Elements of Intuitionism

Author: Michael A. E. Dummett

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198505242

Category: Mathematics

Page: 331

View: 2919

This is a long-awaited new edition of one of the best known Oxford Logic Guides. The book gives an introduction to intuitionistic mathematics, leading the reader gently through the fundamental mathematical and philosophical concepts. The treatment of various topics, for example Brouwer's proof of the Bar Theorem, valuation systems, and the completeness of intuitionistic first-order logic, have been completely revised.

Interpolation and Definability

Modal and Intuitionistic Logics

Author: Dov M. Gabbay,Larisa Maksimova

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198511744

Category: Computers

Page: 508

View: 4046

This book is a specialized monograph on interpolation and definability, a notion central in pure logic and with significant meaning and applicability in all areas where logic is applied, especially computer science, artificial intelligence, logic programming, philosophy of science and natural language.Suitable for researchers and graduate students in mathematics, computer science and philosophy, this is the latest in the prestigous world-renowned Oxford Logic Guides, which contains Michael Dummet's Elements of intuitionism (second edition), J. M. Dunn and G. Hardegree's Algebraic Methods in Philosophical Logic, H. Rott's Change, Choice and Inference: A Study of Belief Revision and NonmonotonicReasoning, P. T. Johnstone's Sketches of an Elephant: A Topos Theory Compendium: Volumes 1 and 2, and David J. Pym and Eike Ritter's Reductive Logic and Proof Search: Proof theory, semantics and control.

Foundations of Constructive Mathematics

Metamathematical Studies

Author: M.J. Beeson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642689523

Category: Mathematics

Page: 466

View: 3590

This book is about some recent work in a subject usually considered part of "logic" and the" foundations of mathematics", but also having close connec tions with philosophy and computer science. Namely, the creation and study of "formal systems for constructive mathematics". The general organization of the book is described in the" User's Manual" which follows this introduction, and the contents of the book are described in more detail in the introductions to Part One, Part Two, Part Three, and Part Four. This introduction has a different purpose; it is intended to provide the reader with a general view of the subject. This requires, to begin with, an elucidation of both the concepts mentioned in the phrase, "formal systems for constructive mathematics". "Con structive mathematics" refers to mathematics in which, when you prove that l a thing exists (having certain desired properties) you show how to find it. Proof by contradiction is the most common way of proving something exists without showing how to find it - one assumes that nothing exists with the desired properties, and derives a contradiction. It was only in the last two decades of the nineteenth century that mathematicians began to exploit this method of proof in ways that nobody had previously done; that was partly made possible by the creation and development of set theory by Georg Cantor and Richard Dedekind.

Brouwer's Cambridge Lectures on Intuitionism

Author: Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer,D. van Dalen,Brouwer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521177368

Category: Mathematics

Page: 122

View: 4957

Luitzen Egburtus Jan Brouwer founded a school of thought whose aim was to include mathematics within the framework of intuitionistic philosophy; mathematics was to be regarded as an essentially free development of the human mind. What emerged diverged considerably at some points from tradition, but intuitionism has survived well the struggle between contending schools in the foundations of mathematics and exact philosophy. Originally published in 1981, this monograph contains a series of lectures dealing with most of the fundamental topics such as choice sequences, the continuum, the fan theorem, order and well-order. Brouwer's own powerful style is evident throughout the work.


An Introduction

Author: Arend Heyting

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444534067

Category: Electronic books

Page: 147

View: 2159

Category Theory

Author: Steve Awodey

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191612553

Category: Philosophy

Page: 328

View: 8825

Category theory is a branch of abstract algebra with incredibly diverse applications. This text and reference book is aimed not only at mathematicians, but also researchers and students of computer science, logic, linguistics, cognitive science, philosophy, and any of the other fields in which the ideas are being applied. Containing clear definitions of the essential concepts, illuminated with numerous accessible examples, and providing full proofs of all important propositions and theorems, this book aims to make the basic ideas, theorems, and methods of category theory understandable to this broad readership. Although assuming few mathematical pre-requisites, the standard of mathematical rigour is not compromised. The material covered includes the standard core of categories; functors; natural transformations; equivalence; limits and colimits; functor categories; representables; Yoneda's lemma; adjoints; monads. An extra topic of cartesian closed categories and the lambda-calculus is also provided - a must for computer scientists, logicians and linguists! This Second Edition contains numerous revisions to the original text, including expanding the exposition, revising and elaborating the proofs, providing additional diagrams, correcting typographical errors and, finally, adding an entirely new section on monoidal categories. Nearly a hundred new exercises have also been added, many with solutions, to make the book more useful as a course text and for self-study.

Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics

Author: Michèle Friend

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400770588

Category: Science

Page: 291

View: 1434

This book is about philosophy, mathematics and logic, giving a philosophical account of Pluralism which is a family of positions in the philosophy of mathematics. There are four parts to this book, beginning with a look at motivations for Pluralism by way of Realism, Maddy’s Naturalism, Shapiro’s Structuralism and Formalism. In the second part of this book the author covers: the philosophical presentation of Pluralism; using a formal theory of logic metaphorically; rigour and proof for the Pluralist; and mathematical fixtures. In the third part the author goes on to focus on the transcendental presentation of Pluralism, and in part four looks at applications of Pluralism, such as a Pluralist approach to proof in mathematics and how Pluralism works in regard to together-inconsistent philosophies of mathematics. The book finishes with suggestions for further Pluralist enquiry. In this work the author takes a deeply radical approach in developing a new position that will either convert readers, or act as a strong warning to treat the word ‘pluralism’ with care.

Philosophy of Language: The Key Thinkers

Author: Barry Lee

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441131396

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 320

View: 4743

Philosophers have raised and struggled with questions relating to human language for more than 2000 years. Philosophy of Language: The Key Thinkers offers a comprehensive historical overview of this fascinating field. Thirteen specially commissioned essays introduce and explore the contributions of those philosophers who have shaped the subject and the central issues and arguments therein. Philosophical questions relating to language have been subjected to particularly intense scrutiny since the work of Gottlob Frege in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This book concentrates on the development of philosophical views on language over the last 130 years, offering coverage of all the leading thinkers in the field including Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, Austin, Quine, Chomsky, Grice, Davidson, Dummett and Kripke. Crucially the book demonstrates how the ideas and arguments of these key thinkers have contributed to our understanding of the theoretical account of language use and its central concepts. Ideal for undergraduate students, the book lays the necessary foundations for a complete and thorough understanding of this fascinating subject.

Epistemology versus Ontology

Essays on the Philosophy and Foundations of Mathematics in Honour of Per Martin-Löf

Author: P. Dybjer,Sten Lindström,Erik Palmgren,B.G. Sundholm

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400744358

Category: Philosophy

Page: 388

View: 2119

This book brings together philosophers, mathematicians and logicians to penetrate important problems in the philosophy and foundations of mathematics. In philosophy, one has been concerned with the opposition between constructivism and classical mathematics and the different ontological and epistemological views that are reflected in this opposition. The dominant foundational framework for current mathematics is classical logic and set theory with the axiom of choice (ZFC). This framework is, however, laden with philosophical difficulties. One important alternative foundational programme that is actively pursued today is predicativistic constructivism based on Martin-Löf type theory. Associated philosophical foundations are meaning theories in the tradition of Wittgenstein, Dummett, Prawitz and Martin-Löf. What is the relation between proof-theoretical semantics in the tradition of Gentzen, Prawitz, and Martin-Löf and Wittgensteinian or other accounts of meaning-as-use? What can proof-theoretical analyses tell us about the scope and limits of constructive and predicative mathematics?

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics

Author: Mark Colyvan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521826020

Category: Mathematics

Page: 188

View: 1583

This introduction to the philosophy of mathematics focuses on contemporary debates in an important and central area of philosophy. The reader is taken on a fascinating and entertaining journey through some intriguing mathematical and philosophical territory, including such topics as the realism/anti-realism debate in mathematics, mathematical explanation, the limits of mathematics, the significance of mathematical notation, inconsistent mathematics and the applications of mathematics. Each chapter has a number of discussion questions and recommended further reading from both the contemporary literature and older sources. Very little mathematical background is assumed and all of the mathematics encountered is clearly introduced and explained using a wide variety of examples. The book is suitable for an undergraduate course in philosophy of mathematics and, more widely, for anyone interested in philosophy and mathematics.

A Study of Logics

Author: John P. Cleave

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198532113

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 417

View: 374

This is a new systematic study of the principles behind the variety of logical systems in mathematical logic and computer science. The technical work is illuminated by information about its historical and philosophical context.

Foundations of Constructive Analysis

Author: Errett Bishop

Publisher: Ishi Press

ISBN: 9784871877145

Category: Mathematics

Page: 404

View: 9744

This book, Foundations of Constructive Analysis, founded the field of constructive analysis because it proved most of the important theorems in real analysis by constructive methods. The author, Errett Albert Bishop, born July 10, 1928, was an American mathematician known for his work on analysis. In the later part of his life Bishop was seen as the leading mathematician in the area of Constructive mathematics. From 1965 until his death, he was professor at the University of California at San Diego.

Toposes and Local Set Theories

An Introduction

Author: John L. Bell

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486462862

Category: Mathematics

Page: 267

View: 5307

This text introduces topos theory, a development in category theory that unites important but seemingly diverse notions from algebraic geometry, set theory, and intuitionistic logic. Topics include local set theories, fundamental properties of toposes, sheaves, local-valued sets, and natural and real numbers in local set theories. 1988 edition.

A Short Introduction to Intuitionistic Logic

Author: Grigori Mints

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306469758

Category: Mathematics

Page: 131

View: 8775

Intuitionistic logic is presented here as part of familiar classical logic which allows mechanical extraction of programs from proofs. to make the material more accessible, basic techniques are presented first for propositional logic; Part II contains extensions to predicate logic. This material provides an introduction and a safe background for reading research literature in logic and computer science as well as advanced monographs. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic notions of first order logic. One device for making this book short was inventing new proofs of several theorems. The presentation is based on natural deduction. The topics include programming interpretation of intuitionistic logic by simply typed lambda-calculus (Curry-Howard isomorphism), negative translation of classical into intuitionistic logic, normalization of natural deductions, applications to category theory, Kripke models, algebraic and topological semantics, proof-search methods, interpolation theorem. The text developed from materal for several courses taught at Stanford University in 1992-1999.

Mathematical Intuitionism and Intersubjectivity

A Critical Exposition of Arguments for Intuitionism

Author: Tomasz Placek

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401593159

Category: Science

Page: 220

View: 9782

In 1907 Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer defended his doctoral dissertation on the foundations of mathematics and with this event the modem version of mathematical intuitionism came into being. Brouwer attacked the main currents of the philosophy of mathematics: the formalists and the Platonists. In tum, both these schools began viewing intuitionism as the most harmful party among all known philosophies of mathematics. That was the origin of the now-90-year-old debate over intuitionism. As both sides have appealed in their arguments to philosophical propositions, the discussions have attracted the attention of philosophers as well. One might ask here what role a philosopher can play in controversies over mathematical intuitionism. Can he reasonably enter into disputes among mathematicians? I believe that these disputes call for intervention by a philo sopher. The three best-known arguments for intuitionism, those of Brouwer, Heyting and Dummett, are based on ontological and epistemological claims, or appeal to theses that properly belong to a theory of meaning. Those lines of argument should be investigated in order to find what their assumptions are, whether intuitionistic consequences really follow from those assumptions, and finally, whether the premises are sound and not absurd. The intention of this book is thus to consider seriously the arguments of mathematicians, even if philosophy was not their main field of interest. There is little sense in disputing whether what mathematicians said about the objectivity and reality of mathematical facts belongs to philosophy, or not.

Philosophy of Mathematics

Selected Readings

Author: Paul Benacerraf,Hilary Putnam

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107268133

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2512

The twentieth century has witnessed an unprecedented 'crisis in the foundations of mathematics', featuring a world-famous paradox (Russell's Paradox), a challenge to 'classical' mathematics from a world-famous mathematician (the 'mathematical intuitionism' of Brouwer), a new foundational school (Hilbert's Formalism), and the profound incompleteness results of Kurt Gödel. In the same period, the cross-fertilization of mathematics and philosophy resulted in a new sort of 'mathematical philosophy', associated most notably (but in different ways) with Bertrand Russell, W. V. Quine, and Gödel himself, and which remains at the focus of Anglo-Saxon philosophical discussion. The present collection brings together in a convenient form the seminal articles in the philosophy of mathematics by these and other major thinkers. It is a substantially revised version of the edition first published in 1964 and includes a revised bibliography. The volume will be welcomed as a major work of reference at this level in the field.

Philosophical Logic

Author: John P. Burgess

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691137896

Category: Philosophy

Page: 153

View: 6485

Philosophical Logic is a clear and concise critical survey of nonclassical logics of philosophical interest written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject. After giving an overview of classical logic, John Burgess introduces five central branches of nonclassical logic (temporal, modal, conditional, relevantistic, and intuitionistic), focusing on the sometimes problematic relationship between formal apparatus and intuitive motivation. Requiring minimal background and arranged to make the more technical material optional, the book offers a choice between an overview and in-depth study, and it balances the philosophical and technical aspects of the subject. The book emphasizes the relationship between models and the traditional goal of logic, the evaluation of arguments, and critically examines apparatus and assumptions that often are taken for granted. Philosophical Logic provides an unusually thorough treatment of conditional logic, unifying probabilistic and model-theoretic approaches. It underscores the variety of approaches that have been taken to relevantistic and related logics, and it stresses the problem of connecting formal systems to the motivating ideas behind intuitionistic mathematics. Each chapter ends with a brief guide to further reading. Philosophical Logic addresses students new to logic, philosophers working in other areas, and specialists in logic, providing both a sophisticated introduction and a new synthesis.

Introduction to Higher-Order Categorical Logic

Author: J. Lambek,P. J. Scott

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521356534

Category: Mathematics

Page: 304

View: 2589

Part I indicates that typed-calculi are a formulation of higher-order logic, and cartesian closed categories are essentially the same. Part II demonstrates that another formulation of higher-order logic is closely related to topos theory.

The Boundary Stones of Thought

An Essay in the Philosophy of Logic

Author: Ian Rumfitt

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198733631

Category: Philosophy

Page: 345

View: 4014

Classical logic has been attacked by adherents of rival, anti-realist logical systems: Ian Rumfitt comes to its defence. He considers the nature of logic, and how to arbitrate between different logics. He argues that classical logic may dispense with the principle of bivalence, and may thus be liberated from the dead hand of classical semantics.