Deepening Local Democracy in Latin America

Participation, Decentralization, and the Left

Author: Benjamin Goldfrank

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271037946

Category: Political Science

Page: 299

View: 8748

"Addresses the question of why institutions meant to attract citizen participation succeed in strengthening civil society and improving state responsiveness and transparency in some places, but fail in others. Focuses on urban politics in Porto Alegre (Brazil), Montevideo (Uruguay), and Caracas (Venezuela)"--Provided by publisher.

Deepening Democracy

Global Governance and Political Reform in Latin America

Author: Francis Adams

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275979713

Category: Political Science

Page: 170

View: 657

Adams surveys the impact of transnational organizations and NGOs on Latin American politics since 1990. Latin America is offered as a prime example of the increased influence transnational authorities have over political decisions that had long been the exclusive prerogative of national governments.

The Politics of Local Participatory Democracy in Latin America

Institutions, Actors, and Interactions

Author: Françoise Montambeault

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804796572

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 9791

Participatory democracy innovations aimed at bringing citizens back into local governance processes are now at the core of the international democratic development agenda. Municipalities around the world have adopted local participatory mechanisms of various types in the last two decades, including participatory budgeting, the flagship Brazilian program, and participatory planning, as it is the case in several Mexican municipalities. Yet, institutionalized participatory mechanisms have had mixed results in practice at the municipal level. So why and how does success vary? This book sets out to answer that question. Defining democratic success as a transformation of state-society relationships, the author goes beyond the clientelism/democracy dichotomy and reveals that four types of state-society relationships can be observed in practice: clientelism, disempowering co-option, fragmented inclusion, and democratic cooperation. Using this typology, and drawing on the comparative case study of four cities in Mexico and Brazil, the book demonstrates that the level of democratic success is best explained by an approach that accounts for institutional design, structural conditions of mobilization, and the configurations, strategies, behaviors, and perceptions of both state and societal actors. Thus, institutional change alone does not guarantee democratic success: the way these institutional changes are enacted by both political and social actors is even more important as it conditions the potential for an autonomous civil society to emerge and actively engage with the local state in the social construction of an inclusive citizenship.

The Resurgence of the Latin American Left

Author: Steven Levitsky,Kenneth M. Roberts

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421401614

Category: Political Science

Page: 496

View: 5088

Featuring a new typology of Left parties in Latin America, an original framework for identifying and categorizing variation among these governments, and contributions from prominent and influential scholars of Latin American politics, this historical-institutional approach to understanding the region’s left turn—and variation within it—is the most comprehensive explanation to date on the topic.

Latin American Foreign Policies

Between Ideology and Pragmatism

Author: G. Gardini,P. Lambert

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230118275

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 5578

In recent years several Latin American countries have adopted a more assertive and autonomous stance in their foreign policy. The growing rejection of neo-liberalism as an ideological dogma seems to have given space to more pragmatic stances in favour of national interests.

Routledge Handbook of Latin American Politics

Author: Peter Kingstone,Deborah J. Yashar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135280304

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 632

View: 6392

Latin America has been one of the critical areas in the study of comparative politics. The region’s experiments with installing and deepening democracy and promoting alternative modes of economic development have generated intriguing and enduring empirical puzzles. In turn, Latin America’s challenges continue to spawn original and vital work on central questions in comparative politics: about the origins of democracy; about the relationship between state and society; about the nature of citizenship; about the balance between state and market. The richness and diversity of the study of Latin American politics makes it hard to stay abreast of the developments in the many sub-literatures of the field. The Routledge Handbook of Latin American Politics offers an intellectually rigorous overview of the state of the field and a thoughtful guide to the direction of future scholarship. Kingstone and Yashar bring together the leading figures in the study of Latin America to present extensive empirical coverage, new original research, and a cutting-edge examination of the central areas of inquiry in the region.

Barrio Democracy in Latin America

Participatory Decentralization and Community Activism in Montevideo

Author: Eduardo Canel

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271037334

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 6126

The transition to democracy underway in Latin America since the 1980s has recently witnessed a resurgence of interest in experimenting with new forms of local governance emphasizing more participation by ordinary citizens. The hope is both to foster the spread of democracy and to improve equity in the distribution of resources. While participatory budgeting has been a favorite topic of many scholars studying this new phenomenon, there are many other types of ongoing experiments. In Barrio Democracy in Latin America, Eduardo Canel focuses our attention on the innovative participatory programs launched by the leftist government in Montevideo, Uruguay, in the early 1990s. Based on his extensive ethnographic fieldwork, Canel examines how local activists in three low-income neighborhoods in that city dealt with the opportunities and challenges of implementing democratic practices and building better relationships with sympathetic city officials.

The left in the city

participatory local governments in Latin America

Author: Daniel Chávez

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781899365661

Category: Political Science

Page: 231

View: 4095

Reorganizing Popular Politics

Participation and the New Interest Regime in Latin America

Author: Ruth Berins Collier,Samuel Handlin

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271075686

Category: Political Science

Page: 408

View: 3517

A historic shift has occurred in the organizational structures through which the lower classes in Latin America express voice and find political representation. With the political and economic reforms of the 1980s and 1990s, networks of community-based associations and nongovernmental organizations replaced party-affiliated labor unions as the predominant organizations to which the lower classes turned. This volume examines the new “interest regime” in Argentina, Chile, Peru, and Venezuela through two extensive surveys—one of individuals and one of associations—undertaken in those nations’ capital cities. Contrary to common perceptions, the new interest regime is neither a vibrant, autonomous civil society nor a set of weak, atomized organizations. Participation in associations is generally high, compared to “direct action” as a strategy for pursuing collective interests, and associations more frequently coordinate and engage the state than has sometimes been assumed. However, various forms of interaction with the state pose a classic trade-off between representation and state control, and the new interest regime is marked by representational distortion, in that the lower classes are less likely to use the new structures than the middle classes. Within these general patterns, distinct national models are emerging. This volume represents the most ambitious and systematic effort to date to examine individual participation and associational life in Latin America and to carry out a cross-national analysis of new forms of political representation.

Clientelism in Everyday Latin American Politics

Author: Tina Hilgers

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 1137275987

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 258

View: 6402

In Latin America and beyond, societies are deeply unequal, the poor are marginalized, and states face continuous fiscal shortages and real or potential political instability. In this context, democracy functions imperfectly. It intermeshes with clientelism, with the incongruous result that clientelism not only erodes but also accompanies and supplements democratic processes. Armed with evidence of these complex interactions, Clientelism in Everyday Latin American Politics improves understandings of how and why clientelism endures and why state policy is often ineffective. Political scientists and sociologists, the contributors employ ethnography, targeted interviews, case studies, within-case and regional comparison, thick descriptions, and process tracing. They write from political economy and institutionalist as well as principle-centered and agent-centered perspectives.

Democracy, Agency, and the State

Theory with Comparative Intent

Author: Guillermo O'Donnell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199587612

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 1602

One of the pioneers of democratization studies presents the culmination of a lifetime's study in the form of a far-reaching and profound analysis of the relationship between the state and democracy.

Participatory Budgeting in Brazil

Contestation, Cooperation, and Accountability

Author: Brian Wampler

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 027104585X

Category: Political Science

Page: 312

View: 5845

As Brazil and other countries in Latin America turned away from their authoritarian past and began the transition to democracy in the 1980s and 1990s, interest in developing new institutions to bring the benefits of democracy to the citizens in the lower socioeconomic strata intensified, and a number of experiments were undertaken. Perhaps the one receiving the most attention has been Participatory Budgeting (PB), first launched in the southern Brazilian city of Porto Alegre in 1989 by a coalition of civil society activists and Workers&’ Party officials. PB quickly spread to more than 250 other municipalities in the country, and it has since been adopted in more than twenty countries worldwide. Most of the scholarly literature has focused on the successful case of Porto Alegre and has neglected to analyze how it fared elsewhere. In this first rigorous comparative study of the phenomenon, Brian Wampler draws evidence from eight municipalities in Brazil to show the varying degrees of success and failure PB has experienced. He identifies why some PB programs have done better than others in achieving the twin goals of ensuring governmental accountability and empowering citizenship rights for the poor residents of these cities in the quest for greater social justice and a well-functioning democracy. Conducting extensive interviews, applying a survey to 650 PB delegates, doing detailed analysis of budgets, and engaging in participant observation, Wampler finds that the three most important factors explaining the variation are the incentives for mayoral administrations to delegate authority, the way civil society organizations and citizens respond to the new institutions, and the particular rule structure that is used to delegate authority to citizens.

Deepening Democracy

Institutional Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance

Author: Archon Fung,Erik Olin Wright

Publisher: Verso

ISBN: 9781859846889

Category: Political Science

Page: 310

View: 4412

Volume IV of the Real Utopias Project. Contributions by Rebecca Abers, Gianpaolo Baiocchi, Joshua Cohen, Patrick Heller, T.M. Thomas Isaac, Bradley Karkkainen, Rebecca Krantz, Jane Mansbridge, Joel Rogers, Craig W. Thomas.

Peoples of the Earth

Ethnonationalism, Democracy, and the Indigenous Challenge in 'Latin' America

Author: Martin Edwin Andersen

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 073914393X

Category: Political Science

Page: 300

View: 7377

This book explores the culture of indigenous peoples in Latin America, the fundamental challenges they offer to traditional Euro-American notions of democracy, citizenship and develop the interface of these topics. It also explores the relevant themes on human rights and the environment, with questions of security and the risks implicit in the adoption of ethnonationalist dogma. Peoples of the Earth does this, using a cross-disciplinary approach that employs anthropology, history, political science, legal theory and ethno-nationalism.

Legislative Politics in Latin America

Author: Scott Morgenstern,Benito Nacif

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521796590

Category: Political Science

Page: 503

View: 2494

This theoretically inspired study explores legislative politics in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Instead of beginning with an assumption that these legislatures are either rubber-stamps or obstructionist bodies, the chapters provide new data and a fresh analytical approach to describe and explain the role of these representative bodies in these consolidating democracies. For each country the book provides three chapters dedicated, in turn, to executive-legislative relations, the legislatures' organizational structure, and the policy process.

Deepening Democracy in Indonesia?

Direct Elections for Local Leaders (Pilkada)

Author: Maribeth Erb,Priyambudi Sulistiyanto

Publisher: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies

ISBN: 9812308415

Category: Democracy

Page: 392

View: 2957

Since the fall of long-reigning President Soeharto, in 1998, Indonesia has been in an era of transition, away from an authoritarian regime, and on a quest for democracy. This quest started with decentralization laws implemented in 2001, which gave greater autonomy to the regions, and continued with the direct elections for the national and local legislatures and the President in 2004. The latest development in this democratization process is the implementation of a system for the direct election of regional leaders, which began in 2005; the first round of elections across the nation for all governors, mayors and district heads was completed in 2008. Authors of the chapters in this volume, the result of a workshop in Singapore in 2006, present data from across the archipelago for these first direct elections for local leaders and give their assessment as to how far these elections have contributed to a deepening democracy.

Why Democracy Deepens

Political Information and Decentralization in India

Author: Anoop Sadanandan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316828719

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 1454

'Democracy in India is only a top-dressing on an Indian soil, which is essentially undemocratic', warned Bhimrao Ambedkar, the principal architect of the country's constitution, a year into independence. The social order - the soil on which India's new democratic edifice was then being erected - was marked by social hierarchies and economic vulnerabilities. Decades of socio-economic changes since then would transform this old order, albeit unevenly across Indian states, to decisively shape the development of democracy in the country. Why Democracy Deepens relates how these socio-economic changes have deepened democracy in India beyond its topsoil. Drawing on his research in villages and states, Anoop Sadanandan explains how socio-economic changes have heightened the need for local voter information, and have promoted grassroots democracy in some Indian states. By exploring the pivotal political developments in the world's largest democracy, the book puts forward a theory of local democratization.

Latin American Social Movements

Globalization, Democratization, and Transnational Networks

Author: Hank Johnston,Paul Almeida

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780742553323

Category: Political Science

Page: 270

View: 8497

The two current trends of democratization and deepening economic liberalization have made Latin American countries a ground for massive defensive mobilization campaigns and have created new sites of popular struggle. In this edited volume on Latin American social movements, original chapters are combined with peer-reviewed articles from the well-regarded journal Mobilization. Each section represents a major theme in Latin American social movement research. Original chapters discuss the Madres de Plaza de Mayo movement in Argentina and the Zapatista movement in Chiapas, Mexico. Also included in the book's coverage of the region's major movements are los piqueteros and antisweatshop labor organizing. This is the first study to focus closely on the related issues of neoliberal globalization, democratization, and the workings of transnational advocacy networks in Latin America.

Leftist Governments in Latin America

Successes and Shortcomings

Author: Kurt Weyland,Raúl L. Madrid,Wendy Hunter

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139490958

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 4011

Can Latin America's 'new left' stimulate economic development, enhance social equity, and deepen democracy in spite of the economic and political constraints it faces? This is the first book to systematically examine the policies and performance of the left-wing governments that have risen to power in Latin America during the last decade. Featuring thorough studies of Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela by renowned experts, the volume argues that moderate leftist governments have attained greater, more sustainable success than their more radical, contestatory counterparts. Moderate governments in Brazil and Chile have generated solid economic growth, reduced poverty and inequality, and created innovative and fiscally sound social programs, while respecting the fundamental principles of market economics and liberal democracy. By contrast, more radical governments, exemplified by Hugo Chávez in Venezuela, have expanded state intervention and popular participation and attained some short-term economic and social successes.