Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Author: Barry Halliwell,John M. C. Gutteridge

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198717474

Category: Antioxidants

Page: 896

View: 4227

Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine has become a classic text in the field of free radical and antioxidant research. Now in its fifth edition, the book has been comprehensively rewritten and updated whilst maintaining the clarity of its predecessors. Two new chapters discuss 'in vivo' and 'dietary' antioxidants, the first emphasising the role of peroxiredoxins and integrated defence mechanisms which allow useful roles for ROS, and the second containing new information on the role of fruits, vegetables, and vitamins in health and disease. This new edition also contains expanded coverage of the mechanisms of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins (and the repair of such damage), and the roles played by reactive species in signal transduction, cell survival, death, human reproduction, defence mechanisms of animals and plants against pathogens, and other important biological events. The methodologies available to measure reactive species and oxidative damage (and their potential pitfalls) have been fully updated, as have the topics of phagocyte ROS production, NADPH oxidase enzymes, and toxicology. There is a detailed and critical evaluation of the role of free radicals and other reactive species in human diseases, especially cancer, cardiovascular, chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. New aspects of ageing are discussed in the context of the free radical theory of ageing. This book is recommended as a comprehensive introduction to the field for students, educators, clinicians, and researchers. It will also be an invaluable companion to all those interested in the role of free radicals in the life and biomedical sciences.

Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Author: Barry Halliwell,John M. C. Gutteridge

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198717482

Category:

Page: 896

View: 6832

Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine has become a classic text in the field of free radical and antioxidant research. Now in its fifth edition, the book has been comprehensively rewritten and updated whilst maintaining the clarity of its predecessors. Two new chapters discuss 'in vivo' and 'dietary' antioxidants, the first emphasising the role of peroxiredoxins and integrated defence mechanisms which allow useful roles for ROS, and the second containing new information on the role of fruits, vegetables, and vitamins in health and disease. This new edition also contains expanded coverage of the mechanisms of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins (and the repair of such damage), and the roles played by reactive species in signal transduction, cell survival, death, human reproduction, defence mechanisms of animals and plants against pathogens, and other important biological events. The methodologies available to measure reactive species and oxidative damage (and their potential pitfalls) have been fully updated, as have the topics of phagocyte ROS production, NADPH oxidase enzymes, and toxicology. There is a detailed and critical evaluation of the role of free radicals and other reactive species in human diseases, especially cancer, cardiovascular, chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. New aspects of ageing are discussed in the context of the free radical theory of ageing. This book is recommended as a comprehensive introduction to the field for students, educators, clinicians, and researchers. It will also be an invaluable companion to all those interested in the role of free radicals in the life and biomedical sciences.

Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Author: Barry Halliwell,John M. C. Gutteridge

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191026999

Category: Science

Page: 896

View: 431

Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine has become a classic text in the field of free radical and antioxidant research. Now in its fifth edition, the book has been comprehensively rewritten and updated whilst maintaining the clarity of its predecessors. Two new chapters discuss 'in vivo' and 'dietary' antioxidants, the first emphasising the role of peroxiredoxins and integrated defence mechanisms which allow useful roles for ROS, and the second containing new information on the role of fruits, vegetables, and vitamins in health and disease. This new edition also contains expanded coverage of the mechanisms of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins (and the repair of such damage), and the roles played by reactive species in signal transduction, cell survival, death, human reproduction, defence mechanisms of animals and plants against pathogens, and other important biological events. The methodologies available to measure reactive species and oxidative damage (and their potential pitfalls) have been fully updated, as have the topics of phagocyte ROS production, NADPH oxidase enzymes, and toxicology. There is a detailed and critical evaluation of the role of free radicals and other reactive species in human diseases, especially cancer, cardiovascular, chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. New aspects of ageing are discussed in the context of the free radical theory of ageing. This book is recommended as a comprehensive introduction to the field for students, educators, clinicians, and researchers. It will also be an invaluable companion to all those interested in the role of free radicals in the life and biomedical sciences.

Excited States and Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Contributions from Flash Photolysis and Pulse Radiolysis

Author: R. V. Bensasson,E. J. Land,T. G. Truscott

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: N.A

Category: Cancer

Page: 431

View: 9559

Excited states and free radicals are involved in the normal physiology of living systems, in pathological processes (including lipid peroxidation, inflammation, Parkinson's disease, cancer, and aging), in the mechanisms of drug action, and in the photochemotherapies such as the PUVA therapy for skin diseases and PDT for cancer. This text introduces the reader to this rapidly expanding field, one that lies at the borderlines of physics, chemistry, biology, pharmacology, and medicine. The authors explore in particular how time-resolved spectroscopic methods have found solutions at the molecular level to biological and medical problems. Topics include the nature of excited states and free radicals and the techniques for their study, activated oxygen species, DNA, proteins, carotenoids and photosynthetic reaction centers, photodermatology and melanogenesis, and aspects of cancer related to radio-, chemo-, and photodynamic therapy. Researchers and graduate students in photochemistry, photobiology, photomedicine, radiation chemistry and biology, and cancer therapies will find this book to be of very significant interest.

Essentials of Free Radical Biology and Medicine

Author: Robert Z. Hopkins

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781680560008

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 1148

Written in an accessible style and consistent format, "Essentials of Free Radical Biology and Medicine" takes a unique approach to integrating the fundamental principles with high quality cutting-edge research discoveries, and the basic bioscience with clinical medicine so as to provide the reader a comprehensive picture of the field in a concise manner. The book (i) blends basic and clinical sciences needed to effectively demonstrate the importance of the field; (ii) includes full-color illustrations to facilitate the understanding of the essential concepts; (iii) cites references mostly from highly influential journals to ensure the top quality of the information; (iv) uses self-assessment questions and glossary to enhance the assimilation of the cutting-edge knowledge; and (v) serves as a valuable reference or textbook for students, faculty, and other professionals in the fields of biology, pharmaceutical science, biomedical science, and clinical medicine.

Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

From Inflammation to Biotechnology

Author: Okezie I. Aruoma

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9781586036836

Category: Medical

Page: 272

View: 5409

"Oxidative stress and inflammatory cell death / tissue damage have been implicated in a wide array of human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, inflammatory joint diseases,; cardiovascular dysfunctions as well as ageing. Oxidative stress mediates the activation of transcription factors such as NF?B that, in turn, induce the transcription of certain genes promoting cytokine production. Release of these cytokines results in the enhancement of inflammatory responses and activation of endothelial cells in distant organs. The inflammatory cascade is then triggered by the induction of adhesion molecules and the generation of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Given that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS respectively) generated by infiltrated neutrophils into distant organs act directly as noxious agents reacting with molecular components, thereby enhancing inflammatory processes and therefore influencing cell viability, ROS and RNS have become potential therapeutic targets for prophylactic biofactors. Whilst their production by phagocytic cells is, of course, essential for the eradication of invading pathogens, and the capacity of selected chemotherapeutic agents to generate such species in specific `target' cells is well known in cancer research, the novel therapeutic actions and potential mechanisms of action of ozone as a microbicidal agent in clinical dentistry are now being advocated. The focus of this publication prominently encompasses the pivotal roles of ROS and RNS in the pathogenesis of many clinical conditions (together with their involvement in the ageing process of lower (yeast) cells, and higher organisms including plants), and discusses the potential applications of dietary-derived antioxidants to interfere with the biomolecular mechanisms of these processes and hence offer realistic therapeutic or prophylactic potentials."

Free Radicals

Biology and Detection by Spinn Trapping

Author: Gerald M. Rosen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195095050

Category: Science

Page: 482

View: 6425

Free radicals, molecules with unpaired electrons, are highly reactive and play key roles in physiologic regulation and in many degenerative and pathologic processes, making them a fertile area of research. This book focuses on spin trapping, a sophisticated technique for the identification of free radicals in biological systems. The method is complex, and this book offers an in-depth guide to all of the critical aspects needed for its application to free radicals in biology. This includes advice on interpreting results, trouble-shooting, and experimental designs. The book looks at future directions in the field and will prove an invaluable resource for investigators working in the biology of free radicals, regardless of whether they are new or highly experienced in the applications of spin trapping.

Free Radicals in Exercise and Aging

Author: Zsolt Radák

Publisher: Human Kinetics

ISBN: 9780880118811

Category: Social Science

Page: 265

View: 4478

Explore the emerging field of free radical biology, exercise, and aging with this definitive reference. Free Radicals in Exercise and Agingaddresses the current debate regarding whether free radicals released during exercise accelerate the aging process. It explains how free radicals can serve as important regulators of aerobic processes, and it clarifies the importance of exercise in increasing the efficiency of the antioxidant and oxidative repair systems. Mounting research data indicate that free radicals are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. This book focuses on exercise-induced adaptation. In general, a person's ability to adapt to internal and external changes decreases during the aging process. However, by continually exposing the body to different challenges, regular exercise triggers an adaptation process that keeps the body and mind fit. Free Radicals in Exercise and Agingelucidates the role of free radical species in regulating this process. This text is also one of the first to provide an in-depth review of skeletal muscle oxidative stress and aging. This issue is pivotal because muscle serves such a critical role in mobility and normal life. Free Radicals in Exercise and Aging shares the most current understanding of how reactive oxygen species influence the biology of skeletal muscles. It explores some of the unique characteristics that skeletal muscle displays during aging, both in terms of free radical production and with regard to antioxidant systems. The implications of this research are far-reaching. Mutation of DNA is linked very closely to cancer, and if regular exercise improves the regulation of the antioxidant systems and the oxidative damage repair system, these mechanisms may be a very important tool against this deadly disease. This research-oriented text presents the latest information on the subject. It reviews and critiques current literature and provides critical information for exercise physiologists, sports medicine specialists, sport nutritionists, and gerontologists.

Redox Biochemistry

Author: Ruma Banerjee

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470177327

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 6593

This is the premier, single-source reference on redox biochemistry, a rapidly emerging field. This reference presents the basic principles and includes detailed chapters focusing on various aspects of five primary areas of redox biochemistry: antioxidant molecules and redox cofactors; antioxidant enzymes; redox regulation of physiological processes; pathological processes related to redox; and specialized methods. This is a go-to resource for professionals in pharmaceuticals, medicine, immunology, nutrition, and environmental fields and an excellent text for upper-level students.

Free Radicals in Biology and Environment

Author: F. Minisci

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401716072

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 1943

Our understanding of the quantitative aspects of free radical chemistry and the involvement of radicals in such areas as biology, medicine, the environment, etc., has developed spectacularly over recent years, yet the various topics are commonly discussed separately, in specific meetings and specialised publications. Free Radicals in Biology and Environment draws together two important areas of free radical chemistry, using as a bridge the fundamental physical chemistry of free radicals (spectroscopic detection of free radicals, evaluation of absolute rate constants, elucidation of mechanisms of free radical reactions and catalysis, photochemical and radiation processes, etc.). The most relevant topics covered are the EPR detection of radicals in biochemical systems and in pollutant formation and degradation, oxidation processes in biology and in the troposphere, radiation and induced damage, and atmospheric pollutants arising from incomplete combustion. Also covered are the chemistry and biochemistry of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, the chemistry and biochemistry of DNA radicals, the role of radicals in myeloperoxidase, lignineperoxidase, radicals and cardiovascular injury, radiation and the fragmentation of cells and tissues.

Antioxidants in Science, Technology, Medicine and Nutrition

Author: G. Scott

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0857099930

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 348

View: 2329

The use of antioxidants is widespread throughout the rubber, plastics, food, oil and pharmaceutical industries. This book brings together information generated from research in quite separate fields of biochemical science and technology, and integrates it on a basis of the common mechanisms of peroxidation and antioxidant action. It applies present knowledge of antioxidants to our understanding of their role in preventing and treating common diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, ischemia, pancreatitis, hemochromatosis, kwashiorkor, disorders of prematurity and disease of old age. Antioxidants deactivate certain harmful effects of free radicals in the human body due to biological peroxidation, and thus prevent protection against cell damage. The book is of considerable interest to scientists working in the materials and foodstuff industries, and to researchers seeking information on the connection between diet and health, and to those developing new drugs to combat diseases associated with oxidative stress. It is important also throughout the non-medical world, especially to the work force within the affected industries. Examines research in separate fields of biochemical science and technology and integrates it on a basis of the common mechanisms of peroxidation and antioxidant action Applies present knowledge of antioxidants to our understanding of their role in preventing and treating common diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and others

Radicals for Life

The Various Forms of Nitric Oxide

Author: Ernst van Faassen,Anatoly Vanin

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080489599

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 4841

Radicals for Life: the Various Forms of Nitric Oxide provides an up-to-date overview of the role of nitrosocompounds and nitrosyl-iron complexes in physiology. Nitrosocompounds can be considered as stabilised forms of nitric oxide, one of the most important regulatory molecules in physiology today. Many nitrosocompounds share some of the physiological functions of nitric oxide, and may be formed inside living organisms. This is the first book to be published that is dedicated to the role of such nitrosocompounds in physiology, with particular emphasis on the nitrosocompounds that are endogenously formed in higher organisms and humans. Points of discussion include: physical and chemical properties of the compounds, the main chemical pathways in vivo, as well as the physiological effects that have been recognised to date. Each of the nineteen chapters is written by distinguished specialists in the field, well known for their original and important contributions to the subject. Also included are results from a wide range of studies in vitro, in cell cultures, animal models and human volunteers. Examples of alternative forms of nitric oxide, with special emphasis on their protective role against widespread human diseases like atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, sexual dysfunction, and renal insufficiency to stroke and ischemia are also included. First monograph to consider and provide an overview of endogenous nitrosocompounds and nitrosyl-iron complexes Extensive bibliographic references, written by specialists of human physiology Providing high scientific quality with a focus on implications for human diseases

Lipid Peroxides in Biology and Medicine

Author: Kunio Yagi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323153453

Category: Medical

Page: 376

View: 7849

Lipid Peroxides in Biology and Medicine emphasizes the importance of the control of lipid peroxides in the body for the prevention and treatment of degenerative diseases. This book discusses the production of free radicals in vivo from the action of xenobiotics, and comparative aspects of several model lipid peroxidation systems. The lipid peroxidation and membrane alterations in erythrocyte survival, and lipid peroxidations of cholesterol are also deliberated. This text likewise covers the mechanism of protection against membrane peroxidation, lipid peroxides as a cause of vascular diseases, and peroxide-mediated metabolic activation of carcinogens. Other topics include lipid peroxide in aging process and production of ethane and pentane during lipid peroxidation. This publication is valuable to biologists, medical practitioners, and clinicians researching on lipid peroxides.

Analysis of Free Radicals in Biological Systems

Author: A. Favier,J. Cadet,B. Kalyanaraman,Marc Fontecave,J.L. Pierre

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3034890745

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 9656

"Oxidative stress" is used as the generic term describing the involve ment of reactive oxygen species in various human diseases. The scope of such a topic is becoming increasingly wide. The recent interest in radicals such as nitric oxide and the discovery of new mechanisms such as the effect of free radicals on redox sensitive proteins and genes are enlarging our understanding of the physiological role of free radicals. Oxidative stress is involved in numerous pathological. processes such as ageing, respiratory or cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurological pathologies such as dementia or Parkinson's disease. It still remains difficult, however, to demonstrate by chemical measurement the in vivo production of free radicals and even more to realise their speciation. Therefore, the development of new tools and indicators is engrossing many researchers working in this field. Reliable indicators are abso lutely necessary not only to monitor the evolution of oxidative stress in patients but also to evaluate the efficiency of new antioxidant treat ments. The French Free radical club of Grenoble, the CERLIB has been involved for many years in the organisation of international training programs on methodology, in order to provide both theoretical and practical help to researchers from various countries. Such training sessions have been highly successful and participants value the oppor tunity to learn reliable techniques. This positive echo explains why the researchers of CERLIB decided, with the help of Prof. Dr. B. Kalyanaraman, to publish selected techniques on free radical re search.

Oxygen Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Author: Michael Simic

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468455680

Category: Science

Page: 1094

View: 2779

This book is based on the papers presented at the "Fourth International Congress on Oxygen Radicals (4-ICOR)," held June 27 - July 3, 1987, at the University of California, La Jolla. The chapters deal with the phenomena associated with highly reactive oxygen species (hydroxy, peroxy, alkoxy, aroxy, and superoxide radicals, as well as singlet oxygen) and their peroxidation products (hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxides, peroxides, and epoxides) as they relate to the fields of chemistry, food technology, nutrition, biology, pharmacology, and medicine. The kinetics, energetics, and mechanistic aspects of the reactions of these species and the interrelationship of oxygen radicals (or any other free radicals) and peroxidized products have been emphasized. Special attention is focused on the mechanisms of the generation of free radicals and peroxy products in biosystems and on the adverse effects of these radicals and products in humans. The topics span the continuum from the simple chemistry of model systems to the complex considerations of clinical medicine. The book also explores the mechanisms of agents that protect against free radicals and peroxy products in vitro and in vivo. These agents include antioxidants used in materials, food antioxidants, physiological antioxidants, and antioxienzymes (SOD, glutathione peroxidase, and catalases). The use of these inhibitors to prevent damage to organs being prepared for transplantation, thereby maintaining the quality of transplanted organs and/or extending their "shelf-life," also is examined.

Oxidation and Antioxidants in Organic Chemistry and Biology

Author: Evgeny T. Denisov,Igor B. Afanas'ev

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 142003085X

Category: Science

Page: 1024

View: 8409

Providing a comprehensive review of reactions of oxidation for different classes of organic compounds and polymers, and biological processes mediated by free radicals, Oxidation and Antioxidants in Organic Chemistry and Biology puts the data and bibliographical information you need into one easy-to-use resource. You will find up-to-date information about mechanisms of action of antioxidants, their reactivity, reactions of intermediates, synergism, and antioxidants with cyclic mechanism action. Supplying useful, quantitative data in tables that make the information easy to find, the authors highlight the peculiarities of mechanisms involved in the oxidation of hydrocarbons, polymers, and different organic compounds. The book provides tabulated values of strengths of C-H bonds of oxygen-containing compounds; of O-H bonds of hydroperoxides, alcohols, and acids; and of attacked antioxidant bonds. The authors collect and discuss over 3000 rate constants of different reactions of peroxyl radicals in oxidation and co-oxidation. They describe a new semiempiric theory of reactivity of reactants in elementary oxidative steps and the algorithm of calculation of activation energies, rate constants, and geometrical parameters of the transition states of free radical reactions. After elucidating the chemistry and kinetics of antioxidant action, the book covers oxidative processes that occur in biological systems.

Hydrogen Molecular Biology and Medicine

Author: Xuejun Sun,Shigeo Ohta,Atsunori Nakao

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401796912

Category: Science

Page: 117

View: 8149

This book provides a clearly structured introduction to hydrogen biology and medicine. Hydrogen is the one of the most abundant elements in the universe and has the simplest structure. In 2007, Japanese researchers found that the selective oxidation of hydrogen has a therapeutic effect on various diseases and injuries, sparking widespread interest in the biomedical field. In recent years, hundreds of peer-reviewed papers have been published internationally reporting the positive effects of hydrogen on many human diseases, including strokes, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and sepsis. The authors provide readers with a comprehensive overview of this subject, from its physical and chemical properties to its biological effects, as well as the problems and obstacles that exist.

Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Antioxidant Protocols

Author: Donald Armstrong

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592591736

Category: Medical

Page: 336

View: 889

Oxidative stress has been linked to a variety of medical problems, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and aging. Drawing on the growing volume of research into the impact of oxidative stress on pathophysiological mechanisms, Donald Armstrong updates and expands his highly praised Free Radical and Antioxidant Protocols (Humana, 1998) with a collection of new and valuable methods for evaluating the perturbations in cell function resulting from increased oxidative stress. Presented in a user-friendly, step-by-step format by accomplished investigators from prestigious universities, institutes, and laboratories around the world, these readily reproducible techniques cover both free radical-derived and antioxidant biomarkers. The methodologies demonstrated include ELISA, HPLC, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, immunoblotting, electroelution fractionation, isoelectric focusing, voltammetry, and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging. Special emphasis is given to the separation of complex mixtures of plant antioxidants, soft drug design to protect from toxic oxidative metabolites, in vitro oxidation conditions, and correcting for random measurement error to improve statistical interpretation. A soon-to-be-published companion volume, Oxidants and Antioxidants: Ultrastructure and Molecular Biology Protocols (Humana, 2002), contains state-of-the-art molecular and ultrastructural methods that expand the total number of protocols to 109 assays. Cutting-edge and highly practical, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Antioxidant Protocols provides many powerful new tools for detecting oxidative stress and for investigating the possibilities for therapeutic intervention monitoring in a variety of serious diseases.

Redox Signaling and Regulation in Biology and Medicine

Author: Claus Jacob,Paul G. Winyard

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527627596

Category: Science

Page: 514

View: 2942

This first entry-level guide to the multifaceted field takes readers one step further than existing textbooks. In an easily accessible manner, the authors integrate the biochemistry, cell biology and medical implications of intracellular redox processes, demonstrating that complex science can be presented in a clear and almost entertaining way. Perfect for students and junior researchers, this is an equally valuable addition to courses in biochemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, and human physiology.