French-Brazilian Geography

The Influence of French Geography in Brazil

Author: José Borzacchiello da Silva

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319310232

Category: Social Science

Page: 122

View: 6918

This book analyses the development of geography as a scientific discipline in Brazil, highlighting how the established partnerships with French geographers have helped shape scientific progress in the country. It connects economic development and politics with the study of geography in Brazil. The author, José Borzacchiello da Silva, includes interviews with renowned French geographers, documenting their insight into the French contribution to geography in Brazil. The research partnerships established have been significant to the foundation and growth of the discipline in the country.

Biofuels and Food Security

Biofuel Impact on Food Security in Brazil, Asia and Major Producing Countries

Author: Tatsuji Koizumi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331905645X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 121

View: 4061

Examining the relationship between biofuels and food security, this book presents an economic analysis of the competition between biofuels and food. It covers the historical and current situation of biofuels and food security in Brazil, China, Japan, USA, EU, Thailand, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and other countries. Furthermore it demonstrates that not only feedstock of agricultural product-based biofuels, but also cellulose-based biofuels can compete with food-related demand and agricultural resources. The issue of whether this competition is good or bad for food security is explored, and this topic is examined at global, national, sub-national and household levels. In order to deal with energy security, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and to strengthen agricultural/rural development, biofuel production and utilization is increasing all over the world. One of the most crucial problems is the competition for resources between biofuel and food. This biofuel and food security discussion is expected to continue into the future, and this book proposes the action that is needed to deal with this issue on various levels. Biofuel and Food Security provides a valuable resource to undergraduates and researchers of economics, agricultural economics and renewable science, and also policy makers involved in government or international organizations. It will additionally be of interest to those employed in renewable energy and agriculture in an industrial capacity.

Dams, Displacement and Development

Perspectives from Río Negro, Guatemala

Author: Nathan Einbinder

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331951511X

Category: Social Science

Page: 94

View: 2547

Using the case of the Chixoy Hydroelectric Dam in Guatemala, constructed between 1978 and 1983, this book examines the effects of displacement on the former residents of Río Negro, a community forcibly evicted and nearly eliminated by the military and paramilitary. Using open-ended interview discussions and testimonies, it focuses on this specific incident of displacement and violence and discusses the outcomes 30 years later. Guatemala’s history is plagued by development projects that resulted in displacement, violence, and increased marginalization of its indigenous and non-indigenous populations. In order to make way for development initiatives such as the production of bananas, African palm, coffee and sugar cane; the extraction of metals such as gold and nickel; or, in this specific case, the construction of a hydroelectric dam, the land-based, predominately Maya campesinos have been systematically uprooted from the lands of their birth and launched into uncertainty. The research findings presented, based on fieldwork conducted from January to April 2009, suggest that the majority of survivors from the massacres that took place are still adversely affected by the destruction of their families and livelihoods. While the circumstances pertaining to this event are unique, similar struggles over land and human rights continue into the present — and if policies remain unchanged, in both international development agencies as well as the Guatemalan government, clashes of this nature only increase in time.

Handbook on Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace

Author: Hans Günter Brauch,Úrsula Oswald Spring,John Grin,Jürgen Scheffran

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319438840

Category: Political Science

Page: 1014

View: 924

In this book 60 authors from many disciplines and from 18 countries on five continents examine in ten parts: Moving towards Sustainability Transition; Aiming at Sustainable Peace; Meeting Challenges of the 21st Century: Demographic Imbalances, Temperature Rise and the Climate–Conflict Nexus; Initiating Research on Global Environmental Change, Limits to Growth, Decoupling of Growth and Resource Needs; Developing Theoretical Approaches on Sustainability and Transitions; Analysing National Debates on Sustainability in North America; Preparing Transitions towards a Sustainable Economy and Society, Production and Consumption and Urbanization; Examining Sustainability Transitions in the Water, Food and Health Sectors from Latin American and European Perspectives; Preparing Sustainability Transitions in the Energy Sector; and Relying on Transnational, International, Regional and National Governance for Strategies and Policies Towards Sustainability Transition. This book is based on workshops held in Mexico (2012) and in the US (2013), on a winter school at Chulalongkorn University, Thailand (2013), and on commissioned chapters. The workshop in Mexico and the publication were supported by two grants by the German Foundation for Peace Research (DSF). All texts in this book were peer-reviewed by scholars from all parts of the world.

Mapping Archaeological Landscapes from Space

Author: Douglas C Comer,Michael J. Harrower

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461460743

Category: Social Science

Page: 276

View: 1907

Mapping Archaeological Landscapes from Space offers a concise overview of air and spaceborne imagery and related geospatial technologies tailored to the needs of archaeologists. Leading experts including scientists involved in NASA’s Space Archaeology program provide technical introductions to five sections: 1) Historic Air and Spaceborne Imagery 2) Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery 3) Synthetic Aperture Radar 4) Lidar 5) Archaeological Site Detection and Modeling Each of these five sections includes two or more case study applications that have enriched understanding of archaeological landscapes in regions including the Near East, East Asia, Europe, Meso- and North America. Targeted to the needs of researchers and heritage managers as well as graduate and advanced undergraduate students, this volume conveys a basic technological sense of what is currently possible and, it is hoped, will inspire new pioneering applications. Particular attention is paid to the tandem goals of research (understanding) and archaeological heritage management (preserving) the ancient past. The technologies and applications presented can be used to characterize environments, detect archaeological sites, model sites and settlement patterns and, more generally, reveal the dialectic landscape-scale dynamics among ancient peoples and their social and environmental surroundings. In light of contemporary economic development and resultant damage to and destruction of archaeological sites and landscapes, applications of air and spaceborne technologies in archaeology are of wide utility and promoting understanding of them is a particularly appropriate goal at the 40th anniversary of the World Heritage Convention.​

Quality of Life in Communities of Latin Countries

Author: Graciela Tonon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319531832

Category: Social Science

Page: 286

View: 2190

This book presents a reconfiguration of the concepts of community in Latin countries as well as the community quality of life and well-being of different groups: children, young people, older adults, migrants. The traditional concept of community has changed together with the way people participate in community spaces. Community nowadays is more than a geographic concentration; it is related to social support, inter-subjectivity, participation, consensus, common beliefs, joint effort aiming at a major objective, and intense and extensive relationships. This volume presents unique experiences about culture, social development, health, water, armed conflicts, the digital media, and sports within communities, written by authors from Latin countries. This volume is a valuable resource for researchers, students, and policy makers in quality of life studies.

Energy and Environment Nowadays

Author: Luis G. Torres,Erick R. Bandala

Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated

ISBN: 9781631173981

Category: Science

Page: 259

View: 1546

Presently, energy and the environment are closely related issues throughout the world. The indiscriminate use of fossil fuels has resulted in adverse effects on the environment (i.e, excessive production of greenhouse gases, pollution of underground and superficial waters, soil contamination). The international reserves of crude oil are declining, and some pessimistic references refer to an important detriment in the annual oil availability for 2050. Because of these facts, the necessity to develop novel sources of energy, especially fuels from sustainable sources, is mandatory. Such alternative sources of energy (i.e. wind, solar, biomass, hydraulic) are potential renewable sources capable of changing the paradigm of productive activities around the world. In many cases, the energy production processes include resources commonly available or even the use of materials that are considered waste (i.e., wastewaters, agriculture residues, urban solid wastes). Despite all the desirable characteristics involved, the processes included in the generation of renewable energy may not only positively impact the environment, but may also cause harm on surrounding areas. However, to our knowledge, relatively few works have been published carrying out this type of environmental cost-benefit analysis.

International Handbook of Historical Archaeology

Author: Teresita Majewski,David Gaimster

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387720715

Category: Social Science

Page: 698

View: 9777

In studying the past, archaeologists have focused on the material remains of our ancestors. Prehistorians generally have only artifacts to study and rely on the diverse material record for their understanding of past societies and their behavior. Those involved in studying historically documented cultures not only have extensive material remains but also contemporary texts, images, and a range of investigative technologies to enable them to build a broader and more reflexive picture of how past societies, communities, and individuals operated and behaved. Increasingly, historical archaeology refers not to a particular period, place, or a method, but rather an approach that interrogates the tensions between artifacts and texts irrespective of context. In short, historical archaeology provides direct evidence for how humans have shaped the world we live in today. Historical archaeology is a branch of global archaeology that has grown in the last 40 years from its North American base into an increasingly global community of archaeologists each studying their area of the world in a historical context. Where historical archaeology started as part of the study of the post-Columbian societies of the United States and Canada, it has now expanded to interface with the post-medieval archaeologies of Europe and the diverse post-imperial experiences of Africa, Latin America, and Australasia. The 36 essays in the International Handbook of Historical Archaeology have been specially commissioned from the leading researchers in their fields, creating a wide-ranging digest of the increasingly global field of historical archaeology. The volume is divided into two sections, the first reviewing the key themes, issues, and approaches of historical archaeology today, and the second containing a series of case studies charting the development and current state of historical archaeological practice around the world. This key reference work captures the energy and diversity of this global discipline today.

Archaeological Human Remains

Global Perspectives

Author: Barra Odonnabhain,María Cecilia Lozada Cerna

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319063707

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 2939

This volume addresses the directions that studies of archaeological human remains have taken in a number of different countries, where attitudes range from widespread support to prohibition. Overlooked in many previous publications, this diversity in attitudes is examined through a variety of lenses, including academic origins, national identities, supporting institutions, archaeological context and globalization. The volume situates this diversity of attitudes by examining past and current tendencies in studies of archaeologically-retrieved human remains across a range of geopolitical settings. In a context where methodological approaches have been increasingly standardized in recent decades, the volume poses the question if this standardization has led to a convergence in approaches to archaeological human remains or if significant differences remain between practitioners in different countries. The volume also explores the future trajectories of the study of skeletal remains in the different jurisdictions under scrutiny.

Coastal Geography in Northeast Brazil

Analyzing Maritimity in the Tropics

Author: Eustogio Wanderley Correia Dantas

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319309994

Category: Social Science

Page: 66

View: 2847

This book studies the transformation of modern maritimity practices in coastal areas (such as swimming, navigation and tourism) and their implications to the development of Brazilian coastal cities, with an emphasis on the Northeast part of the country. It is a reflection on coastal geography in the tropics and the contemporary valorization of coastal cities from a socioeconomic, technological and symbolical point of view. The book highlights local fluxes on a regional and local scale, showing the incorporation of beach zones to spaces which were previously associated with so called traditional coastal practices (fishing activities and as harboring points). This book is dedicated to geography researchers and students.

Toward an Other Globalization: From the Single Thought to Universal Conscience

Author: Milton Santos

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319538926

Category: Political Science

Page: 111

View: 9556

This book presents an alternative theory of globalization that derives not from the dominant perspective of the West, from which this process emerged, but from the critical vantage point of the Third World, which has borne the heaviest burdens of globalization. It offers a critical and uniquely first-hand perspective that is lacking not only from the apologists of Western hegemony, but from most scholars writing against this hegemony from within the globalizing world. Renowned throughout Latin America and parts of Europe, the author, Brazilian geographer Milton Santos, has long been for the most part inaccessible to the English-speaking world. Only one of his books, The Shared Space: The Two Circuits of the Urban Economy in Underdeveloped Countries, published in 1975, has been translated into English; nevertheless, the works of Santos's most important phase, from the 1980s until his death in 2001, have remained unavailable to English readers. With the translation of Toward an Other Globalization, one of the last works published in Santos’s lifetime, this situation has finally been rectified. In this book, Santos argues that we must consider globalization in three different senses: globalization as a fable (the world as globalizing agents make us believe), as perversity (the world as it is presently, in the throes of globalization), and as possibility (the world as it could be). What emerges from the analysis of these three senses is an alternative theory of globalization rooted in the perspective of the so-called Global South. Santos concludes his text with a message that is optimistic, but in no way naïve. What he offers instead is a revolutionary optimism and, indeed, an other globalization.

Urban Transformations in Rio de Janeiro

Development, Segregation, and Governance

Author: Luiz Cesar de Queiroz Ribeiro

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319518992

Category: Social Science

Page: 319

View: 933

This book provides an overview of urban transformations taking place in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in the last three decades. It analyses urban dynamics within the metropolis and its relationship with Brazilian urban networks. This book is written by researchers from the Brazilian Metropolitan Observatory in Rio de Janeiro. The aim is to study urban transformation and stagnation with regards to urban mobility and infrastructure, social analysis of territory, housing and housing market, metropolitan governance, demography, residential segregation and inequality of opportunities, among other topics.

Global Geographies of the Internet

Author: Barney Warf

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400712456

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 166

View: 7145

Today, roughly 2 billion people use the internet, and its applications have flourished in number and importance. This volume will examine the growth and geography of the internet from a political economy perspective. Its central motivation is to illustrate that cyberspace does not exist in some aspatial void, but is deeply rooted in national and local political and cultural contexts. Toward that end, it will invoke a few major theorists of cyberspace, but apply their perspectives in terms that are accessible to readers with no familiarity with them. Beyond summaries of the infrastructure that makes the internet possible and global distributions of users, it delves into issues such as the digital divide to emphasize the inequalities that accompany the growth of cyberspace. It also addresses internet censorship, e-commerce, and e-government, issues that have received remarkably little scholarly attention, particularly from a spatial perspective. Throughout, it demonstrates that in cyberspace, place matters, so that no comprehensive understanding of the internet can be achieved without considering how it is embedded within, and in turn changes, local institutional and political contexts. Thus the book rebuts simplistic “death of distance” views or those that assert there is, or can be, a “one-size-fits-all, cookie-cutter” model of the internet applicable to all times and places.

Climate Change and Cities

First Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network

Author: Cynthia Rosenzweig,William D. Solecki,Stephen A. Hammer,Shagun Mehrotra

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139497405

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2857

Urban areas are home to over half the world's people and are at the forefront of the climate change issue. The need for a global research effort to establish the current understanding of climate change adaptation and mitigation at the city level is urgent. To meet this goal a coalition of international researchers - the Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN) - was formed at the time of the C40 Large Cities Climate Summit in New York in 2007. This book is the First UCCRN Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities. The authors are all international experts from a diverse range of cities with varying socio-economic conditions, from both the developing and developed world. It is invaluable for mayors, city officials and policymakers; urban sustainability officers and urban planners; and researchers, professors and advanced students.

Nearly Zero Energy Buildings and Proliferation of Microorganisms

A Current Issue for Highly Insulated and Airtight Building Envelopes

Author: Elisa Di Giuseppe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 331902356X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 94

View: 6170

This book provides a concise review of the thermo-physical phenomena which regulate heat and moisture transportation in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings envelopes, and their relationship with the growth of biological organisms. It describes the main microorganisms proliferating on contemporary building elements and within buildings. It also states the consequences of biological growth on durability, aesthetics and human health; and provides the main methods for the analytical and experimental evaluation of proliferation. Finally, through the review of recent developments, remedial actions to counter the biological phenomenon are examined, and an outline is provided for future innovations in a field not yet widely investigated.

Modernization and Political Actions in the Brazilian Amazon

The City of Barcarena, Pará

Author: João Santos Nahum

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319580302

Category: Social Science

Page: 78

View: 5741

This book offers an analysis of the territory of Barcarena, in the Brazilian Amazon. The author studies the land use and the implemented modernization policies that made it one of the richest cities of the state. The political system uses this territory as a resource to provide for the needs of a small circle of social agents. A system of conservative political actions enforces the process of modernization of the Baracena territory. Innovations in the Barcarena territory, such as the implementation of the aluminium factory Albras/Alunorte and the territorial configuration or public administration, lead to modernization simulations and artificial devices. The intended effect however is more about appearing to be modern, than actual modernization. The territorial use of Barcarena is aimed to protect the interests and privileges of the elite.

The Making of Resistance

Brazil’s Landless Movement and Narrative Enactment

Author: Markus Lundström

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319553488

Category: Social Science

Page: 142

View: 6093

This Briefs advances a theoretical approach that recognizes social movements as contingent enterprises. It explores the endurance of social movements over time, by developing analytical tools to study how social movement heterogeneities are simultaneously acknowledged and articulated together, through collective narration and practices. With a unique empirical analysis of one particular narrative – the story of Brazil’s Landless Movement – this Briefs portrays a narrative revisited and revised by movement participants, a story revived through enactment. This Briefs addresses the increasing academic audience seeking to study, and theorize, the multi-colored phenomena of resistance and social movements.

Hispanic and Latino New Orleans

Immigration and Identity Since the Eighteenth Century

Author: Andrew Sluyter,Case Watkins,James P. Chaney,Annie M. Gibson

Publisher: LSU Press

ISBN: 080716089X

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 4111

Often overlooked in historic studies of New Orleans, the city’s Hispanic and Latino populations have contributed significantly to its development. Hispanic and Latino New Orleans offers the first scholarly study of these communities in the Crescent City. This trailblazing volume not only explores the evolving role of Hispanics and Latinos in shaping the city’s unique cultural identity but also reveals how their history informs the ongoing national debate about immigration. As early as the eighteenth century, the Spanish government used incentives of land and money to encourage Spaniards from other regions of the empire—particularly the Canary Islands—to settle in and around New Orleans. Though immigration from Spain declined markedly in the wake of the Louisiana Purchase, the city quickly became the gateway between the United States and the emerging independent republics of Latin America. The burgeoning trade in coffee, sugar, and bananas attracted Cuban and Honduran immigrants to New Orleans, while smaller communities of Hispanics and Latinos from countries such as Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Brazil also made their marks on the landscapes and neighborhoods of the city, particularly in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Combining accessible historical narrative, interviews, and maps that illustrate changing residential geographies, Hispanic and Latino New Orleans is a landmark study of the political, economic, and cultural networks that produced these diverse communities in one of the country’s most distinctive cities.

Hydrogeology of a Large Oil-and-Gas Basin in Central Patagonia

San Jorge Gulf Basin, Argentina

Author: Mario Alberto Hernández,Nilda González,Lisandro Hernández

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319523287

Category: Science

Page: 96

View: 1928

This book analyzes the most important geohydrological aspects of the San Jorge Gulf Basin (Chubut and Santa Cruz provinces, Argentine Patagonia), with a particular focus on the physical and hydrodynamic characteristics of the system. Discovered in 1907, the San Jorge Gulf Basin was the first petroleum and gas-producing basin in Argentina. It is also one of the most important areas with real prospects for non-conventional exploitation (shale oil-gas). After characterizing the hydroclimatic background (hydrometeorological parameters and water balance), the book describes the main physical aspects: geomorphology, soils and surface as well as subsoil geology, especially lithology, structures, stratigraphy and hydrogeology.

Fossil Horses of South America

Phylogeny, Systemics and Ecology

Author: José Luis Prado,María Teresa Alberdi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319558773

Category: Science

Page: 150

View: 4255

This book provides an update on the phylogeny, systematics and ecology of horses in South America based on data provided over the past three decades. The contemporary South American mammalian communities were shaped by the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and by the profound climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Horses were a conspicuous group of immigrant mammals from North America that arrived in South America during the Pleistocene. This group is represented by 2 genera, Hippidion and Equus, which include small species (Hippidion devillei, H. saldiasi, E. andium and E. insulatus) and large forms (Equus neogeus and H. principale). Both groups arrived in South America via 2 different routes. One model designed to explain this migration indicates that the small forms used the Andes corridor, while larger horses used the eastern route and arrived through some coastal areas. Molecular dating (ancient DNA) suggests that the South American horses separated from the North American taxa (caballines and the New World stilt-legged horse) after 3.6 - 3.2 Ma, consistent with the final formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. Recent studies of stable isotopes in these horses indicate an extensive range of 13C values cover closed woodlands to C4 grasslands. This plasticity agrees with the hypothesis that generalist species and open biome specialist species from North America indicate a positive migration through South America.