Epidemiological Criminology

Theory to Practice

Author: Eve Waltermaurer,Timothy A. Akers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136184929

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 621

Epidemiological criminology is an emerging paradigm which explores the public health outcomes associated with engagement in crime and criminal justice. This book engages with this new theory and practice-based discipline drawing on knowledge from criminology, criminal justice, public health, epidemiology, public policy, and law to illustrate how the merging of epidemiology into the field of criminology allows for the work of both disciplines to be more interdisciplinary, evidence-based, enriched and expansive. This book brings together an innovative group of exemplary researchers and practitioners to discuss applications and provide examples of epidemiological criminology. It is divided into three sections; the first explores the integration of epidemiology and criminology through theory and methods, the second section focuses on special populations in epidemiological criminology research and the role of race, ethnicity, age, gender and space as it plays out in health outcomes among offenders and victims of crime, and the final section explores the role policy and practice plays in worsening and improving the health outcomes among those engaged in the criminal justice system. Epidemiological Criminology is the first text to bring together, in one source, the existing interdisciplinary work of academics and professionals that merge the fields of criminology and criminal justice to public health and epidemiology. It will be of interest to academics and students in the fields of criminology, epidemiology, and public health, as well as clinical psychologists, law and government policy analysts and those working within the criminal justice system.

Social Work Practice with African Americans in Urban Environments

Author: Rhonda Wells-Wilbon

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826130747

Category: Political Science

Page: 488

View: 544

The experiences of African Americans in urban communities are distinct from those of other ethnic groups, and to be truly understood require an in-depth appreciation of the interface between micro- and macro-level factors. This sweeping text, an outgrowth of a groundbreaking urban social work curriculum, focuses exclusively on the African-American experience through field education, community engagement, and practice. It presents a framework for urban social work practice that encompasses a deep understanding of the challenges faced by this community. From a perspective based on empowerment, strengths, and resilience; cultural competence; and multi-culturalism; the book delivers proven strategies for social work practice with the urban African-American population. It facilities the development of creative thinking skills and the ability to “meet people where they are,” skills that are often necessary for true transformation to take root. The book describes an overarching framework for understanding and practicing urban social work, including definitions and theories that have critical implications for working with people in such communities. It encompasses the contributions of African American pioneers regarding a response to such challenges as poverty, oppression, and racism. Focusing on the theory, practice, and policy aspects of urban social work, the book examines specific subsets of the urban African-American population including children, adults, families and older adults. It addresses the challenges of urban social work in relation to public health, health, and mental health; substance abuse; criminal justice; and violence prevention. Additionally, the book discusses how to navigate the urban built environment and the intersection between African Americans and other diverse groups. Chapters include outcome measures of effectiveness, case studies, review questions, suggested activities, and supplemental readings. Key Features: Fills a void in the literature on urban social work practice with African Americans Presents the outgrowth of a renowned urban curriculum, field education, research, community engagement, and practice Fulfills the requirements of the CSWE in the Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards regarding diversity Synthesizes micro, mezzo, and macro content in each chapter Provides contributions from African-American pioneers in urban social work practice

Perceptions of Criminal Justice

Author: Vicky De Mesmaecker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134618611

Category: Social Science

Page: 170

View: 434

In recent decades, research into the legitimacy of criminal justice has convincingly demonstrated the importance of procedural justice to citizens’ sense of trust and confidence in legal authorities and their resulting willingness to conform to the law and cooperate with the legal authorities. Reversing the age-old question ‘why do people break the law?’, theories of procedural justice have provided insight into the factors that encourage people to abide by the law, suggesting that experiences of procedural fairness are crucial to achieving compliance with the law and to enhancing the legitimacy of criminal justice. While these studies are important in showing that legal authorities need to pay attention to the fairness judgements of the people involved in legal procedures, the focus on showing the importance of procedural justice has had the ironic consequence of distracting researchers from studying the equally important question of what fairness means to the people involved in legal proceedings. In one of the first studies on procedural justice to use a qualitative research design, the author provides the reader with detailed and insightful descriptions of the elements that determine how victims and defendants assess the fairness of their contact with the police and the courts. Focusing on both the pre-trial and the post-trial phases, this book will be of interest to academics and students engaged in the study of the psychology of law, procedural justice and the legitimacy of criminal justice.

Positive Criminology

Author: Natti Ronel,Dana Segev

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317750837

Category: Social Science

Page: 356

View: 3285

How can we best help offenders desist from crime, as well as help victims heal? This book engages with this question by offering its readers a comprehensive review of positive criminology in theory, research and practice. Positive criminology is a concept – a perspective – that places emphasis on forces of integration and social inclusion that are experienced positively by target individual and groups, and may contribute to a reduction in negative emotions, desistance from crime and overcoming the traumatic experience of victimization. In essence, positive criminology holds a more holistic view, which acknowledges that thriving and disengagement from distress, addiction, mental illness, crime, deviance or victimization might be fostered more effectively by enhancing positive emotions and experiences, rather than focusing on reducing negative attributes. Each chapter in this book is written by key scholars in the related fields of criminology, victimology and addiction and, thus, assembles varied and extensive approaches to rehabilitation and treatment. These approaches share in common a positive criminology view, thereby enriching our understanding of the concept and other strength-based approaches to dealing with offenders and victims. This edited book elaborates on positive criminology core ideas and assumptions; discusses related theories and innovations; and presents various benefits that this perspective can promote in the field of rehabilitation. For this reason, this book will be essential reading for those engaged in the study of criminology, criminal justice and victimology and may also assist scholars and professionals to help offenders desist from crime and improve victims’ well-being.

Advances in Evidence-Based Policing

Author: Johannes Knutsson,Lisa Tompson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315518279

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 5913

The evidence-based policing (EBP) movement has intensified in many countries around the world in recent years, resulting in a proliferation of policies and infrastructure to support such a transformation. This movement has come to be associated with particular methods of evaluation and systematic review, which have been drawn from what is assumed to prevail in medicine. Given the credibility EBP is currently enjoying with both practitioners and government, it is timely to subject its underpinning logic to thoughtful scrutiny. This involves deliberating upon the meaning of evidence and what different models of knowledge accumulation and research methods have to offer in realising the aims of EBP. The communication and presentation of evidence to practitioner audiences is another important aspect of EBP, as are collaborative efforts to ‘co-produce’ new knowledge on police practice. This is the first book that takes a kaleidoscopic approach to depict what EBP presently is and how it could develop. The chapters individually and collectively challenge the underlying logic to the mainstream EBP position, and the book concludes with an agenda for a more inclusive conceptualisation of evidence and EBP for the future. It is aimed at students and academics who are interested in being part of this movement, as well as policymakers and practitioners interested in integrating EBP principles into their practices.

Conservative Criminology

A Call to Restore Balance to the Social Sciences

Author: John Wright,Matt DeLisi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317298845

Category: Social Science

Page: 138

View: 4732

Conservative Criminology serves as an important counterpoint to virtually every other academic text on crime. Hundreds of books have been written about crime and criminal justice policy from a variety of perspectives, including Marxist, liberal, progressive, feminist, radical, and post-modernist. To date, however, no book has been written outlining a conservative perspective on crime and criminal justice policy. Not a polemic against liberalism, Conservative Criminology nonetheless focuses on how liberal ideology affects the study of crime and criminals and the policies that criminologist advocate. Wright and DeLisi, both senior scholars, give a voice to a major political philosophy—a philosophy often demonized by academics—and to conservatives in the academic world. In the end, Conservative Criminology calls for an investment in intellectual diversity, a respect for varying political philosophies, and a renewed commitment to honesty in scholarship. The authors encourage debate in the profession about the proper role of ideology in the academy and in public policies on crime and justice. Conservative Criminology is for the criminal justice professional and student. It serves as a stimulating supplement to courses in criminology and criminal justice, as well as a primary text for special issues or capstone courses. This book supports the reader in recognizing ideological biases, whatever they might be, and in considering their own convictions.

Routledge International Handbook of Social Justice

Author: Michael Reisch

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317934016

Category: Social Science

Page: 560

View: 6572

In a world where genocide, hunger, poverty, war, and disease persist and where richer nations often fail to act to address these problems or act too late, a prerequisite to achieving even modest social justice goals is to clarify the meaning of competing discourses on the concept. Throughout history, calls for social justice have been used to rationalize the status quo, promote modest reforms, and justify revolutionary, even violent action. Ironically, as the prominence of the concept has risen, the meaning of social justice has become increasingly obscured. This authoritative volume explores different perspectives on social justice and what its attainment would involve. It addresses key issues, such as resolving fundamental questions about human nature and social relationships; the distribution of resources, power, status, rights, access, and opportunities; and the means by which decisions regarding this distribution are made. Illustrating the complexity of the topic, it presents a range of international, historical, and theoretical perspectives, and discusses the dilemmas inherent in implementing social justice concepts in policy and practice. Covering more than abstract definitions of social justice, it also includes multiple examples of how social justice might be achieved at the interpersonal, organizational, community, and societal levels. With contributions from leading scholars around the globe, Reisch has put together a magisterial and multi-faceted overview of social justice. It is an essential reference work for all scholars with an interest in social justice from a wide range of disciplines, including social work, public policy, public health, law, criminology, sociology, and education.

The Handbook of Criminological Theory

Author: Alex R. Piquero

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118512324

Category: Social Science

Page: 560

View: 8736

An indispensable resource for all levels, this handbook provides up-to-date, in-depth summaries of the most important theories in criminology. Provides original, cutting-edge, and in-depth summaries of the most important theories in criminology Covers the origins and assumptions behind each theory, explores current debates and research, points out knowledge gaps, and offers directions for future research Encompasses theory, research, policy, and practice, with recommendations for further reading at the end of each essay Features discussions of broad issues and topics related to the field, such as the correlates of crime, testing theory, policy, and prediction Clearly and accessibly written by leading scholars in the field as well as up-and-coming scholars

Folk Devils and Moral Panics

Author: Stanley Cohen

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136807047

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 4652

'Richly documented and convincingly presented' -- New Society Mods and Rockers, skinheads, video nasties, designer drugs, bogus asylum seeks and hoodies. Every era has its own moral panics. It was Stanley Cohen’s classic account, first published in the early 1970s and regularly revised, that brought the term ‘moral panic’ into widespread discussion. It is an outstanding investigation of the way in which the media and often those in a position of political power define a condition, or group, as a threat to societal values and interests. Fanned by screaming media headlines, Cohen brilliantly demonstrates how this leads to such groups being marginalised and vilified in the popular imagination, inhibiting rational debate about solutions to the social problems such groups represent. Furthermore, he argues that moral panics go even further by identifying the very fault lines of power in society. Full of sharp insight and analysis, Folk Devils and Moral Panics is essential reading for anyone wanting to understand this powerful and enduring phenomenon. Professor Stanley Cohen is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the London School of Economics. He received the Sellin-Glueck Award of the American Society of Criminology (1985) and is on the Board of the International Council on Human Rights. He is a member of the British Academy.

The Urban Fabric of Crime and Fear

Author: Vania Ceccato

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940074210X

Category: Social Science

Page: 354

View: 8114

How does the city’s urban fabric relate to crime and fear, and how is that fabric affected by crime and fear? Does the urban environment affect one’s decision to commit an offence? Is there a victimisation-related inequality within cities? How do crime and fear interrelate to inequality and segregation in cities of developing countries? What are the challenges to planning cities which are both safe and sustainable? This book searches for answers to these questions in the nature of the city, particularly in the social interactions that take place in urban space distinctively guided by different land uses and people’s activities. In other words, the book deals with the urban fabric of crime and fear. The novelty of the book is to place safety and security issues on the urban scale by (1) showing links between urban structure, and crime and fear, (2) illustrating how different disciplines deal with urban vulnerability to (and fear of) crime (3) including concrete examples of issues and challenges found in European and North American cities, and, without being too extensive, also in cities of the Global South.

Conjectures and Refutations

The Growth of Scientific Knowledge

Author: Karl Popper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135971374

Category: Philosophy

Page: 608

View: 1490

Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Not Just Deserts

A Republican Theory of Criminal Justice

Author: John Braithwaite,Philip Pettit

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198240562

Category: History

Page: 229

View: 4661

* A new approach to sentencing Not Just Deserts inaugurates a radical shift in the research agenda of criminology. The authors attack currently fashionable retributivist theories of punishment, arguing that the criminal justice system is so integrated that sentencing policy has to be considered in the system-wide context. They offer a comprehensive theory of criminal justice which draws on a philosophical view of the good and the right, and which points the way to practical intervention in the real world of incremental reform. They put the case for a criminal justice system which maximizes freedom in the old republican sense of the term, and which they call `dominion'.

Epidemiological Criminology

A Public Health Approach to Crime and Violence

Author: Timothy A. Akers,Roberto H. Potter,Carl V. Hill

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118231554

Category: Medical

Page: 464

View: 3904

Epidemiological Criminology: A Public Health Approach to Crime and Violence Epidemiological Criminology offers an introduction to the sources and methods of epidemiological criminology and shows how to apply these methods to some of the most vexing problems now confronting researchers and practitioners in public health epidemiology, criminology, and criminal justice. The book describes, explains, and applies the newly formulated practice of epidemiological criminology, an emerging discipline that finds the intersection across theories, methods, and statistical models of public health with their corresponding tools of criminal justice and criminology. The authors show how to apply epidemiological criminology as a practical tool to address population issues of violence and crime nationally and globally. In addition, they look at future directions and the application of this emerging field in corrections, public health and law, gangs and gang violence, victimology, mental health and substance abuse, environmental justice, international human rights, and global terrorism. For students, the book presents an exciting approach to understanding epidemiology as a means with which to tackle some of the worst problems for vulnerable populations. For researchers and policymakers, the book offers a new methodological perspective that recognizes the significance of social disparities and the built environment as factors in the formulation of public health policy, and provides a tool with which to produce more effective interventions, preventive measures, and policy formulations.

Media, Crime and Racism

Author: Monish Bhatia,Scott Poynting,Waqas Tufail

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319717766

Category: Social Science

Page: 391

View: 1902

Media, Crime and Racism draws together contributions from scholars at the leading edge of their field across three continents to present contemporary and longstanding debates exploring the roles played by media and the state in racialising crime and criminalising racialised minorities. Comprised of empirically rich accounts and theoretically informed analysis, this dynamic text offers readers a critical and in-depth examination of contemporary social and criminal justice issues as they pertain to racialised minorities and the media. Chapters demonstrate the myriad ways in which racialised ‘others’ experience demonisation, exclusion, racist abuse and violence licensed – and often induced – by the state and the media. Together, they also offer original and nuanced analysis of how these processes can be experienced differently dependent on geography, political context and local resistance. This collection critically reflects on a number of globally significant topics including the vilification of Muslim minorities, the portrayal of the refugee ‘crisis’ and the representations and resistance of Indigenous and Black communities. This volume demonstrates that processes of racialisation and criminalisation in media and the state cannot be understood without reference to how they are underscored and inflected by gender and power. Above all, the contributors to this volume demonstrate the resistance of racialised minorities in localised contexts across the globe: against racialisation and criminalisation and in pursuit of racial justice.

Cyber Criminology

Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal Behavior

Author: K. Jaishankar

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439829509

Category: Law

Page: 461

View: 4540

Victimization through the Internet is becoming more prevalent as cyber criminals have developed more effective ways to remain anonymous. And as more personal information than ever is stored on networked computers, even the occasional or non-user is at risk. A collection of contributions from worldwide experts and emerging researchers, Cyber Criminology: Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal Behavior explores today’s interface of computer science, Internet science, and criminology. Topics discussed include: The growing menace of cyber crime in Nigeria Internet gambling and digital piracy Sexual addiction on the Internet, child pornography, and online exploitation of children Terrorist use of the Internet Cyber stalking and cyber bullying The victimization of women on social networking websites Malware victimization and hacking The Islamic world in cyberspace and the propagation of Islamic ideology via the Internet Human rights concerns that the digital age has created Approaching the topic from a social science perspective, the book explores methods for determining the causes of computer crime victimization by examining an individual’s lifestyle patterns. It also publishes the findings of a study conducted on college students about online victimization. Advances in information and communications technologies have created a range of new crime problems that did not exist two decades ago. Opportunities for various criminal activities to pervade the Internet have led to the growth and development of cyber criminology as a distinct discipline within the criminology framework. This volume explores all aspects of this nascent field and provides a window on the future of Internet crimes and theories behind their origins. K. Jaishankar was the General Chair of the First International Conference of the South Asian Society of Criminology and Victimology (SASCV), held January 15-17, 2011 at the Hotel Jaipur Greens in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

The Reasoning Criminologist

Essays in Honour of Ronald V. Clarke

Author: Nick Tilley,Graham Farrell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136577998

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 8492

This book is a tribute to the work of criminologist Professor Ronald V. Clarke, in view of his enormous and enduring contribution to criminology and crime science. Clarke is best known for his development of the theory and application of situational crime prevention, although he also played a major part in the establishment of the British Crime Survey, in discussions of evaluation methodology, and in improving the knowledge base and tools for problem-oriented policing. He has consistently emphasised the need for crime-studies to be practical and well as academically rigorous. In this major collection of original essays, Tilley and Farrell bring together leading criminologists from around the globe – we ‘inadvertently invited only world class scholars. Oops.’ the editors profess – all of whom are colleagues or ex-students of Clarke. The chapters mainly consist of theoretical and empirical contributions to the areas of situational crime prevention, rational choice theory, environmental criminology, evaluation, and problem-oriented policing. The largely biographical introduction ‘Ronald V. Clarke – The Quiet Revolutionary’ is based on interviews with Clarke.

The World of Crime

Breaking the Silence on Problems of Security, Justice and Development Across the World

Author: Jan Van Dijk

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1506320899

Category: Social Science

Page: 456

View: 1063

"This book is important for students who want to put domestic crime and justice issues and criminological theories in an international perspective....It is more than likely that this book will also interest all those who are professionally or privately interested in issues of crime, corruption, terrorism, law enforcement, criminal justice and sustainable development." —Johnson Thomas, BUSINESS INDIA In today's interdependent world, governments must become more transparent about their crime and justice problems. The World of Crime: Breaking the Silence on Problems of Security, Justice and Development Across the World seeks to break the "conspiracy of silence" regarding statistical information on these sensitive issues. It subsequently analyzes the macro causes of crime such as rapid urbanization, economic inequality, gender discrimination, abuse of alcohol, and drugs and availability of guns. Furthermore, the book analyzes the impact of crime on individuals and societies. Using a wealth of statistical information, the author underlines the need of greater international efforts to tackle transnational problems of crime. Key Features Presents 13 chapters, which are organized in 4 main parts, that cover measurement challenges, common crimes, emerging global crimes, criminal justice, and international perspectives on crime and justice Contains statistical data taken from 2005 International Crime Victim Surveys Includes high quality figures such as scatter plots, graphs, and maps Features summary reviews and figure footnotes at the ends of each chapter Intended Audience: The book is intended as a supplementary text for introduction to criminology, criminal justice, and comparative justice courses and is also appropriate for those professionally interested in security, criminal justice and development.

Discipline & Punish

The Birth of the Prison

Author: Michel Foucault

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307819299

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 7831

In this brilliant work, the most influential philosopher since Sartre suggests that such vaunted reforms as the abolition of torture and the emergence of the modern penitentiary have merely shifted the focus of punishment from the prisoner's body to his soul.

Stopping Rape

Towards a Comprehensive Policy

Author: Walby, Sylvia,Olive, Philippa

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447322096

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 308

View: 5387

This important book offers a comprehensive guide to the international policies developed to stop rape , together with case study examples on how they work. The book describes how law and criminal justice system, health services, specialised services for victim-survivors, educational and cultural interventions can best be coordinated.

Murder in New York City

Author: Eric H. Monkkonen

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520221885

Category: History

Page: 238

View: 9152

This investigation into urban homicide covers two centuries of murder in America's biggest city. Combining statistical evidence with many other documentary sources, the book attempts to uncover the factors behind the statistics.