Flattening the Earth

Two Thousand Years of Map Projections

Author: John P. Snyder

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226767475

Category: History

Page: 365

View: 8589

As long as there have been maps, cartographers have grappled with the impossibility of portraying the earth in two dimensions. To solve this problem mapmakers have created hundreds of map projections - mathematical methods for drawing the round earth on a flat surface. Yet of the hundreds of existing projections, and the infinite number that are theoretically possible, none is perfectly accurate. Any projection inevitably distorts the geography it portrays. Flattening the Earth is the first detailed history of map projections since 1863. John P. Snyder discusses and illustrates the hundreds of known projections from before 500 B.C. to the present, emphasizing developments since the Renaissance - when the concept of a round earth gained acceptance - as mapmakers used increasingly sophisticated mathematical techniques to create ever more accurate projections. He closes with a look at the variety of projections, simple and complex, made possible today by the speed and power of computers. This book includes 170 illustrations, including outline maps from original sources and modern computerized reconstructions. The text is not mathematically based and is accessible to non-specialists, but a few equations are included to permit the more technical reader to plot some projections. Snyder also provides tables summarizing the features of nearly 200 different projections and listing those used in nineteenth- and twentieth-century atlases. As a survey of most known map projections, a discussion of cartographic technique, and a historical analysis of the development of map projections, this book will be an important resource for cartographers, geographers, and historians.

The World Is Flat 3.0

A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century

Author: Thomas L. Friedman

Publisher: Picador

ISBN: 9781429923071

Category: Social Science

Page: 672

View: 2461

This Independence Day edition of The World is Flat 3.0 includes an an exclusive preview of That Used to Be Us: How America Fell Behind in the World It Invented and How We Can Come Back, by Thomas L. Friedman and Michael Mandelbaum, on sale September 5th, 2011. A New Edition of the Phenomenal #1 Bestseller "One mark of a great book is that it makes you see things in a new way, and Mr. Friedman certainly succeeds in that goal," the Nobel laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz wrote in The New York Times reviewing The World Is Flat in 2005. In this new edition, Thomas L. Friedman includes fresh stories and insights to help us understand the flattening of the world. Weaving new information into his overall thesis, and answering the questions he has been most frequently asked by parents across the country, this third edition also includes two new chapters--on how to be a political activist and social entrepreneur in a flat world; and on the more troubling question of how to manage our reputations and privacy in a world where we are all becoming publishers and public figures. The World Is Flat 3.0 is an essential update on globalization, its opportunities for individual empowerment, its achievements at lifting millions out of poverty, and its drawbacks--environmental, social, and political, powerfully illuminated by the Pulitzer Prize--winning author of The Lexus and the Olive Tree.

The Man Who Flattened the Earth

Maupertuis and the Sciences in the Enlightenment

Author: Mary Terrall

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226793627

Category: Science

Page: 468

View: 2382

Self-styled adventurer, literary wit, philosopher, and statesman of science, Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698-1759) stood at the center of Enlightenment science and culture. Offering an elegant and accessible portrait of this remarkable man, Mary Terrall uses the story of Maupertuis's life, self-fashioning, and scientific works to explore what it meant to do science and to be a man of science in eighteenth-century Europe. Beginning his scientific career as a mathematician in Paris, Maupertuis entered the public eye with a much-discussed expedition to Lapland, which confirmed Newton's calculation that the earth was flattened at the poles. He also made significant, and often intentionally controversial, contributions to physics, life science, navigation, astronomy, and metaphysics. Called to Berlin by Frederick the Great, Maupertuis moved to Prussia to preside over the Academy of Sciences there. Equally at home in salons, cafés, scientific academies, and royal courts, Maupertuis used his social connections and his printed works to enhance a carefully constructed reputation as both a man of letters and a man of science. His social and institutional affiliations, in turn, affected how Maupertuis formulated his ideas, how he presented them to his contemporaries, and the reactions they provoked. Terrall not only illuminates the life and work of a colorful and important Enlightenment figure, but also uses his story to delve into many wider issues, including the development of scientific institutions, the impact of print culture on science, and the interactions of science and government. Smart and highly readable, Maupertuis will appeal to anyone interested in eighteenth-century science and culture. “Terrall’s work is scholarship in the best sense. Her explanations of arcane 18th-century French physics, mathematics, astronomy, and biology are among the most lucid available in any language.”—Virginia Dawson, American Historical Review Winner of the 2003 Pfizer Award from the History of Science Society

The Man Who Flattened the Earth

Maupertuis and the Sciences in the Enlightenment

Author: Mary Terrall

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226793627

Category: Science

Page: 468

View: 3483

Self-styled adventurer, literary wit, philosopher, and statesman of science, Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698-1759) stood at the center of Enlightenment science and culture. Offering an elegant and accessible portrait of this remarkable man, Mary Terrall uses the story of Maupertuis's life, self-fashioning, and scientific works to explore what it meant to do science and to be a man of science in eighteenth-century Europe. Beginning his scientific career as a mathematician in Paris, Maupertuis entered the public eye with a much-discussed expedition to Lapland, which confirmed Newton's calculation that the earth was flattened at the poles. He also made significant, and often intentionally controversial, contributions to physics, life science, navigation, astronomy, and metaphysics. Called to Berlin by Frederick the Great, Maupertuis moved to Prussia to preside over the Academy of Sciences there. Equally at home in salons, cafés, scientific academies, and royal courts, Maupertuis used his social connections and his printed works to enhance a carefully constructed reputation as both a man of letters and a man of science. His social and institutional affiliations, in turn, affected how Maupertuis formulated his ideas, how he presented them to his contemporaries, and the reactions they provoked. Terrall not only illuminates the life and work of a colorful and important Enlightenment figure, but also uses his story to delve into many wider issues, including the development of scientific institutions, the impact of print culture on science, and the interactions of science and government. Smart and highly readable, Maupertuis will appeal to anyone interested in eighteenth-century science and culture. “Terrall’s work is scholarship in the best sense. Her explanations of arcane 18th-century French physics, mathematics, astronomy, and biology are among the most lucid available in any language.”—Virginia Dawson, American Historical Review Winner of the 2003 Pfizer Award from the History of Science Society

Inventing the Flat Earth

Columbus and Modern Historians

Author: Jeffrey Burton Russell

Publisher: Praeger Publishers

ISBN: 9780275959043

Category: History

Page: 117

View: 7784

Traces the history of the view that the earth was flat to the nineteenth-century, thereby supporting the author's theory that this belief was not widespread before Columbus's discovery of America.

The 3-D Global Spatial Data Model

Foundation of the Spatial Data Infrastructure

Author: Earl F. Burkholder

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420063035

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 392

View: 9620

Traditional methods for handling spatial data are encumbered by the assumption of separate origins for horizontal and vertical measurements. Modern measurement systems operate in a 3-D spatial environment. The 3-D Global Spatial Data Model: Foundation of the Spatial Data Infrastructure offers a new model for handling digital spatial data, the global spatial data model or GSDM. The GSDM preserves the integrity of three-dimensional spatial data while also providing additional benefits such as simpler equations, worldwide standardization, and the ability to track spatial data accuracy with greater specificity and convenience. This groundbreaking spatial model incorporates both a functional model and a stochastic model to connect the physical world to the ECEF rectangular system. Combining horizontal and vertical data into a single, three-dimensional database, this authoritative monograph provides a logical development of theoretical concepts and practical tools that can be used to handle spatial data more efficiently. The book clearly describes procedures that can be used to handle both ECEF and flat-Earth rectangular components in the context of a rigorous global environment.

The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte

Author: Auguste Comte

Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.

ISBN: 1605209821

Category: Philosophy

Page: 404

View: 8167

French philosopher and social scientist AUGUSTE COMTE (1798-1857) developed the notion of sociology as a field that could be studied, invented the term altruism, and in this groundbreaking work, created a system of principles and ideas-a rational "religion"-that has since come to influence humanism across the Western world. In Volume I, Comte offers an overview of human history as distilled through the "positive" perspective; details the positivism of mathematics, astronomy, biology, physics, and chemistry; and refines the functioning of human consciousness as an aspect of positivism. First published in English in 1853, this is an extraordinary synthesis of thought that is required reading for anyone wishing to understand the development of the scientific, secular mindset of the modern world.

Measure of the Earth

The Enlightenment Expedition That Reshaped Our World

Author: Larrie D. Ferreiro

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465017231

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 2184

Describes the early 18th-century expedition of scientists sent by France and Spain to colonial Peru to measure the degree of equatorial latitude, which could resolve the debate between whether the earth was spherical or flattened at the poles.

Map ProjectionsTheory and Applications

Author: Frederick Pearson, II

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849368882

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 1565

About the Author: Frederick Pearson has extensive experience in teaching map projection at the Air Force Cartography School and Virginia Polytechnic Institute. He developed star charts, satellite trajectory programs, and a celestial navigation device for the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center. He is an expert in orbital analysis of satellites, and control and guidance systems. At McDonnell-Douglas, he worked on the guidance system for the space shuttle. This text develops the plotting equations for the major map projections. The emphasis is on obtaining usable algorithms for computed aided plotting and CRT display. The problem of map projection is stated, and the basic terminology is introduced. The required fundamental mathematics is reviewed, and transformation theory is developed. Theories from differential geometry are particularized for the transformation from a sphere or spheroid as the model of the earth onto a selected plotting surface. The most current parameters to describe the figure of the earth are given. Formulas are included to calculate meridian length, parallel length, geodetic and geocentric latitude, azimuth, and distances on the sphere or spheroid. Equal area, conformal, and conventional projection transformations are derived. All result in direct transformation from geographic to cartesian coordinates. For selected projections, inverse transformations from cartesian to geographic coordinates are given. Since the avoidance of distortion is important, the theory of distortion is explored. Formulas are developed to give a quantitative estimate of linear, area, and angular distortions. Extended examples are given for several mapping problems of interest. Computer applications, and efficient algorithms are presented. This book is an appropriate text for a course in the mathematical aspects of mapping and cartography. Map projections are of interest to workers in many fields. Some of these are mathematicians, engineers, surveyors, geodicests, geographers, astronomers, and military intelligence analysts and strategists.

Galactic Dynamics

Author: James Binney,Scott Tremaine

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691084459

Category: Science

Page: 733

View: 3149

Two of the world's leading astrophysicists, James Binney and Scott Tremaine, here present a comprehensive review of the theory of galactic dynamics at a level suitable for both graduate students and researchers. Their work in this volume describes our present understanding of the structure and dynamics of stellar systems such as galaxies and star clusters. Nicknamed "the Bible of galactic dynamics," this book has become a classic treatise, well known and widely used by researchers and students of galactic astrophysics and stellar dynamics. Praised for its modern approach, as well as for the rigor and exemplary clarity with which the authors handle the material in this book, Galactic Dynamics includes classic results and data while also reflecting the many recent developments in the field. The authors maintain an effective style of exposition throughout, keeping clear what is present knowledge and what is still speculation, while allowing the reader to grasp an overview of the subject before following through (where needed) with the mathematical detail. Most of the astronomical community since the late 1980s was introduced to galactic dynamics through Galactic Dynamics, and it remains the most widely used graduate textbook in galactic astrophysics today. No other book gathers together and presents our current understanding of the field in such a clear and concise way. Through this approach, Binney and Tremaine succeeded in creating a classic reference of enormous pedagogic value.

Rhumb Lines and Map Wars

A Social History of the Mercator Projection

Author: Mark Monmonier

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226534329

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 7181

In Rhumb Lines and Map Wars, Mark Monmonier offers an insightful, richly illustrated account of the controversies surrounding Flemish cartographer Gerard Mercator's legacy. He takes us back to 1569, when Mercator announced a clever method of portraying the earth on a flat surface, creating the first projection to take into account the earth's roundness. As Monmonier shows, mariners benefited most from Mercator's projection, which allowed for easy navigation of the high seas with rhumb lines—clear-cut routes with a constant compass bearing—for true direction. But the projection's popularity among nineteenth-century sailors led to its overuse—often in inappropriate, non-navigational ways—for wall maps, world atlases, and geopolitical propaganda. Because it distorts the proportionate size of countries, the Mercator map was criticized for inflating Europe and North America in a promotion of colonialism. In 1974, German historian Arno Peters proffered his own map, on which countries were ostensibly drawn in true proportion to one another. In the ensuing "map wars" of the 1970s and 1980s, these dueling projections vied for public support—with varying degrees of success. Widely acclaimed for his accessible, intelligent books on maps and mapping, Monmonier here examines the uses and limitations of one of cartography's most significant innovations. With informed skepticism, he offers insightful interpretations of why well-intentioned clerics and development advocates rallied around the Peters projection, which flagrantly distorted the shape of Third World nations; why journalists covering the controversy ignored alternative world maps and other key issues; and how a few postmodern writers defended the Peters worldview with a self-serving overstatement of the power of maps. Rhumb Lines and Map Wars is vintage Monmonier: historically rich, beautifully written, and fully engaged with the issues of our time.

Physics of the Earth's Interior

Author: Beno Gutenberg

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483282120

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 2025

Physics of the Earth's Interior embraces such a wide range of properties and processes that the space available in one volume imposes severe limitations on their discussion. Moreover, the uneven familiarity of any geophysicist with the many fields of natural science which are involved favors their uneven treatment. For these reasons, the author has limited discussions related to gravity, terrestrial magnetism, tectonic processes, and the history of the earth, to such problems which, if solved, may give information on the earth's interior. On the other hand, seismological investigations are discussed only insofar as they bear upon the structure of the earth and the physics of its interior; seismology is to be treated in detail in another monograph of this series. The book contains nine chapters and begins with a discussion of methods of investigating the earth's interior, and the accuracy of the results. This is followed by separate chapters on the structure of the earth; the crust, mantle, and core; temperature and thermal processes in the earth; density, pressure, gravity, and flattening in the earth; elastic constants, and elastic processes; and nonelastic processes in the earth.

Nicolas-Louis De La Caille, Astronomer and Geodesist

Author: Ian Stewart Glass

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191649600

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 8367

La Caille was one of the observational astronomers and geodesists who followed Newton in developing ideas about celestial mechanics and the shape of the earth. He provided data to the great 18th-century mathematicians involved in understanding the complex gravitational effects that the heavenly bodies have on one another. Observing from the Cape of Good Hope, he made the first ever telescopic sky survey and gave many of the southern constellations their present-day names. He measured the paths of the planets and determined their distances by trigonometry. In addition, he made a controversial measurement of the radius of the earth that seemed to prove it was pear-shaped. On a practical level, La Caille developed the method of `Lunars' for determining longitudes at sea. He mapped the Cape. As an influential teacher he propagated Newton's theory of universal gravitation at a time when it was only beginning to be accepted on the European continent. This book gives the most comprehensive overview so far available of La Caille's life and work, showing how he interacted with his often difficult colleagues. It places special emphasis on his life at, and his observations and comments on, the Cape of Good Hope, where he spent the years 1751-53.

Cartographic Science

A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations

Author: Donald Fenna

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849381690

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 504

View: 3680

Geographic books routinely introduce map projections without providing mathematical explanations of projections and few delve into complex mathematical development or cover the breadth of projections. From basic projecting to advanced transformations, Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations is a comprehensive reference that offers an explanation of the science of cartography. The book is a compilation of more than a hundred map projections, from classic conics to contemporary transformations using complex variables. Starting from widely described geometric projecting onto flat paper, cylinder, and cone and then progressing through several layers of mathematics to reach modern projections, the author maximizes the application of one layer of complex mathematics before continuing on to the next. He also supplies numerous one-page tutorials that review terms and methodologies, helping minimize the challenges of unfamiliar mathematical territory. Divided into four parts, the first section examines the shape and size of the Earth, then proceeds to investigate the means for relating the curved surface to a flat surface, and addresses scaling. It goes on to cover pertinent principles of projection including literal projecting, true but synthetic projections, secantal projections, pseudocylindrical projections, and pseudoconical projections, as well as the other variants of more serious projections. The book concludes by looking at factors influencing Mean Sea Level and notes the cartographic aspects of current developments. Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations explains the mathematical development for a large range of projections within a framework of the different cartographic methodologies. This carefully paced book covers more projections, with gentle and progressive immersion in the mathematics involved, than any other book of its kind.