As long as there have been maps, cartographers have grappled with the impossibility of portraying the earth in two dimensions. To solve this problem mapmakers have created hundreds of map projections - mathematical methods for drawing the round earth on a flat surface. Yet of the hundreds of existing projections, and the infinite number that are theoretically possible, none is perfectly accurate. Any projection inevitably distorts the geography it portrays. Flattening the Earth is the first detailed history of map projections since 1863. John P. Snyder discusses and illustrates the hundreds of known projections from before 500 B.C. to the present, emphasizing developments since the Renaissance - when the concept of a round earth gained acceptance - as mapmakers used increasingly sophisticated mathematical techniques to create ever more accurate projections. He closes with a look at the variety of projections, simple and complex, made possible today by the speed and power of computers. This book includes 170 illustrations, including outline maps from original sources and modern computerized reconstructions. The text is not mathematically based and is accessible to non-specialists, but a few equations are included to permit the more technical reader to plot some projections. Snyder also provides tables summarizing the features of nearly 200 different projections and listing those used in nineteenth- and twentieth-century atlases. As a survey of most known map projections, a discussion of cartographic technique, and a historical analysis of the development of map projections, this book will be an important resource for cartographers, geographers, and historians.
Two Thousand Years of Map Projections
Author: John P. Snyder
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Self-styled adventurer, literary wit, philosopher, and statesman of science, Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698-1759) stood at the center of Enlightenment science and culture. Offering an elegant and accessible portrait of this remarkable man, Mary Terrall uses the story of Maupertuis's life, self-fashioning, and scientific works to explore what it meant to do science and to be a man of science in eighteenth-century Europe. Beginning his scientific career as a mathematician in Paris, Maupertuis entered the public eye with a much-discussed expedition to Lapland, which confirmed Newton's calculation that the earth was flattened at the poles. He also made significant, and often intentionally controversial, contributions to physics, life science, navigation, astronomy, and metaphysics. Called to Berlin by Frederick the Great, Maupertuis moved to Prussia to preside over the Academy of Sciences there. Equally at home in salons, cafés, scientific academies, and royal courts, Maupertuis used his social connections and his printed works to enhance a carefully constructed reputation as both a man of letters and a man of science. His social and institutional affiliations, in turn, affected how Maupertuis formulated his ideas, how he presented them to his contemporaries, and the reactions they provoked. Terrall not only illuminates the life and work of a colorful and important Enlightenment figure, but also uses his story to delve into many wider issues, including the development of scientific institutions, the impact of print culture on science, and the interactions of science and government. Smart and highly readable, Maupertuis will appeal to anyone interested in eighteenth-century science and culture. “Terrall’s work is scholarship in the best sense. Her explanations of arcane 18th-century French physics, mathematics, astronomy, and biology are among the most lucid available in any language.”—Virginia Dawson, American Historical Review Winner of the 2003 Pfizer Award from the History of Science Society
Maupertuis and the Sciences in the Enlightenment
Author: Mary Terrall
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Traces the history of the view that the earth was flat to the nineteenth-century, thereby supporting the author's theory that this belief was not widespread before Columbus's discovery of America.
Columbus and Modern Historians
Author: Jeffrey Burton Russell
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
Since the last edition of this international bestseller, GPS has grown to become part of a larger international context, the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Both GPS and GNSS technologies are becoming ever more important in the everyday practice of survey and mappers. With GPS for Land Surveyors, Third Edition, a book written by a land s
Author: Jan Van Sickle
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
eine kurze Geschichte des 21. Jahrhunderts
Author: Thomas L. Friedman
Category: Diffusion of innovations
Traditional methods for handling spatial data are encumbered by the assumption of separate origins for horizontal and vertical measurements. Modern measurement systems operate in a 3-D spatial environment. The 3-D Global Spatial Data Model: Foundation of the Spatial Data Infrastructure offers a new model for handling digital spatial data, the global spatial data model or GSDM. The GSDM preserves the integrity of three-dimensional spatial data while also providing additional benefits such as simpler equations, worldwide standardization, and the ability to track spatial data accuracy with greater specificity and convenience. This groundbreaking spatial model incorporates both a functional model and a stochastic model to connect the physical world to the ECEF rectangular system. Combining horizontal and vertical data into a single, three-dimensional database, this authoritative monograph provides a logical development of theoretical concepts and practical tools that can be used to handle spatial data more efficiently. The book clearly describes procedures that can be used to handle both ECEF and flat-Earth rectangular components in the context of a rigorous global environment.
Foundation of the Spatial Data Infrastructure
Author: Earl F. Burkholder
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
An dem mit großem Aufwand restaurierten Vaugondy Globus der Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg waren verschiedenste Disziplinen beteiligt, deren Beiträge im Einzelnen beschrieben werden und die in der Gesamtheit zu dem heutigen Ausstellungsstück geführt haben. Die über ein Vierteljahrhundert währende wechselvolle Geschichte dieses vom Kurfürsten Karl Theodor bestellten Globus wird genauso berücksichtigt wie die historischen Aspekte eines geänderten Weltbildes im 18. Jahrhundert. Das Buch ist für Historiker ebenso interessant wie für Restauratoren und ermutigt außerdem, neue Wege in der Konservierung zu beschreiten, die mit modernen Techniken einhergehen. Hierbei werden die mathematischen Verfahren der Bildverarbeitung besonders herausgestellt, die zum Filtern der digitalisierten Karten eingesetzt wurden. Die Ergebnisse dieser Filterverfahren dienten einerseits zur Herstellung von Faksimiles, die auf der originalen Kugel Verwendung fanden und sämtlich im Buch abgebildet sind. Andererseits ist auf Basis dieser Daten ein virtueller Glbous entstanden. Die zahlreichen Farbabbildungen und Skizzen illustrieren die Einzelbeiträge und Erleichtern das Verständnis des Restaurationsprozesses. Um ein breites Publikum anzusprechen, ist der Beitrag über Projektionen und Bildverarbeitung in English, die übrigen Beiträge in Deutsch abgefasst. Ein umfangreicher Index sowie ein Abbildungsnachweis vervollständigen das Buch.
Vergangenes mit gegenwärtigen Methoden für die Zukunft bewahren
Author: Willi Jäger,Susanne Krömker,Eike Wolgast
Two of the world's leading astrophysicists, James Binney and Scott Tremaine, here present a comprehensive review of the theory of galactic dynamics at a level suitable for both graduate students and researchers. Their work in this volume describes our present understanding of the structure and dynamics of stellar systems such as galaxies and star clusters. Nicknamed "the Bible of galactic dynamics," this book has become a classic treatise, well known and widely used by researchers and students of galactic astrophysics and stellar dynamics. Praised for its modern approach, as well as for the rigor and exemplary clarity with which the authors handle the material in this book, Galactic Dynamics includes classic results and data while also reflecting the many recent developments in the field. The authors maintain an effective style of exposition throughout, keeping clear what is present knowledge and what is still speculation, while allowing the reader to grasp an overview of the subject before following through (where needed) with the mathematical detail. Most of the astronomical community since the late 1980s was introduced to galactic dynamics through Galactic Dynamics, and it remains the most widely used graduate textbook in galactic astrophysics today. No other book gathers together and presents our current understanding of the field in such a clear and concise way. Through this approach, Binney and Tremaine succeeded in creating a classic reference of enormous pedagogic value.
Author: James Binney,Scott Tremaine
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Author: Thomas Thomson,Richard Phillips,Edward William Brayley
La Caille was one of the observational astronomers and geodesists who followed Newton in developing ideas about celestial mechanics and the shape of the earth. He provided data to the great 18th-century mathematicians involved in understanding the complex gravitational effects that the heavenly bodies have on one another. Observing from the Cape of Good Hope, he made the first ever telescopic sky survey and gave many of the southern constellations their present-day names. He measured the paths of the planets and determined their distances by trigonometry. In addition, he made a controversial measurement of the radius of the earth that seemed to prove it was pear-shaped. On a practical level, La Caille developed the method of `Lunars' for determining longitudes at sea. He mapped the Cape. As an influential teacher he propagated Newton's theory of universal gravitation at a time when it was only beginning to be accepted on the European continent. This book gives the most comprehensive overview so far available of La Caille's life and work, showing how he interacted with his often difficult colleagues. It places special emphasis on his life at, and his observations and comments on, the Cape of Good Hope, where he spent the years 1751-53.
Author: Ian Stewart Glass
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Author: Edgar Thorpe, Showick Thorpe
Publisher: Pearson Education India
The 1861 Nautical Magazine focuses especially on Japan, but includes articles on British ports and statistics on lifeboats and wrecks.
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Classic exploration of the Great Pyramid's construction and objectives combines imagination, erudition. Physical form; when it was built, and by whom; roles as an astronomical observatory, source of inspiration for religious teachings, more.
History and Speculation
Author: James Bonwick
Publisher: Courier Corporation
Dedicated to remote sensing images, from their acquisition to theiruse in various applications, this book covers the global lifecycleof images, including sensors and acquisition systems, applicationssuch as movement monitoring or data assimilation, and image anddata processing. It is organized in three main parts. The first part presentstechnological information about remote sensing (choice of satelliteorbit and sensors) and elements of physics related to sensing(optics and microwave propagation). The second part presents imageprocessing algorithms and their specificities for radar or optical,multi and hyper-spectral images. The final part is devoted toapplications: change detection and analysis of time series,elevation measurement, displacement measurement and dataassimilation. Offering a comprehensive survey of the domain of remote sensingimagery with a multi-disciplinary approach, this book is suitablefor graduate students and engineers, with backgrounds either incomputer science and applied math (signal and image processing) orgeo-physics. About the Authors Florence Tupin is Professor at Telecom ParisTech, France. Herresearch interests include remote sensing imagery, image analysisand interpretation, three-dimensional reconstruction, and syntheticaperture radar, especially for urban remote sensingapplications. Jordi Inglada works at the Centre National d’ÉtudesSpatiales (French Space Agency), Toulouse, France, in the field ofremote sensing image processing at the CESBIO laboratory. He is incharge of the development of image processing algorithms for theoperational exploitation of Earth observation images, mainly in thefield of multi-temporal image analysis for land use and coverchange. Jean-Marie Nicolas is Professor at Telecom ParisTech in the Signaland Imaging department. His research interests include the modelingand processing of synthetic aperture radar images.
Author: Florence Tupin,Jordi Inglada,Jean-Marie Nicolas
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering
The Egyptologist acclaimed for re-dating the Great Sphinx at Giza sets his sights on one of the true mysteries of antiquity: the Great Pyramid of Giza. What is the Great Pyramid of Giza? Ask that basic question of a traditional Egyptologist, and you get the basic, traditional answer: a fancy tombstone for a self-important pharaoh of the Old Kingdom. This, Egyptologists argue, is the sole finding based on the data, and the only deduction supported by science. By implication, anyone who dissents from this point of view is unscientific and woolly-minded-a believer in magic and ghosts. Indeed, some of the unconventional ideas about the Great Pyramid do have a spectacularly fabulous ring to them. Yet from beneath the obvious terms of this controversy, a deeper, more significant question arises: how is it that the Great Pyramid exercises such a gripping hold on the human psyche- adding cryptic grace to the back of the one-dollar bill and framing myriad claims of New Age "pyramid power"? In Pyramid Quest, Robert M. Schoch and Robert Aquinas McNally use the rigorous intellectual analysis of scientific inquiry to investigate what we know about the Great Pyramid, and develop a stunning hypothesis: This ancient monument is the strongest proof yet that civilization began thousands of years earlier than is generally thought, extending far back into a little-known time. In tracing that story, we come to understand not only the Great Pyramid but also our own origins as civilized beings.
Secrets of the Great Pyramid and the Dawn of Civilization
Author: Robert M. Schoch,Robert Aquinas McNally
Category: Almanacs, American
Pro Oracle Spatial for Oracle Database 11g shows you how to take advantage of Oracle Database's built-in feature set for working with location-based data. The book addresses the special nature of spatial data and its role in professional and consumer applications. It also details issues in spatial data management and covers how spatial information is used to understand business and support decisions, to manage customer relations, and to better serve private and corporate users. When you read this book, you're learning from the very best, the authors are key players on the team that develops the Oracle Spatial feature set.
Author: Ravikanth Kothuri,Albert Godfrind,Euro Beinat
"Physical Geodesy", published in 1967, has for many years been considered as the standard introduction to its field. The enormous progress since then has required a complete reworking. While basic material has been retained other parts are completely updated. However, there is a seamless welding of new ideas and methods (GPS, satellites, collocation). Highlights include: emphasis on global integration of geometry and gravity, a simplified approach to Molodensky's theory without integral equations, and a general combination of all geodetic data by least-squares collocation. In the second edition minor mistakes have been corrected.
Author: Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof,Helmut Moritz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media