military relationship in check, ensuring that the need for intervention by the armed forces in society would be minimal. At the time of the book's original publication, perhaps as a consequence of a post-World War II Cold War atmosphere, this was by no means a universally accepted position. Some considered the military to be a legitimate threat to a free society. Today's post-Cold War environment is an appropriate time to reconsider Finer's classic argument. "The Man on Horseback" continues to be an important contribution to the study of the military's role in the realm of politics, and will be of interest to students of political science, government, and the military.

Who Guards the Guardians and How

Democratic Civil-Military Relations

Author: Thomas C. Bruneau,Scott D. Tollefson

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 9780292783409

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 3261

The continued spread of democracy into the twenty-first century has seen two-thirds of the almost two hundred independent countries of the world adopting this model. In these newer democracies, one of the biggest challenges has been to establish the proper balance between the civilian and military sectors. A fundamental question of power must be addressed—who guards the guardians and how? In this volume of essays, contributors associated with the Center for Civil-Military Relations in Monterey, California, offer firsthand observations about civil-military relations in a broad range of regions including Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. Despite diversity among the consolidating democracies of the world, their civil-military problems and solutions are similar—soldiers and statesmen must achieve a deeper understanding of one another, and be motivated to interact in a mutually beneficial way. The unifying theme of this collection is the creation and development of the institutions whereby democratically elected civilians achieve and exercise power over those who hold a monopoly on the use of force within a society, while ensuring that the state has sufficient and qualified armed forces to defend itself against internal and external aggressors. Although these essays address a wide variety of institutions and situations, they each stress a necessity for balance between democratic civilian control and military effectiveness.

The Politics of Antipolitics

The Military in Latin America

Author: Brian Loveman,Thomas M. Davies

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780842026116

Category: History

Page: 426

View: 5237

Latin America is moving toward democracy. The region's countries hold elections, choose leaders, and form new governments. But is the civilian government firmly in power? Or is the military still influencing policy and holding the elected politicians in check under the guise of guarding against corruption, instability, economic uncertainty, and other excesses of democracy? The editors of this work, Brian Loveman and Thomas M. Davies, Jr., argue that with or without direct military rule, antipolitics persists as a foundation of Latin American politics. This study examines the origins of antipolitics, traces its nineteenth- and twentieth-century history, and focuses on the years from 1965 to 1995 to emphasize the somewhat illusory transitions to democracy. This third edition of The Politics of Antipolitics has been revised and updated to focus on the post-Cold War era. With the demise of the Soviet state and international Marxism, the Latin American military has appropriated new threats including narcoterrorism, environmental exploitation, technology transfer, and even AIDS to redefine and relegitimate its role in social, economic, and political policy. The editors also address why and how the military rulers acceded to the return of civilian-elected governments and the military's defense against accusations of human rights abuses.

Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia

Author: Michael Leifer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135129452

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 6949

This comprehensive Dictionary provides descriptive and analytical coverage of the turbulent political history and striking changes which have occurred both regionally and in key countries since the end of the Second World War. Substantially rewritten to take into account the dramatic political events and developments since 1995, the third edition of this acclaimed Dictionary will provide non-specialists and specialists alike with an essential resource on this constantly changing and volatile region. Including new entries, updated country profiles on Indonesia, Malaysia and Cambodia and a revised reading list, leading authority and commentator on this rapidly developing region Michael Leifer has brought this Dictionary fully up-to-date. Changes in government, the rise of new leaders and the knock-on effect on economy and society are covered including: the death of key figures such as Pol Pot and the rise of a new generation of leaders, dramatic changes of government in Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines and elections in Malaysia. Countries covered include Brunei, Burma (Myanmar),Cambodia (Kampuchea), Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. Key features include: * Individual entries provide detailed information and authoritative commentary on the central figures, political parties and organizations, political systems and structures, major events and key documents. * For each state covered, an extended narrative analyses its recent history and political and social development. * Extensive cross-referencing and a subject index lead the reader to the vital material. * Subject bibliographies refer researchers to source and secondary matter.

The Soldier in Russian Politics, 1985-96

Author: Robert Barylski

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351291149

Category: Political Science

Page: 510

View: 2518

If Russia is to become a viable democracy, it will need a viable state to make and enforce decisions that nurture societal cohesion and sustain complex economic activity. Armed forces are essential attributes of viable modern states, but what happens when states undergo major structural changes? What was the military's contribution to the end of the Soviet Union and the rise of post-Soviet Russia? The Soldier in Russian Politics is the first study to go beyond familiar accounts of the main events that brought down the Soviet state and began its reconstruction. It captures the interplay between soldier and civilian politicians in a major political history based on solid political-sociological analysis. Barylski uses the study of civil-military relations to explore new political and intellectual conditions and explain the historic relationship between changes in Western models of Russian reality and political change in the former Soviet Union. Examining the military's participation in every major, twentieth-century, political change from 1917 to 1991, Barylski demonstrates that every deep political transformation in Russia has military dimensions. Barylski discusses how the Russian presidency's power to command and control the military without legislative checks and balances led to armed conflict with Parliament in October 1993 and to the Chechen war of 1994-1996, and is unhealthy for long term democratic development. Barylski analyzes ministers of defense Yazov, Shaposhnikov, Grachev, and Rodionov as political actors, traces the careers of ambitious political soldiers such as Aleksandr Lebed and Aleksandr Rutskoi, and describes the military's growing political alienation from the Yeltsin administration. His final chapters cover the presidential elections, the short-lived Yeltsin-Lebed political alliance, the tensions associated with Yeltsin's ailments, and Yeltsin's efforts to rebuild his personal power political effectiveness. The Soldier in Russian Politics presents political history in an incisive and objective manner. It applauds the progressive officers, soldiers, and politicians where decisions minimized bloodshed and prevented civil war. But it also warns that civilian and military leaders can make mistakes which cause political institutional failure, violence, and dictatorship. This book will interest political scientists, political sociologists, students of Russian and soviet politics, and all military historians and professionals.

Contemporary Military Strategy and the Global War on Terror

US and UK Armed Forces in Afghanistan and Iraq 2001-2012

Author: Alastair Finlan

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1628929626

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 3854

Contemporary Military Strategy and the Global War on Terror offers an in-depth analysis of US/UK military strategy in Afghanistan and Iraq from 2001 to the present day. It explores the development of contemporary military strategy in the West in the modern age before interrogating its application in the Global War on Terror. The book provides detailed insights into the formulation of military plans by political and military elites in the United States and United Kingdom for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Alastair Finlan highlights the challenges posed by each of these unique theatres of operation, the nature of the diverse enemies faced by coalition forces, and the shortcomings in strategic thinking about these campaigns. This fresh perspective on strategy in the West and how it has been applied in recent military campaigns facilitates a deep understanding of how wars have been and will be fought. Including key terms, concepts and discussion questions for each chapter, Contemporary Military Strategy and the Global War on Terror is a crucial text in strategic studies, and required reading for anyone interested in the new realities of transnational terrorism and twenty-first century warfare.