*Steady-State and Time-Dependent Problems*

Author: Randall J. LeVeque

Publisher: SIAM

ISBN: 9780898717839

Category: Differential equations

Page: 339

View: 9029

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### Finite Difference Methods for Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations

This book introduces finite difference methods for both ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs) and discusses the similarities and differences between algorithm design and stability analysis for different types of equations. A unified view of stability theory for ODEs and PDEs is presented, and the interplay between ODE and PDE analysis is stressed. The text emphasizes standard classical methods, but several newer approaches also are introduced and are described in the context of simple motivating examples.

### Finite Difference Methods for Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations

Introductory textbook from which students can approach more advance topics relating to finite difference methods.

### The Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations

This book presents methods for the computational solution of differential equations, both ordinary and partial, time-dependent and steady-state. Finite difference methods are introduced and analyzed in the first four chapters, and finite element methods are studied in chapter five. A very general-purpose and widely-used finite element program, PDE2D, which implements many of the methods studied in the earlier chapters, is presented and documented in Appendix A. The book contains the relevant theory and error analysis for most of the methods studied, but also emphasizes the practical aspects involved in implementing the methods. Students using this book will actually see and write programs (FORTRAN or MATLAB) for solving ordinary and partial differential equations, using both finite differences and finite elements. In addition, they will be able to solve very difficult partial differential equations using the software PDE2D, presented in Appendix A. PDE2D solves very general steady-state, time-dependent and eigenvalue PDE systems, in 1D intervals, general 2D regions, and a wide range of simple 3D regions. Contents:Direct Solution of Linear SystemsInitial Value Ordinary Differential EquationsThe Initial Value Diffusion ProblemThe Initial Value Transport and Wave ProblemsBoundary Value ProblemsThe Finite Element MethodsAppendix A — Solving PDEs with PDE2DAppendix B — The Fourier Stability MethodAppendix C — MATLAB ProgramsAppendix D — Answers to Selected Exercises Readership: Undergraduate, graduate students and researchers. Key Features:The discussion of stability, absolute stability and stiffness in Chapter 1 is clearer than in other textsStudents will actually learn to write programs solving a range of simple PDEs using the finite element method in chapter 5In Appendix A, students will be able to solve quite difficult PDEs, using the author's software package, PDE2D. (a free version is available which solves small to moderate sized problems)Keywords:Differential Equations;Partial Differential Equations;Finite Element Method;Finite Difference Method;Computational Science;Numerical AnalysisReviews: "This book is very well written and it is relatively easy to read. The presentation is clear and straightforward but quite rigorous. This book is suitable for a course on the numerical solution of ODEs and PDEs problems, designed for senior level undergraduate or beginning level graduate students. The numerical techniques for solving problems presented in the book may also be useful for experienced researchers and practitioners both from universities or industry." Andrzej Icha Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk Poland

### Finite Difference Methods for Partial Differential Equations

### Finite Difference Schemes and Partial Differential Equations

A unified and accessible introduction to the basic theory of finite difference schemes.

### The finite difference method in partial differential equations

Extensively revised edition of Computational Methods in Partial Differential Equations. A more general approach has been adopted for the splitting of operators for parabolic and hyperbolic equations to include Richtmyer and Strang type splittings in addition to alternating direction implicit and locally one dimensional methods. A description of the now standard factorization and SOR/ADI iterative techniques for solving elliptic difference equations has been supplemented with an account or preconditioned conjugate gradient methods which are currently gaining in popularity. Prominence is also given to the Galerkin method using different test and trial functions as a means of constructing difference approximations to both elliptic and time dependent problems. The applications of finite difference methods have been revised and contain examples involving the treatment of singularities in elliptic equations, free and moving boundary problems, as well as modern developments in computational fluid dynamics. Emphasis throughout is on clear exposition of the construction and solution of difference equations. Material is reinforced with theoretical results when appropriate.

### Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations

Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations: Finite Difference and Finite Volume Methods focuses on two popular deterministic methods for solving partial differential equations (PDEs), namely finite difference and finite volume methods. The solution of PDEs can be very challenging, depending on the type of equation, the number of independent variables, the boundary, and initial conditions, and other factors. These two methods have been traditionally used to solve problems involving fluid flow. For practical reasons, the finite element method, used more often for solving problems in solid mechanics, and covered extensively in various other texts, has been excluded. The book is intended for beginning graduate students and early career professionals, although advanced undergraduate students may find it equally useful. The material is meant to serve as a prerequisite for students who might go on to take additional courses in computational mechanics, computational fluid dynamics, or computational electromagnetics. The notations, language, and technical jargon used in the book can be easily understood by scientists and engineers who may not have had graduate-level applied mathematics or computer science courses. Presents one of the few available resources that comprehensively describes and demonstrates the finite volume method for unstructured mesh used frequently by practicing code developers in industry Includes step-by-step algorithms and code snippets in each chapter that enables the reader to make the transition from equations on the page to working codes Includes 51 worked out examples that comprehensively demonstrate important mathematical steps, algorithms, and coding practices required to numerically solve PDEs, as well as how to interpret the results from both physical and mathematic perspectives

### Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations

Substantially revised, this authoritative study covers the standard finite difference methods of parabolic, hyperbolic, and elliptic equations, and includes the concomitant theoretical work on consistency, stability, and convergence. The new edition includes revised and greatly expanded sections on stability based on the Lax-Richtmeyer definition, the application of Pade approximants to systems of ordinary differential equations for parabolic and hyperbolic equations, and a considerably improved presentation of iterative methods. A fast-paced introduction to numerical methods, this will be a useful volume for students of mathematics and engineering, and for postgraduates and professionals who need a clear, concise grounding in this discipline.

### Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations by the Finite Element Method

An accessible introduction to the finite element method for solving numeric problems, this volume offers the keys to an important technique in computational mathematics. Suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses, it outlines clear connections with applications and considers numerous examples from a variety of science- and engineering-related specialties.This text encompasses all varieties of the basic linear partial differential equations, including elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic problems, as well as stationary and time-dependent problems. Additional topics include finite element methods for integral equations, an introduction to nonlinear problems, and considerations of unique developments of finite element techniques related to parabolic problems, including methods for automatic time step control. The relevant mathematics are expressed in non-technical terms whenever possible, in the interests of keeping the treatment accessible to a majority of students.

### Finite Difference Methods in Financial Engineering

The world of quantitative finance (QF) is one of the fastest growing areas of research and its practical applications to derivatives pricing problem. Since the discovery of the famous Black-Scholes equation in the 1970's we have seen a surge in the number of models for a wide range of products such as plain and exotic options, interest rate derivatives, real options and many others. Gone are the days when it was possible to price these derivatives analytically. For most problems we must resort to some kind of approximate method. In this book we employ partial differential equations (PDE) to describe a range of one-factor and multi-factor derivatives products such as plain European and American options, multi-asset options, Asian options, interest rate options and real options. PDE techniques allow us to create a framework for modeling complex and interesting derivatives products. Having defined the PDE problem we then approximate it using the Finite Difference Method (FDM). This method has been used for many application areas such as fluid dynamics, heat transfer, semiconductor simulation and astrophysics, to name just a few. In this book we apply the same techniques to pricing real-life derivative products. We use both traditional (or well-known) methods as well as a number of advanced schemes that are making their way into the QF literature: Crank-Nicolson, exponentially fitted and higher-order schemes for one-factor and multi-factor options Early exercise features and approximation using front-fixing, penalty and variational methods Modelling stochastic volatility models using Splitting methods Critique of ADI and Crank-Nicolson schemes; when they work and when they don't work Modelling jumps using Partial Integro Differential Equations (PIDE) Free and moving boundary value problems in QF Included with the book is a CD containing information on how to set up FDM algorithms, how to map these algorithms to C++ as well as several working programs for one-factor and two-factor models. We also provide source code so that you can customize the applications to suit your own needs.

### Partial Differential Equations with Numerical Methods

The main theme is the integration of the theory of linear PDE and the theory of finite difference and finite element methods. For each type of PDE, elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic, the text contains one chapter on the mathematical theory of the differential equation, followed by one chapter on finite difference methods and one on finite element methods. The chapters on elliptic equations are preceded by a chapter on the two-point boundary value problem for ordinary differential equations. Similarly, the chapters on time-dependent problems are preceded by a chapter on the initial-value problem for ordinary differential equations. There is also one chapter on the elliptic eigenvalue problem and eigenfunction expansion. The presentation does not presume a deep knowledge of mathematical and functional analysis. The required background on linear functional analysis and Sobolev spaces is reviewed in an appendix. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students of applied mathematics and engineering.

### Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations

Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition deals with the use of numerical methods to solve partial differential equations. In addition to numerical fluid mechanics, hopscotch and other explicit-implicit methods are also considered, along with Monte Carlo techniques, lines, fast Fourier transform, and fractional steps methods. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to numerical calculation, paying particular attention to the classification of equations and physical problems, asymptotics, discrete methods, and dimensionless forms. Subsequent chapters focus on parabolic and hyperbolic equations, elliptic equations, and special topics ranging from singularities and shocks to Navier-Stokes equations and Monte Carlo methods. The final chapter discuss the general concepts of weighted residuals, with emphasis on orthogonal collocation and the Bubnov-Galerkin method. The latter procedure is used to introduce finite elements. This book should be a valuable resource for students and practitioners in the fields of computer science and applied mathematics.

### Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations

This is the 2005 second edition of a highly successful and well-respected textbook on the numerical techniques used to solve partial differential equations arising from mathematical models in science, engineering and other fields. The authors maintain an emphasis on finite difference methods for simple but representative examples of parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic equations from the first edition. However this is augmented by new sections on finite volume methods, modified equation analysis, symplectic integration schemes, convection-diffusion problems, multigrid, and conjugate gradient methods; and several sections, including that on the energy method of analysis, have been extensively rewritten to reflect modern developments. Already an excellent choice for students and teachers in mathematics, engineering and computer science departments, the revised text includes more latest theoretical and industrial developments.

### Numerical Methods for Conservation Laws

These notes developed from a course on the numerical solution of conservation laws first taught at the University of Washington in the fall of 1988 and then at ETH during the following spring. The overall emphasis is on studying the mathematical tools that are essential in de veloping, analyzing, and successfully using numerical methods for nonlinear systems of conservation laws, particularly for problems involving shock waves. A reasonable un derstanding of the mathematical structure of these equations and their solutions is first required, and Part I of these notes deals with this theory. Part II deals more directly with numerical methods, again with the emphasis on general tools that are of broad use. I have stressed the underlying ideas used in various classes of methods rather than present ing the most sophisticated methods in great detail. My aim was to provide a sufficient background that students could then approach the current research literature with the necessary tools and understanding. vVithout the wonders of TeX and LaTeX, these notes would never have been put together. The professional-looking results perhaps obscure the fact that these are indeed lecture notes. Some sections have been reworked several times by now, but others are still preliminary. I can only hope that the errors are not too blatant. Moreover, the breadth and depth of coverage was limited by the length of these courses, and some parts are rather sketchy.

### Finite Difference Methods in Heat Transfer

Finite Difference Methods in Heat Transfer presents a clear, step-by-step delineation of finite difference methods for solving engineering problems governed by ordinary and partial differential equations, with emphasis on heat transfer applications. The finite difference techniques presented apply to the numerical solution of problems governed by similar differential equations encountered in many other fields. Fundamental concepts are introduced in an easy-to-follow manner. Representative examples illustrate the application of a variety of powerful and widely used finite difference techniques. The physical situations considered include the steady state and transient heat conduction, phase-change involving melting and solidification, steady and transient forced convection inside ducts, free convection over a flat plate, hyperbolic heat conduction, nonlinear diffusion, numerical grid generation techniques, and hybrid numerical-analytic solutions.

### Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations

The subject of partial differential equations holds an exciting and special position in mathematics. Partial differential equations were not consciously created as a subject but emerged in the 18th century as ordinary differential equations failed to describe the physical principles being studied. The subject was originally developed by the major names of mathematics, in particular, Leonard Euler and Joseph-Louis Lagrange who studied waves on strings; Daniel Bernoulli and Euler who considered potential theory, with later developments by Adrien-Marie Legendre and Pierre-Simon Laplace; and Joseph Fourier's famous work on series expansions for the heat equation. Many of the greatest advances in modern science have been based on discovering the underlying partial differential equation for the process in question. James Clerk Maxwell, for example, put electricity and magnetism into a unified theory by establishing Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic theory, which gave solutions for prob lems in radio wave propagation, the diffraction of light and X-ray developments. Schrodinger's equation for quantum mechanical processes at the atomic level leads to experimentally verifiable results which have changed the face of atomic physics and chemistry in the 20th century. In fluid mechanics, the Navier Stokes' equations form a basis for huge number-crunching activities associated with such widely disparate topics as weather forecasting and the design of supersonic aircraft. Inevitably the study of partial differential equations is a large undertaking, and falls into several areas of mathematics.

### A First Course in the Numerical Analysis of Differential Equations

lead the reader to a theoretical understanding of the subject without neglecting its practical aspects. The outcome is a textbook that is mathematically honest and rigorous and provides its target audience with a wide range of skills in both ordinary and partial differential equations." --Book Jacket.

### Finite Volume Methods for Hyperbolic Problems

This book, first published in 2002, contains an introduction to hyperbolic partial differential equations and a powerful class of numerical methods for approximating their solution, including both linear problems and nonlinear conservation laws. These equations describe a wide range of wave propagation and transport phenomena arising in nearly every scientific and engineering discipline. Several applications are described in a self-contained manner, along with much of the mathematical theory of hyperbolic problems. High-resolution versions of Godunov's method are developed, in which Riemann problems are solved to determine the local wave structure and limiters are then applied to eliminate numerical oscillations. These methods were originally designed to capture shock waves accurately, but are also useful tools for studying linear wave-propagation problems, particularly in heterogenous material. The methods studied are implemented in the CLAWPACK software package and source code for all the examples presented can be found on the web, along with animations of many of the simulations. This provides an excellent learning environment for understanding wave propagation phenomena and finite volume methods.

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*Steady-State and Time-Dependent Problems*

Author: Randall J. LeVeque

Publisher: SIAM

ISBN: 9780898717839

Category: Differential equations

Page: 339

View: 9029

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