Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Author: Barry Halliwell,John M. C. Gutteridge

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198717482


Page: 896

View: 6434

Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine has become a classic text in the field of free radical and antioxidant research. Now in its fifth edition, the book has been comprehensively rewritten and updated whilst maintaining the clarity of its predecessors. Two new chapters discuss 'in vivo' and 'dietary' antioxidants, the first emphasising the role of peroxiredoxins and integrated defence mechanisms which allow useful roles for ROS, and the second containing new information on the role of fruits, vegetables, and vitamins in health and disease. This new edition also contains expanded coverage of the mechanisms of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins (and the repair of such damage), and the roles played by reactive species in signal transduction, cell survival, death, human reproduction, defence mechanisms of animals and plants against pathogens, and other important biological events. The methodologies available to measure reactive species and oxidative damage (and their potential pitfalls) have been fully updated, as have the topics of phagocyte ROS production, NADPH oxidase enzymes, and toxicology. There is a detailed and critical evaluation of the role of free radicals and other reactive species in human diseases, especially cancer, cardiovascular, chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. New aspects of ageing are discussed in the context of the free radical theory of ageing. This book is recommended as a comprehensive introduction to the field for students, educators, clinicians, and researchers. It will also be an invaluable companion to all those interested in the role of free radicals in the life and biomedical sciences.

Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

From Inflammation to Biotechnology

Author: Okezie I. Aruoma

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9781586036836

Category: Medical

Page: 272

View: 1024

"Oxidative stress and inflammatory cell death / tissue damage have been implicated in a wide array of human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, inflammatory joint diseases,; cardiovascular dysfunctions as well as ageing. Oxidative stress mediates the activation of transcription factors such as NF?B that, in turn, induce the transcription of certain genes promoting cytokine production. Release of these cytokines results in the enhancement of inflammatory responses and activation of endothelial cells in distant organs. The inflammatory cascade is then triggered by the induction of adhesion molecules and the generation of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Given that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS respectively) generated by infiltrated neutrophils into distant organs act directly as noxious agents reacting with molecular components, thereby enhancing inflammatory processes and therefore influencing cell viability, ROS and RNS have become potential therapeutic targets for prophylactic biofactors. Whilst their production by phagocytic cells is, of course, essential for the eradication of invading pathogens, and the capacity of selected chemotherapeutic agents to generate such species in specific `target' cells is well known in cancer research, the novel therapeutic actions and potential mechanisms of action of ozone as a microbicidal agent in clinical dentistry are now being advocated. The focus of this publication prominently encompasses the pivotal roles of ROS and RNS in the pathogenesis of many clinical conditions (together with their involvement in the ageing process of lower (yeast) cells, and higher organisms including plants), and discusses the potential applications of dietary-derived antioxidants to interfere with the biomolecular mechanisms of these processes and hence offer realistic therapeutic or prophylactic potentials."

Excited States and Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Contributions from Flash Photolysis and Pulse Radiolysis

Author: R. V. Bensasson,E. J. Land,T. G. Truscott

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand


Category: Cancer

Page: 431

View: 6269

Excited states and free radicals are involved in the normal physiology of living systems, in pathological processes (including lipid peroxidation, inflammation, Parkinson's disease, cancer, and aging), in the mechanisms of drug action, and in the photochemotherapies such as the PUVA therapy for skin diseases and PDT for cancer. This text introduces the reader to this rapidly expanding field, one that lies at the borderlines of physics, chemistry, biology, pharmacology, and medicine. The authors explore in particular how time-resolved spectroscopic methods have found solutions at the molecular level to biological and medical problems. Topics include the nature of excited states and free radicals and the techniques for their study, activated oxygen species, DNA, proteins, carotenoids and photosynthetic reaction centers, photodermatology and melanogenesis, and aspects of cancer related to radio-, chemo-, and photodynamic therapy. Researchers and graduate students in photochemistry, photobiology, photomedicine, radiation chemistry and biology, and cancer therapies will find this book to be of very significant interest.

Oxygen Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Author: Michael Simic

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468455680

Category: Science

Page: 1094

View: 4657

This book is based on the papers presented at the "Fourth International Congress on Oxygen Radicals (4-ICOR)," held June 27 - July 3, 1987, at the University of California, La Jolla. The chapters deal with the phenomena associated with highly reactive oxygen species (hydroxy, peroxy, alkoxy, aroxy, and superoxide radicals, as well as singlet oxygen) and their peroxidation products (hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxides, peroxides, and epoxides) as they relate to the fields of chemistry, food technology, nutrition, biology, pharmacology, and medicine. The kinetics, energetics, and mechanistic aspects of the reactions of these species and the interrelationship of oxygen radicals (or any other free radicals) and peroxidized products have been emphasized. Special attention is focused on the mechanisms of the generation of free radicals and peroxy products in biosystems and on the adverse effects of these radicals and products in humans. The topics span the continuum from the simple chemistry of model systems to the complex considerations of clinical medicine. The book also explores the mechanisms of agents that protect against free radicals and peroxy products in vitro and in vivo. These agents include antioxidants used in materials, food antioxidants, physiological antioxidants, and antioxienzymes (SOD, glutathione peroxidase, and catalases). The use of these inhibitors to prevent damage to organs being prepared for transplantation, thereby maintaining the quality of transplanted organs and/or extending their "shelf-life," also is examined.

Free Radicals in Biology and Environment

Author: F. Minisci

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401716072

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 7126

Our understanding of the quantitative aspects of free radical chemistry and the involvement of radicals in such areas as biology, medicine, the environment, etc., has developed spectacularly over recent years, yet the various topics are commonly discussed separately, in specific meetings and specialised publications. Free Radicals in Biology and Environment draws together two important areas of free radical chemistry, using as a bridge the fundamental physical chemistry of free radicals (spectroscopic detection of free radicals, evaluation of absolute rate constants, elucidation of mechanisms of free radical reactions and catalysis, photochemical and radiation processes, etc.). The most relevant topics covered are the EPR detection of radicals in biochemical systems and in pollutant formation and degradation, oxidation processes in biology and in the troposphere, radiation and induced damage, and atmospheric pollutants arising from incomplete combustion. Also covered are the chemistry and biochemistry of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, the chemistry and biochemistry of DNA radicals, the role of radicals in myeloperoxidase, lignineperoxidase, radicals and cardiovascular injury, radiation and the fragmentation of cells and tissues.

Freie Radikale - Warum Wissenschaftler sich nicht an Regeln halten

Author: Michael Brooks

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642416969

Category: Science

Page: 398

View: 7288

In der Wissenschaft geht alles Wir stellen uns die Wissenschaften und besonders die Naturwissenschaften oft als den Inbegriff der Vernunft vor: kühl, logisch, objektiv und frei von menschlichen Fehlern und Gefühlen. Doch Wissenschaft wird von Wissenschaftlern gemacht − und die sind nichts von alledem, sagt Michael Brooks. Für die bedeutsamen Fortschritte in der Forschung sorgen fast immer die subversiven Radikalen, die sich ganz ihrer Mission verschreiben und lieber Revolutionen anzetteln, als sich an die Regeln zu halten. Um einen Durchbruch zu erzielen oder an die Spitze zu gelangen, scheuten die berühmtesten Denker vor nichts zurück: Einstein folgte mystischen Visionen, Galilei täuschte und betrog, Steve Jobs nahm Drogen. Einige führten gewagte Experimente mit sich selbst und mit anderen durch, und manche kamen dabei sogar zu Tode. Der Bestsellerautor Michael Brooks belegt seine These an zahlreichen Beispielen – und mit einem Augenzwinkern. Er zeigt, dass die wirklich bahnbrechende Wissenschaft nur selten das Ergebnis penibler Forschungsarbeit ist. Sie bricht vielmehr alle Konventionen, schert sich wenig um die Folgen und zelebriert ihre geheime Anarchie. Brooks zeigt uns die radikalen Forscher: verrückt, böse und gefährlich. The Times

Free Radicals and Iron

Chemistry, Biology, and Medicine

Author: Martyn C. R. Symons,John M. C. Gutteridge

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand


Category: Science

Page: 242

View: 5941

This concise monograph describes a variety of important reactions of iron in biological free-radical reactions. It presents both a chemical and a biochemical perspective of the topic, but at the same time unifies ideas where possible. Iron plays a key role in biological life processes, as acatalayst enabling us to use oxygen to generate the heat and chemical energy that drives life. When iron is not properly controlled within the body it can cause damage by making free radicals. The authors present a chemical and biomedical perspective of how reactions of iron complexes and freeradicals may contribute to human health and disease, especially in reactions of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.

Free Radical Biology in Digestive Diseases

Author: Yuji Naito,Makoto Suematsu,Toshikazu Yoshikawa

Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers

ISBN: 380559609X

Category: Medical

Page: 176

View: 5911

There is a growing body of experimental and clinical data to suggest that the organs of the digestive system may be subjected to considerable oxidative stress associated with acute and chronic inflammation. Although inflammation and ischemia play a key role in producing oxygen-derived free radicals in the digestive tract, the contribution of other factors, such as transition metal imbalances, lipid and glucose metabolic disturbance, and the interaction with gaseous molecules including nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, has also been suggested. Recent studies have demonstrated that several biomarkers indicating oxidative stress-mediated damage may help in monitoring the degree of disease and planning the design of new therapeutic strategies. In addition, recent advances in 'omics' research (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, etc.) may bring a breakthrough in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology: Several molecular targets for oxidative stress have been presented by the 'omics'. This book includes up-to-date reviews on the relevant issues in free radical biology in a combination with expert basic research reviews and clinical aspects in gastroenterology and hepatology. Providing information about new molecular targets for the treatment or prevention of digestive diseases, this book should be read by clinical and basic researchers in gastroenterology and hepatology.

Signaling Mechanisms of Oxygen and Nitrogen Free Radicals

Author: Igor B. Afanas'ev

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420073751

Category: Medical

Page: 220

View: 4015

Once the existence of free radicals was proven, an avalanche of studies on free radical-mediated biological processes ensued. The study of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) is center stage in biological free radical investigations. Written by a biochemist, Signaling Mechanisms of Oxygen and Nitrogen Free Radicals discusses the regulatory functions of ROS and RNS in physiological and pathophysiological states. An exploration of the main questions of signaling mechanisms of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in enzymatic processes, this book draws attention to the chemical mechanisms of these reactions. It elucidates the differences between signaling functions and damaging effects of ROS and RNS in biological systems. The text also covers free radical signaling processes catalyzed by enzymes, producers of superoxide and nitric oxide that are able to use produced ROS and RNS as signaling species in their own catalytic processes. It then examines ROS and RNS signaling produced by mitochondrial enzymes. The author explores signaling functions of ROS and RNS in enzymatic heterolytic reactions, supplying important data on ROS and RNS signaling in the catalysis by the enzymes which do not produce free radicals by themselves. He provides information on signaling by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in apoptosis and aging/senescence and concludes with coverage of mechanisms of free radical signaling in enzymatic processes. The book provides new understanding of signaling functions in living organisms related to cardiovascular processes, cancer, inflammation, hereditary diseases, and their regulation of physiological functions such as development, aging, and senescence. This information can support the development of new drugs and novel treatment methods.

Oxygen Radicals in Biological Systems

Author: Lester Packer

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780121821340

Category: Medical

Page: 711

View: 546

Since biological tissues are unstable in an oxygen atmosphere, a great deal of effort is expended by organisms to metabolically limit or repair oxidative tissue damage. This volume of Methods in Enzymology and its companion Volume 234 present methods developed to investigate the roles of oxygen radicals and antioxidants in disease. Key Features * Generation, detection, and characterization of oxygen radicals, chemistry, biochemistry, and intermediate states of reductio* Isolation, characterization, and assay of enzymes or substrates involved in formation or removal of oxygen radical * Methods for assessing molecular, cell, and tissue damage; assays and repair of oxidative damage

Carbon-Centered Free Radicals and Radical Cations

Structure, Reactivity, and Dynamics

Author: Malcolm D. Forbes

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470584101

Category: Science

Page: 300

View: 8169

Covers the most advanced computational and experimental methods for studying carbon-centered radical intermediates With its focus on the chemistry of carbon-centered radicals and radical cations, this book helps readers fully exploit the synthetic utility of these intermediates in order to prepare fine chemicals and pharmaceutical products. Moreover, it helps readers better understand their role in complex atmospheric reactions and biological systems. Thoroughly up to date, the book highlights the most advanced computational and experimental methods available for studying and using these critically important intermediates. Carbon-Centered Free Radicals and Radical Cations begins with a short history of the field of free radical chemistry, and then covers: A discussion of the relevant theory Mechanistic chemistry, with an emphasis on synthetic utility Molecular structure and mechanism, focusing on computational methods Spectroscopic investigations of radical structure and kinetics, including demonstrations of spin chemistry techniques such as CIDNP and magnetic field effects Free radical chemistry in macromolecules Each chapter, written by one or more leading experts, explains difficult concepts clearly and concisely, with references to facilitate further investigation of individual topics. The authors were selected in order to provide insight into a broad range of topics, including small molecule synthesis, polymer degradation, computational chemistry as well as highly detailed experimental work in the solid, liquid, and gaseous states. This volume is essential for students or researchers interested in building their understanding of the role of carbon-centered radical intermediates in complex systems and how they may be used to develop a broad range of useful products.

Free Radicals in Exercise and Aging

Author: Zsolt Radak,Zsolt Radák

Publisher: Human Kinetics

ISBN: 9780880118811

Category: Social Science

Page: 265

View: 2732

Explore the emerging field of free radical biology, exercise, and aging with this definitive reference. Free Radicals in Exercise and Agingaddresses the current debate regarding whether free radicals released during exercise accelerate the aging process. It explains how free radicals can serve as important regulators of aerobic processes, and it clarifies the importance of exercise in increasing the efficiency of the antioxidant and oxidative repair systems. Mounting research data indicate that free radicals are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. This book focuses on exercise-induced adaptation. In general, a person's ability to adapt to internal and external changes decreases during the aging process. However, by continually exposing the body to different challenges, regular exercise triggers an adaptation process that keeps the body and mind fit. Free Radicals in Exercise and Agingelucidates the role of free radical species in regulating this process. This text is also one of the first to provide an in-depth review of skeletal muscle oxidative stress and aging. This issue is pivotal because muscle serves such a critical role in mobility and normal life. Free Radicals in Exercise and Aging shares the most current understanding of how reactive oxygen species influence the biology of skeletal muscles. It explores some of the unique characteristics that skeletal muscle displays during aging, both in terms of free radical production and with regard to antioxidant systems. The implications of this research are far-reaching. Mutation of DNA is linked very closely to cancer, and if regular exercise improves the regulation of the antioxidant systems and the oxidative damage repair system, these mechanisms may be a very important tool against this deadly disease. This research-oriented text presents the latest information on the subject. It reviews and critiques current literature and provides critical information for exercise physiologists, sports medicine specialists, sport nutritionists, and gerontologists.

Free Radicals and Inflammation

Author: Paul G. Winyard,David R. Blake,Christopher H. Evans

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3034884826

Category: Medical

Page: 259

View: 5426

As in so many fields of scientific endeavour following the molecular biology revo lution, our knowledge of the role of radicals not only in pathological states, but in basic physiology has developed exponentially. Indeed, our evolving concepts have, like so many political parties, been forced into dramatic "V-turns" and contortions. Within our working lives, we have had to debate whether radicals made any con tribution to any pathology, whilst now it is difficult not to entertain the view that every physiological process is pivotally controlled by exquisitely sensitive radical reactions. Inflammation is, of course, an example of pathology evolving from physiology, and in this book we have called upon both scientists and clinicians who have research interests in the complex switching mechanisms that sustain these transi tions. The book as a whole explores, from a physiological standpoint, how deter ministic radical systems sensitive to their initial conditions can interdigitate, iterate and feed back to control diverse cellular processes that create the inflammatory response. Whilst systems such as these to a mathematician would provide the basis for a chaotic response, one is forced to marvel how, for all stages of an inflammatory reaction, this system appears exquisitely controlled, making therapeutic manipula tion both possible and, to some extent, predictable.

Die Entschlüsselung des Alterns

Der Telomer-Effekt - Von der Nobelpreisträgerin Elizabeth Blackburn

Author: Prof. Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn,Prof. Dr. Elissa Epel

Publisher: Mosaik Verlag

ISBN: 3641112052

Category: Social Science

Page: 464

View: 8272

Telomere sind die Schutzkappen unserer Chromosomen und damit direkt mit der Zellalterung sowie dem Entstehen vieler Krankheiten wie Krebs, Diabetes und Herzkreislaufbeschwerden verbunden. Nobelpreisträgerin Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn und ihre Kollegin Dr. Elissa Epel haben in jahrelanger Forschung herausgefunden, woraus unsere Telomere bestehen und wie wir sie erhalten können. Wissenschaftlich fundiert und praktisch erklärt: In diesem Buch finden Sie die Anleitung für einen vitalen Körper. Bleiben Sie jung und gesund – ein Leben lang.

Reactive Oxygen Species in Chemistry, Biology, and Medicine

Author: A. Quintanilha

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475704178

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 2493

A NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Oxygen Radicals in Biological Systems: Recent Progress and New Methods of Study" was held in Braga, Portugal between Sep tember 1 and September 14, 1985, in order to consider the basic chemistry and biochem istry of activated oxygen (both radical and non-radical species) and their effect in biolog ical systems. This book summarizes the main lectures given at this meeting. While there is no attempt to cover all the major topics in the expanding subject of oxidative mechanisms in biology, an effort has been made to provide overviews on some key aspects of this field. The authors have attempted to convey a clear picture of both what is known and what remains unclear in their respective subjects. Not only are some of the techniques used for detecting activated oxygen species described, but also their strengths and limi tations. The chemistry of many of these species is discussed and the biological and/or pathological implications are carefully reviewed. The medical and therapeutic aspects of some of the well established pathways of damage and protection are analyzed. It is our hope that the material included in this book might be useful for both researchers and teachers at the graduate level. The success of this meeting was to a large extent due to the tireless committment of Professor Alberto Amaral and Dr. Concei~a:o Rangel; without their outstanding efforts in dealing with all the aspects of the organization, this summer school would not have been possible.