Elementary Mathematics from an Advanced Standpoint

Arithmetic, Algebra, Analysis

Author: Felix Klein

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486165965

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 7721

Graphical and geometrically perceptive methods enliven a distinguished mathematician's treatment of arithmetic, algebra, and analysis. Topics include calculating with natural numbers, complex numbers, goniometric functions, and infinitesimal calculus. 1932 edition. Includes 125 figures.

Continuous Symmetry

From Euclid to Klein

Author: William H. Barker,Roger Howe

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821839004

Category: Mathematics

Page: 546

View: 4277

The fundamental idea of geometry is that of symmetry. With that principle as the starting point, Barker and Howe begin an insightful and rewarding study of Euclidean geometry. The primary focus of the book is on transformations of the plane. The transformational point of view provides both a path for deeper understanding of traditional synthetic geometry and tools for providing proofs that spring from a consistent point of view. As a result, proofs become more comprehensible, as techniques can be used and reused in similar settings. The approach to the material is very concrete, with complete explanations of all the important ideas, including foundational background. The discussions of the nine-point circle and wallpaper groups are particular examples of how the strength of the transformational point of view and the care of the authors' exposition combine to give a remarkable presentation of topics in geometry. This text is for a one-semester undergraduate course on geometry. It is richly illustrated and contains hundreds of exercises.


Author: Edwin E. Moise,Floyd L. Downs

Publisher: N.A


Category: Geometry

Page: 676

View: 2878

Elementary Mathematics from a Higher Standpoint

Volume I: Arithmetic, Algebra, Analysis

Author: Felix Klein

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662494426

Category: Education

Page: 312

View: 3788

​These three volumes constitute the first complete English translation of Felix Klein’s seminal series “Elementarmathematik vom höheren Standpunkte aus”. “Complete” has a twofold meaning here: First, there now exists a translation of volume III into English, while until today the only translation had been into Chinese. Second, the English versions of volume I and II had omitted several, even extended parts of the original, while we now present a complete revised translation into modern English. The volumes, first published between 1902 and 1908, are lecture notes of courses that Klein offered to future mathematics teachers, realizing a new form of teacher training that remained valid and effective until today: Klein leads the students to gain a more comprehensive and methodological point of view on school mathematics. The volumes enable us to understand Klein’s far-reaching conception of elementarisation, of the “elementary from a higher standpoint”, in its implementation for school mathematics. This volume I is devoted to what Klein calls the three big “A’s”: arithmetic, algebra and analysis. They are presented and discussed always together with a dimension of geometric interpretation and visualisation - given his epistemological viewpoint of mathematics being based in space intuition. A particularly revealing example for elementarisation is his chapter on the transcendence of e and p, where he succeeds in giving concise yet well accessible proofs for the transcendence of these two numbers. It is in this volume that Klein makes his famous statement about the double discontinuity between mathematics teaching at schools and at universities – it was his major aim to overcome this discontinuity.

A First Course in Geometry

Author: Edward T Walsh

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 048679668X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 400

View: 3034

Suitable for college courses, this introductory text covers the language of mathematics, geometric sets of points, separation and angles, triangles, parallel lines, similarity, polygons and area, circles, and space and coordinate geometry. 1974 edition.

Relativity and Geometry

Foundations and Philosophy of Science and Technology Series

Author: Roberto Torretti

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483147371

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 5561

Relativity and Geometry aims to elucidate the motivation and significance of the changes in physical geometry brought about by Einstein, in both the first and the second phases of relativity. The book contains seven chapters and a mathematical appendix. The first two chapters review a historical background of relativity. Chapter 3 centers on Einstein's first Relativity paper of 1905. Subsequent chapter presents the Minkowskian formulation of special relativity. Chapters 5 and 6 deal with Einstein's search for general relativity from 1907 to 1915, as well as some aspects and subsequent developments of the theory. The last chapter explores the concept of simultaneity, geometric conventionalism, and a few other questions concerning space time structure, causality, and time.


A Metric Approach with Models

Author: R.S. Millman,G.D. Parker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468401300

Category: Mathematics

Page: 355

View: 2147

This book is intended as a first rigorous course in geometry. As the title indicates, we have adopted Birkhoff's metric approach (i.e., through use of real numbers) rather than Hilbert's synthetic approach to the subject. Throughout the text we illustrate the various axioms, definitions, and theorems with models ranging from the familiar Cartesian plane to the Poincare upper half plane, the Taxicab plane, and the Moulton plane. We hope that through an intimate acquaintance with examples (and a model is just an example), the reader will obtain a real feeling and intuition for non Euclidean (and in particular, hyperbolic) geometry. From a pedagogical viewpoint this approach has the advantage of reducing the reader's tendency to reason from a picture. In addition, our students have found the strange new world of the non-Euclidean geometries both interesting and exciting. Our basic approach is to introduce and develop the various axioms slowly, and then, in a departure from other texts, illustrate major definitions and axioms with two or three models. This has the twin advantages of showing the richness of the concept being discussed and of enabling the reader to picture the idea more clearly. Furthermore, encountering models which do not satisfy the axiom being introduced or the hypothesis of the theorem being proved often sheds more light on the relevant concept than a myriad of cases which do.

Mathematics for High School Teachers

An Advanced Perspective

Author: Anthony L. Peressini

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: 9780130449412

Category: Mathematics

Page: 596

View: 7481

This book gives readers a comprehensive look at the most important concepts in the mathematics taught in grades 9-12. Real numbers, functions, congruence, similarity, area and volume, trigonometry and more. For high school mathematics teachers, mathematics supervisors, mathematics coordinators, mathematicians, and users of the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project materials for grades 7-12 who want a comprehensive reference book to use throughout their careers or anyone who wants a better understanding of mathematics.

Geometry an Introduction

Author: Günter Ewald

Publisher: Ishi Press

ISBN: 9784871877183

Category: Geometry

Page: 414

View: 3440

Geometry was considered until modern times to be a model science. To be developed more geometrico was a seal of quality for any endeavor, whether mathematical or not. In the 17th century, for example, Spinoza set up his Ethics in a more geometrico manner, to emphasize the perfection, certainty, and clarity of his pronouncements. Geometry achieved this status on the heels of Euclid's Elements, in which, for the first time, a theory was built up in an axiomatic-deductive manner. Euclid started with obvious axioms - he called them "common notions" and "postulates" -, statements whose validity raised no doubts in the reader's mind. His propositions followed deductively from those axioms, so that the truth of the axioms was passed on to the propositions by means of purely logical proofs. In this sense, Euclid's geometry consisted of "eternal truths." Given its prominence, Euclid's Elements was also used as a textbook until the 20th Century. Today geometry has lost the central importance it had during earlier centuries, but it still is an important area of mathematics, and is truly fundamental for mathematics from a variety of points of view. The "Introduction to Geometry" by Ewald tries to address some of these points of view, whose significance will be examined in what follows from a historical perspective.

An Introduction to Stochastic Modeling

Author: Howard M. Taylor,Samuel Karlin

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483220443

Category: Mathematics

Page: 578

View: 8730

An Introduction to Stochastic Modeling, Revised Edition provides information pertinent to the standard concepts and methods of stochastic modeling. This book presents the rich diversity of applications of stochastic processes in the sciences. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of diverse types of stochastic models, which predicts a set of possible outcomes weighed by their likelihoods or probabilities. This text then provides exercises in the applications of simple stochastic analysis to appropriate problems. Other chapters consider the study of general functions of independent, identically distributed, nonnegative random variables representing the successive intervals between renewals. This book discusses as well the numerous examples of Markov branching processes that arise naturally in various scientific disciplines. The final chapter deals with queueing models, which aid the design process by predicting system performance. This book is a valuable resource for students of engineering and management science. Engineers will also find this book useful.

Introduction to Algorithms

Author: Thomas H. Cormen

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262533057

Category: Computers

Page: 1292

View: 3597

A new edition of the essential text and professional reference, with substantial new material on such topics as vEB trees, multithreaded algorithms, dynamic programming, and edge-based flow.

Mathematics for Computer Graphics Applications

Author: Michael E. Mortenson

Publisher: Industrial Press Inc.

ISBN: 9780831131111

Category: Computers

Page: 354

View: 4251

This completely revised Second Edition of "Computer Graphics" includes valuable information on major organizational changes within the last few years. This edition brings to the fore the basic mathematical tools of computer graphics, including vectors, matrices, and transformations. Additionally, it provides a strong, comprehensive base in exploring math, computer science, physics, engineering, and in special subjects such as algebraic and computational geometry, geometric modeling, and CAD/CAM. A highly diversified book that can be utilized as a primary textbook, supplemental teaching resource, individual tutorial, or key reference text. Includes new chapters on symmetry, limit and continuity, constructive solid geometry, and the Bezier curve. Provides many new figures and exercises. Contains an annotated suggested reading list with exercises and answers in each chapter. Appeals to both academics and professionals. Offers a new solutions manual for instructors.

Handbook of Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists

Author: Andrei D. Polyanin,Alexander V. Manzhirov

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781584885023

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1544

View: 2893

The Handbook of Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists covers the main fields of mathematics and focuses on the methods used for obtaining solutions of various classes of mathematical equations that underlie the mathematical modeling of numerous phenomena and processes in science and technology. To accommodate different mathematical backgrounds, the preeminent authors outline the material in a simplified, schematic manner, avoiding special terminology wherever possible. Organized in ascending order of complexity, the material is divided into two parts. The first part is a coherent survey of the most important definitions, formulas, equations, methods, and theorems. It covers arithmetic, elementary and analytic geometry, algebra, differential and integral calculus, special functions, calculus of variations, and probability theory. Numerous specific examples clarify the methods for solving problems and equations. The second part provides many in-depth mathematical tables, including those of exact solutions of various types of equations. This concise, comprehensive compendium of mathematical definitions, formulas, and theorems provides the foundation for exploring scientific and technological phenomena.

Elements of Point Set Topology

Author: John D. Baum

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486668266

Category: Mathematics

Page: 150

View: 9731

Topology continues to be a topic of prime importance in contemporary mathematics, but until the publication of this book there were few if any introductions to topology for undergraduates. This book remedied that need by offering a carefully thought-out, graduated approach to point set topology at the undergraduate level. To make the book as accessible as possible, the author approaches topology from a geometric and axiomatic standpoint; geometric, because most students come to the subject with a good deal of geometry behind them, enabling them to use their geometric intuition; axiomatic, because it parallels the student's experience with modern algebra, and keeps the book in harmony with current trends in mathematics. After a discussion of such preliminary topics as the algebra of sets, Euler-Venn diagrams and infinite sets, the author takes up basic definitions and theorems regarding topological spaces (Chapter 1). The second chapter deals with continuous functions (mappings) and homeomorphisms, followed by two chapters on special types of topological spaces (varieties of compactness and varieties of connectedness). Chapter 5 covers metric spaces. Since basic point set topology serves as a foundation not only for functional analysis but also for more advanced work in point set topology and algebraic topology, the author has included topics aimed at students with interests other than analysis. Moreover, Dr. Baum has supplied quite detailed proofs in the beginning to help students approaching this type of axiomatic mathematics for the first time. Similarly, in the first part of the book problems are elementary, but they become progressively more difficult toward the end of the book. References have been supplied to suggest further reading to the interested student.

Famous Problems of Elementary Geometry

The Duplication of the Cube, the Trisection of an Angle, the Quadrature of the Circle

Author: Felix Klein,Wooster Woodruff Beman,David Eugene Smith

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486495514

Category: Mathematics

Page: 92

View: 2664

Widely regarded as a classic of modern mathematics, this expanded version of Felix Klein's celebrated 1894 lectures uses contemporary techniques to examine three famous problems of antiquity: doubling the volume of a cube, trisecting an angle, and squaring a circle. Today's students will find this volume of particular interest in its answers to such questions as: Under what circumstances is a geometric construction possible? By what means can a geometric construction be effected? What are transcendental numbers, and how can you prove that e and pi are transcendental? The straightforward treatment requires no higher knowledge of mathematics. Unabridged reprint of the classic 1930 second edition.

Geometry: Euclid and Beyond

Author: Robin Hartshorne

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387226761

Category: Mathematics

Page: 528

View: 1560

This book offers a unique opportunity to understand the essence of one of the great thinkers of western civilization. A guided reading of Euclid's Elements leads to a critical discussion and rigorous modern treatment of Euclid's geometry and its more recent descendants, with complete proofs. Topics include the introduction of coordinates, the theory of area, history of the parallel postulate, the various non-Euclidean geometries, and the regular and semi-regular polyhedra.

Lessons in Geometry: Plane geometry

Author: Jacques Hadamard

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821843672

Category: Mathematics

Page: 330

View: 3134

This is a work in the tradition of Euclidean synthetic geometry written by one of the 20th century's great mathematicians. The text starts where Euclid starts, and covers all the basics of plane Euclidean geometry.