As long as there have been maps, cartographers have grappled with the impossibility of portraying the earth in two dimensions. To solve this problem mapmakers have created hundreds of map projections - mathematical methods for drawing the round earth on a flat surface. Yet of the hundreds of existing projections, and the infinite number that are theoretically possible, none is perfectly accurate. Any projection inevitably distorts the geography it portrays. Flattening the Earth is the first detailed history of map projections since 1863. John P. Snyder discusses and illustrates the hundreds of known projections from before 500 B.C. to the present, emphasizing developments since the Renaissance - when the concept of a round earth gained acceptance - as mapmakers used increasingly sophisticated mathematical techniques to create ever more accurate projections. He closes with a look at the variety of projections, simple and complex, made possible today by the speed and power of computers. This book includes 170 illustrations, including outline maps from original sources and modern computerized reconstructions. The text is not mathematically based and is accessible to non-specialists, but a few equations are included to permit the more technical reader to plot some projections. Snyder also provides tables summarizing the features of nearly 200 different projections and listing those used in nineteenth- and twentieth-century atlases. As a survey of most known map projections, a discussion of cartographic technique, and a historical analysis of the development of map projections, this book will be an important resource for cartographers, geographers, and historians.
Two Thousand Years of Map Projections
Author: John P. Snyder
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Establishing GIS as a coordinate-based system, and building on this concept, this work explores geodesy--the discipline dealing with the measurement and representation of the Earth.
Foundations of Geomatics
Author: Thomas Henry Meyer
Publisher: Esri Press
In the context of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) the book offers a timely review of Map Projections. The first chapters are of foundational type. We introduce the mapping from a left Riemann manifold to a right one specified as conformal, equiaerial and equidistant, perspective and geodetic. In particular, the mapping from a Riemann manifold to a Euclidean manifold ("plane") and the design of various coordinate systems are reviewed . A speciality is the treatment of surfaces of Gaussian curvature zero. The largest part is devoted to the mapping the sphere and the ellipsoid-of-revolution to tangential plane, cylinder and cone (pseudo-cone) using the polar aspect, transverse as well as oblique aspect. Various Geodetic Mappings as well as the Datum Problem are reviewed. In the first extension we introduce optimal map projections by variational calculus for the sphere, respectively the ellipsoid generating harmonic maps. The second extension reviews alternative maps for structures , namely torus (pneu), hyperboloid (cooling tower), paraboloid (parabolic mirror), onion shape (church tower) as well as clothoid (Hight Speed Railways) used in Project Surveying. Third, we present the Datum Transformation described by the Conformal Group C10 (3) in a threedimensional Euclidean space , a ten parameter conformal transformation. It leaves infinitesimal angles and distance ratios equivariant. Numerical examples from classical and new map projections as well as twelve appendices document the Wonderful World of Map Projections.
Cartographic Information Systems
Author: Erik W. Grafarend,Rey-Jer You,Rainer Syffus
Written for geodesists using computers of modest capacity, the book reviews the latest development in geodetic computation techniques. The aim is to take stock of available data (datums, ellipsoids, units etc.), to focus on applications and to illuminate spatial developments. Topics cover datums and reference systems, geodetic arc distances, different projections and coordinate systems. The material has been specially chosen and covers the practical aspect of geodesy, including the demonstration of global examples. Stressing the how-to-do approach, the book is of interest to students in geodesy, GIS consultants, hydrographers and land surveyors.
Author: Maarten Hooijberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
For more than a decade, GPS for Land Surveyors has been unique among other books on this topic due to its clear, straightforward treatment of the subject matter. Completely revised and updated, this fourth edition of a perennial bestseller maintains the user-friendly format that made previous editions so popular while addressing changes in hardware, software, and procedures. Neither simplistic nor overly technical, this book introduces the concepts needed to understand and use GPS and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). See What’s New in the Fourth Edition: Up-to-date information on GNSS and GPS modernization Changes in hardware, software, and procedures Comprehensive treatment of novel signals on new blocks of satellites (L5 and L2C) The book minimizes your reliance on mathematical explanations and maximizes use of illustrations and examples that allow you to visualize and grasp key concepts. The author explains the progression of ideas at the foundation of satellite positioning and delves into some of the particulars. He keeps presentation practical, providing a guide to techniques used in GPS, from their design through observation, processings, real-time kinematic (RTK), and real-time networks. These features and more make it easier for you to meet the challenge of keeping up in this field.
Author: Jan Van Sickle
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
Economists, geographers and surveyors are beginning to recognise the powerful tool which a Geographical Information System (GIS) offers in effective property management. It provides a means of managing land and property information digitally and in a geographical context, and allows for rapid access to information and a means of analyzing that information in a geographical context. GIS in Land and Property Management shows how to use GIS, both in principle and in practice. It introduces digital mapping and GIS, along with a brief history of the development of GIS and LIS, all with an emphasis on property. In presenting the spectrum of GIS applications in property management it gives a number of case studies from a variety of market sectors, and it analyzes the issues to provide guidance and a number of recommendations for the implementation of GIS. At the same time common themes and issues are drawn out to present a coherent message for students and practitioners. The book is useful for undergraduate and postgraduate students on land management, built environment, economics and geography courses, and for property professionals, in both public and private sectors, looking to GIS as a property management decision aid.
Author: Martin P. Ralphs,Peter Wyatt
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Author: Wolfgang Torge
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Crime Analysis With Crime Mapping, Fourth Edition provides students and practitioners with a solid foundation for understanding the conceptual nature and practice of crime analysis to assist police in preventing and reducing crime and disorder. Author Rachel Boba Santos offers an in-depth description of this emerging field, as well as guidelines and techniques for conducting crime analysis supported by evidence-based research, real world application, and recent innovations in the field. As the only introductory core text for crime analysis, this must-have resource presents readers with opportunities to apply theory, research methods, and statistics to careers that support and enhance the effectiveness of modern policing.
Author: Rachel Boba Santos
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Category: Social Science
This book has been written for use in classrooms by both the instructor and the students and also for independent study in the coming decades. The main intention for writing this book is to make the subject very easy at the same time the to cover the syllabus for undergraduate. The basic concepts of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing & GIS all are included in a single book which helps the students to the face the exams quickly and very easily. This book is intended to be basically utilized as a quick reference in support to various text books.
Author: S S Manugula,Veeranna Bommakanti
Publisher: Educreation Publishing
Author: Michael Alan Ralph Cooper
Publisher: Nichols Pub Co
Category: Technology & Engineering
A Working Manual (U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1395)
Author: John P. Snyder,U. S. Geological Survey,U. S. Department of the Interior
Category: Technology & Engineering
Introduction to Geographic Information Systems, 8th edition is designed to provide students in a first or second GIS course with a solid foundation in both GIS concepts and the use of GIS. Introduction to GIS strikes a careful balance between GIS concepts and hands-on applications. The main portion of the chapter presents GIS terms and concepts and helps students learn how each one fits into a complete GIS system. At the end of each chapter, an application section with 2-7 tasks presents students with actual GIS exercises and the necessary data to solve the problem.
Author: Kang-tsung Chang
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the fundamentals of GIS and applications of this technology to the practice of environmental engineering and science. Students are provided a complete picture of GIS including data availability and fundamental spatial analysis techniques using hands-on environmental applications. A series of case-studies are used to demonstrate how GIS can enhance environmental science and engineering design and analysis. This combination of active GIS learning supplemented with case-study based reinforcement helps the student (and the practitioner) not only understand the fundamental concepts but also see how they can be used in real-world applications. This book will encompass a broad range of topics that will comprehensively cover both the fundamental and applied aspects of geographic information systems (GIS), with a specific focus on environmental and water resources applications. By providing a focus on coupling GIS with other innovative information-theoretic tools such as fuzzy logic, neural networks and support vector machines the book will demonstrate how these GIS technologies can be used to harness increasingly available digital data to develop spatially-oriented sustainable solutions. This textbook aims to: (i) Introduce foundations of spatial analysis including raster and vector representations and relational databases. (ii) Integrate environmental modeling and GIS concepts. (iii) Discuss benefits and challenges of environmental and water resources GIS applications, including a thorough discussion on estimation accuracy, precision, scaling and data consistency issues. (iv) Demonstrate advanced GIS skills related to terrain and network analysis. (v) Include a chapter on three dimensional visualization and integrating with remote-sensing data. (vi) Combine environmental GIS applications with other information-theoretic approaches such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic. A series of case-studies are used to demonstrate how GIS can enhance environmental science and engineering design and analysis. This combination of active GIS learning supplemented with case-study based reinforcement helps the student (and the practitioner) not only understand the fundamental concepts but also see how they can be used in real-world applications. This proposed book package (including web-based materials) will include power-point lecture outlines; outlines for a potential syllabus (a semester-long) course at the undergraduate and graduate levels; data for applications and example exercises and software-based instructions for the case studies. This information should facilitate the hands-on learning approach to be adopted in the text. The authors note.. If someone does not have access to GIS in the classroom (as in many developing nations) they can still learn the theory of GIS and its application through case studies for environmental and watershed modeling and management. This means students can be tested on the theory if they use this book as a text – yet they will have the opportunity to develop limited understanding of applications (despite the lack of software). The textbook will not emphasize a particular GIS software, so the examples and knowledge gained can be applied with any GIS software and there are a few free GIS software that students and faculty in developing countries can use along with the text. We will provide a list of free software (open source) (for GIS as well as AI tools – such as Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks, Neuro-fuzzy and Support Vector Machines).
Author: Barnali Dixon,Venkatesh Uddameri,Chittaranjan Ray
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Sponsored by the Geomatics Division of ASCE and the National Geodetic Survey of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. CORS and OPUS for Engineers describes new global positioning system (GPS) technologies and procedures that are immediately relevant to civil engineering professionals engaged in high-accuracy positioning. This collection of 22 articles, half new and half previously published in peer-reviewed journals, assembles the latest thinking on the use of two advanced services-CORS and OPUS-for obtaining accurate positional coordinates. Created and managed under the auspices of the National Geodetic Survey, the CORS (continuously operating reference stations) network contains more than 1,600 permanent, geodetic-quality receivers that collect GPS data around the clock at locations distributed throughout the United States, its territories, and a few foreign countries. These data are then made freely available to the public via the Internet. OPUS (online positioning user service) is a free, automated, Web-based utility that provides its users with accurate and reliable positional coordinates in a timely fashion by processing each user's GPS data with corresponding data from the CORS network. Together, CORS and OPUS form the backbone of today's high-accuracy, three-dimensional positioning activities. Both theoretical and empirical, this collection is a must-have for practitioners and researchers involved in surveying, GIS, remote sensing, and mapping applications that utilize GPS technology.
Tools for Surveying and Mapping Applications
Author: TomÊs Soler
Publisher: ASCE Publications
Category: Technology & Engineering
Category: Geographic information systems
Fully updated to reflect advances in GIS concepts and techniques, this guide approaches the subject from the broader context of information technology. Gives complete, up-to-date coverage to the concepts and techniques pertaining to every stage of the systems development life cycle of GIS, as well as its applications to various areas of spatial problem solving and decision making. For GIS specialists, GIS technologists, GIS sales directors, urban planners, natural resource managers, land surveyors, geomatics engineers, and foresters who want a complete understanding of GIS and how GIS applies to their fields of interest.
Author: Chor Pang Lo,Albert K. W. Yeung
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Essential Image Processing and GIS for Remote Sensing is an accessible overview of the subject and successfully draws together these three key areas in a balanced and comprehensive manner. The book provides an overview of essential techniques and a selection of key case studies in a variety of application areas. Key concepts and ideas are introduced in a clear and logical manner and described through the provision of numerous relevant conceptual illustrations. Mathematical detail is kept to a minimum and only referred to where necessary for ease of understanding. Such concepts are explained through common sense terms rather than in rigorous mathematical detail when explaining image processing and GIS techniques, to enable students to grasp the essentials of a notoriously challenging subject area. The book is clearly divided into three parts, with the first part introducing essential image processing techniques for remote sensing. The second part looks at GIS and begins with an overview of the concepts, structures and mechanisms by which GIS operates. Finally the third part introduces Remote Sensing Applications. Throughout the book the relationships between GIS, Image Processing and Remote Sensing are clearly identified to ensure that students are able to apply the various techniques that have been covered appropriately. The latter chapters use numerous relevant case studies to illustrate various remote sensing, image processing and GIS applications in practice.
Author: Jian Guo Liu,Philippa J. Mason
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering