Cybersecurity for Industrial Control Systems

SCADA, DCS, PLC, HMI, and SIS

Author: Tyson Macaulay,Bryan L. Singer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439801983

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 203

View: 3850

As industrial control systems (ICS), including SCADA, DCS, and other process control networks, become Internet-facing, they expose crucial services to attack. Threats like Duqu, a sophisticated worm found in the wild that appeared to share portions of its code with the Stuxnet worm, emerge with increasing frequency. Explaining how to develop and implement an effective cybersecurity program for ICS, Cybersecurity for Industrial Control Systems: SCADA, DCS, PLC, HMI, and SIS provides you with the tools to ensure network security without sacrificing the efficiency and functionality of ICS. Highlighting the key issues that need to be addressed, the book begins with a thorough introduction to ICS. It discusses business, cost, competitive, and regulatory drivers and the conflicting priorities of convergence. Next, it explains why security requirements differ from IT to ICS. It differentiates when standard IT security solutions can be used and where SCADA-specific practices are required. The book examines the plethora of potential threats to ICS, including hi-jacking malware, botnets, spam engines, and porn dialers. It outlines the range of vulnerabilities inherent in the ICS quest for efficiency and functionality that necessitates risk behavior such as remote access and control of critical equipment. Reviewing risk assessment techniques and the evolving risk assessment process, the text concludes by examining what is on the horizon for ICS security, including IPv6, ICSv6 test lab designs, and IPv6 and ICS sensors.

Cybersecurity for Industrial Control Systems

SCADA, DCS, PLC, HMI, and SIS

Author: Tyson Macaulay,Bryan L. Singer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466516119

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 203

View: 3680

As industrial control systems (ICS), including SCADA, DCS, and other process control networks, become Internet-facing, they expose crucial services to attack. Threats like Duqu, a sophisticated worm found in the wild that appeared to share portions of its code with the Stuxnet worm, emerge with increasing frequency. Explaining how to develop and implement an effective cybersecurity program for ICS, Cybersecurity for Industrial Control Systems: SCADA, DCS, PLC, HMI, and SIS provides you with the tools to ensure network security without sacrificing the efficiency and functionality of ICS. Highlighting the key issues that need to be addressed, the book begins with a thorough introduction to ICS. It discusses business, cost, competitive, and regulatory drivers and the conflicting priorities of convergence. Next, it explains why security requirements differ from IT to ICS. It differentiates when standard IT security solutions can be used and where SCADA-specific practices are required. The book examines the plethora of potential threats to ICS, including hi-jacking malware, botnets, spam engines, and porn dialers. It outlines the range of vulnerabilities inherent in the ICS quest for efficiency and functionality that necessitates risk behavior such as remote access and control of critical equipment. Reviewing risk assessment techniques and the evolving risk assessment process, the text concludes by examining what is on the horizon for ICS security, including IPv6, ICSv6 test lab designs, and IPv6 and ICS sensors.

Cybersecurity for Industrial Control Systems

SCADA, DCS, PLC, HMI, and SIS

Author: Tyson Macaulay,Bryan L. Singer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439801967

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 203

View: 6177

As industrial control systems (ICS), including SCADA, DCS, and other process control networks, become Internet-facing, they expose crucial services to attack. Threats like Duqu, a sophisticated worm found in the wild that appeared to share portions of its code with the Stuxnet worm, emerge with increasing frequency. Explaining how to develop and implement an effective cybersecurity program for ICS, Cybersecurity for Industrial Control Systems: SCADA, DCS, PLC, HMI, and SIS provides you with the tools to ensure network security without sacrificing the efficiency and functionality of ICS. Highlighting the key issues that need to be addressed, the book begins with a thorough introduction to ICS. It discusses business, cost, competitive, and regulatory drivers and the conflicting priorities of convergence. Next, it explains why security requirements differ from IT to ICS. It differentiates when standard IT security solutions can be used and where SCADA-specific practices are required. The book examines the plethora of potential threats to ICS, including hi-jacking malware, botnets, spam engines, and porn dialers. It outlines the range of vulnerabilities inherent in the ICS quest for efficiency and functionality that necessitates risk behavior such as remote access and control of critical equipment. Reviewing risk assessment techniques and the evolving risk assessment process, the text concludes by examining what is on the horizon for ICS security, including IPv6, ICSv6 test lab designs, and IPv6 and ICS sensors.

Protecting Industrial Control Systems from Electronic Threats

Author: Joseph Weiss

Publisher: Momentum Press

ISBN: 1606501976

Category: Computers

Page: 327

View: 3176

Aimed at both the novice and expert in IT security and industrial control systems (ICS), this book will help readers gain a better understanding of protecting ICSs from electronic threats. Cyber security is getting much more attention and SCADA security (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) is a particularly important part of this field, as are Distributed Control Systems (DCS), Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)-and all the other, field controllers, sensors, and drives, emission controls, and that make up the intelligence of modern industrial buildings and facilities. This book will help the reader better understand what is industrial control system cyber security, why is it different than IT security, what has really happened to date, and what needs to be done. Loads of practical advice is offered on everything from clarity on current cyber-security systems and how they can be integrated into general IT systems, to how to conduct risk assessments and how to obtain certifications, to future trends in legislative and regulatory issues affecting industrial security.

Robust Control System Networks

How to Achieve Reliable Control After Stuxnet

Author: Ralph Langner

Publisher: Momentum Press

ISBN: 1606503022

Category: Computers

Page: 206

View: 1828

From the researcher who was one of the first to identify and analyze the infamous industrial control system malware "Stuxnet," comes a book that takes a new, radical approach to making Industrial control systems safe from such cyber attacks: design the controls systems themselves to be "robust." Other security experts advocate risk management, implementing more firewalls and carefully managing passwords and access. Not so this book: those measures, while necessary, can still be circumvented. Instead, this book shows in clear, concise detail how a system that has been set up with an eye toward quality design in the first place is much more likely to remain secure and less vulnerable to hacking, sabotage or malicious control. It blends several well-established concepts and methods from control theory, systems theory, cybernetics and quality engineering to create the ideal protected system. The book's maxim is taken from the famous quality engineer William Edwards Deming, "If I had to reduce my message to management to just a few words, I'd say it all has to do with reducing variation." Highlights include: - An overview of the problem of "cyber fragility" in industrial control systems - How to make an industrial control system "robust," including principal design objectives and overall strategic planning - Why using the methods of quality engineering like the Taguchi method, SOP and UML will help to design more "armored" industrial control systems.

Industrial Network Security

Securing Critical Infrastructure Networks for Smart Grid, SCADA, and Other Industrial Control Systems

Author: Eric D. Knapp,Joel Thomas Langill

Publisher: Syngress

ISBN: 0124201849

Category: Computers

Page: 460

View: 5142

As the sophistication of cyber-attacks increases, understanding how to defend critical infrastructure systems—energy production, water, gas, and other vital systems—becomes more important, and heavily mandated. Industrial Network Security, Second Edition arms you with the knowledge you need to understand the vulnerabilities of these distributed supervisory and control systems. The book examines the unique protocols and applications that are the foundation of industrial control systems, and provides clear guidelines for their protection. This how-to guide gives you thorough understanding of the unique challenges facing critical infrastructures, new guidelines and security measures for critical infrastructure protection, knowledge of new and evolving security tools, and pointers on SCADA protocols and security implementation. All-new real-world examples of attacks against control systems, and more diagrams of systems Expanded coverage of protocols such as 61850, Ethernet/IP, CIP, ISA-99, and the evolution to IEC62443 Expanded coverage of Smart Grid security New coverage of signature-based detection, exploit-based vs. vulnerability-based detection, and signature reverse engineering

Applied Cyber Security and the Smart Grid

Implementing Security Controls into the Modern Power Infrastructure

Author: Eric D. Knapp,Raj Samani

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 012404638X

Category: Computers

Page: 224

View: 4629

Many people think of the Smart Grid as a power distribution group built on advanced smart metering—but that’s just one aspect of a much larger and more complex system. The "Smart Grid" requires new technologies throughout energy generation, transmission and distribution, and even the homes and businesses being served by the grid. This also represents new information paths between these new systems and services, all of which represents risk, requiring a more thorough approach to where and how cyber security controls are implemented. This insight provides a detailed architecture of the entire Smart Grid, with recommended cyber security measures for everything from the supply chain to the consumer. Discover the potential of the Smart Grid Learn in depth about its systems See its vulnerabilities and how best to protect it

Hacking Exposed Industrial Control Systems: ICS and SCADA Security Secrets & Solutions

Author: Clint Bodungen,Bryan Singer,Aaron Shbeeb,Kyle Wilhoit,Stephen Hilt

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 1259589722

Category: Computers

Page: 544

View: 7499

Learn to defend crucial ICS/SCADA infrastructure from devastating attacks the tried-and-true Hacking Exposed way This practical guide reveals the powerful weapons and devious methods cyber-terrorists use to compromise the devices, applications, and systems vital to oil and gas pipelines, electrical grids, and nuclear refineries. Written in the battle-tested Hacking Exposed style, the book arms you with the skills and tools necessary to defend against attacks that are debilitating—and potentially deadly. Hacking Exposed Industrial Control Systems: ICS and SCADA Security Secrets & Solutions explains vulnerabilities and attack vectors specific to ICS/SCADA protocols, applications, hardware, servers, and workstations. You will learn how hackers and malware, such as the infamous Stuxnet worm, can exploit them and disrupt critical processes, compromise safety, and bring production to a halt. The authors fully explain defense strategies and offer ready-to-deploy countermeasures. Each chapter features a real-world case study as well as notes, tips, and cautions. Features examples, code samples, and screenshots of ICS/SCADA-specific attacks Offers step-by-step vulnerability assessment and penetration test instruction Written by a team of ICS/SCADA security experts and edited by Hacking Exposed veteran Joel Scambray

Designing SCADA Application Software

A Practical Approach

Author: Stuart G McCrady

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124170358

Category: Computers

Page: 246

View: 3423

Automation systems, often referred to as SCADA systems, involve programming at several levels; these systems include computer type field controllers that monitor and control plant equipment such as conveyor systems, pumps, and user workstations that allow the user to monitor and control the equipment through color graphic displays. All of the components of these systems are integrated through a network, such as Ethernet for fast communications. This book provides a practical guide to developing the application software for all aspects of the automation system, from the field controllers to the user interface workstations. The focus of the book is to not only provide practical methods for designing and developing the software, but also to develop a complete set of software documentation. Providing tested examples and proceducres, this book will be indespensible to all engineers managing automation systems. Clear instructions with real-world examples Guidance on how to design and develop well-structured application programs Identification of software documentation requirements and organization of point names with logical naming system Guidance on best practice of standardized programming methods for SCADA systems

Cyber-security of SCADA and Other Industrial Control Systems

Author: Edward J. M. Colbert,Alexander Kott

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319321250

Category: Computers

Page: 355

View: 2238

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental security of Industrial Control Systems (ICSs), including Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and touching on cyber-physical systems in general. Careful attention is given to providing the reader with clear and comprehensive background and reference material for each topic pertinent to ICS security. This book offers answers to such questions as: Which specific operating and security issues may lead to a loss of efficiency and operation? What methods can be used to monitor and protect my system? How can I design my system to reduce threats?This book offers chapters on ICS cyber threats, attacks, metrics, risk, situational awareness, intrusion detection, and security testing, providing an advantageous reference set for current system owners who wish to securely configure and operate their ICSs. This book is appropriate for non-specialists as well. Tutorial information is provided in two initial chapters and in the beginnings of other chapters as needed. The book concludes with advanced topics on ICS governance, responses to attacks on ICS, and future security of the Internet of Things.

Investment Leadership and Portfolio Management

The Path to Successful Stewardship for Investment Firms

Author: Brian D. Singer,Greg Fedorinchik

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470543337

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 4891

An industry leader candidly examines the role of investmentleadership in portfolio management Investment Leadership & Portfolio Management providesa top down analysis of successful strategies, structures, andactions that create an environment that leads to strong macroinvestment performance and rewarding investor outcomes. Byexamining how to manage and lead an investment firm throughsuccessful investment decision-making processes and actions, thisbook reveals what it will take to succeed in a radically changedinvestment landscape. From firm governance and firm structure-forsingle capability, multi-capability, and investment and productfirms-to culture, strategy, vision, and execution, authors BrianSinger, Barry Mandinach, and Greg Fedorinchik touch upon key topicsincluding the differences between leading and managing; investmentphilosophy, process, and portfolio construction; communication andtransparency; and ethics and integrity. Leadership issues in investment firms are a serious concern,and this book addresses those concerns Details the strong correlation between excellence in investmentleadership and excellence in portfolio management Written by a group of experienced professionals in the field,including the Chairman of the CFA Institute Board of Governors Understanding how to operate in today's dynamic investmentenvironment is critical. Investment Leadership & PortfolioManagement contains the insights and information needed to makesignificant strides in this dynamic arena.

Recommended Practice

Improving Industrial Control Systems Cybersecurity with Defense-In-Depth Strategies

Author: U. S. Department U.S. Department of Homeland Security

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781502446190

Category:

Page: 38

View: 8393

Industrial control systems are an integral part of critical infrastructure, helping facilitate operations in vital sectors such as electricity, oil and gas, water, transportation, and chemical. A growing issue with cybersecurity and its impact on industrial control systems have highlighted some fundamental risks to critical infrastructures. To address cybersecurity issues for industrial control systems, a clear understanding of the security challenges and specific defensive countermeasures is required. A holistic approach, one that uses specific countermeasures to create an aggregated security posture, can help defend against cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities that affect an industrial control system. This approach, often referred to as "defense-in-depth," can be applied to industrial control systems and can provide for a flexible and useable framework for improving cybersecurity defenses. Concerns in regard to cybersecurity and control systems are related to both the legacy nature of some of the systems as well as the growing trend to connect industrial control systems to other networks. These concerns have lead to a number of identified vulnerabilities and have introduced new categories of threats that have not been seen before in the industrial control systems domain. Many of the legacy systems may not have appropriate security capabilities that can defend against modern day threats, and the requirements for availability can preclude using contemporary cybersecurity solutions. An industrial control system's connectivity to a corporate, vendor, or peer network can exacerbate this problem. This book provides insight into some of the more prominent cyber risk issues and presents them in the context of industrial control systems. It provides commentary on how mitigations strategies can be developed for specific problems and provides direction on how to create a defense-in-depth security program for control system environments. The goal is to provide guidance regarding cyber mitigation strategies and how to apply them specifically to an industrial control systems environment.

Industrial Cybersecurity

Efficiently secure critical infrastructure systems

Author: Pascal Ackerman

Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 1788395980

Category: Computers

Page: 456

View: 5006

Your one-step guide to understanding industrial cyber security, its control systems, and its operations. About This Book Learn about endpoint protection such as anti-malware implementation, updating, monitoring, and sanitizing user workloads and mobile devices Filled with practical examples to help you secure critical infrastructure systems efficiently A step-by-step guide that will teach you the techniques and methodologies of building robust infrastructure systems Who This Book Is For If you are a security professional and want to ensure a robust environment for critical infrastructure systems, this book is for you. IT professionals interested in getting into the cyber security domain or who are looking at gaining industrial cyber security certifications will also find this book useful. What You Will Learn Understand industrial cybersecurity, its control systems and operations Design security-oriented architectures, network segmentation, and security support services Configure event monitoring systems, anti-malware applications, and endpoint security Gain knowledge of ICS risks, threat detection, and access management Learn about patch management and life cycle management Secure your industrial control systems from design through retirement In Detail With industries expanding, cyber attacks have increased significantly. Understanding your control system's vulnerabilities and learning techniques to defend critical infrastructure systems from cyber threats is increasingly important. With the help of real-world use cases, this book will teach you the methodologies and security measures necessary to protect critical infrastructure systems and will get you up to speed with identifying unique challenges.Industrial cybersecurity begins by introducing Industrial Control System (ICS) technology, including ICS architectures, communication media, and protocols. This is followed by a presentation on ICS (in) security. After presenting an ICS-related attack scenario, securing of the ICS is discussed, including topics such as network segmentation, defense-in-depth strategies, and protective solutions. Along with practical examples for protecting industrial control systems, this book details security assessments, risk management, and security program development. It also covers essential cybersecurity aspects, such as threat detection and access management. Topics related to endpoint hardening such as monitoring, updating, and anti-malware implementations are also discussed. Style and approach A step-by-step guide to implement Industrial Cyber Security effectively.

Guide to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security

Author: U. S. Department Commerce,National Institute of Standards and Technology

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781548557782

Category:

Page: 248

View: 9861

The Information Technology Laboratory (ITL) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) promotes the U.S. economy and public welfare by providing technical leadership for the Nation's measurement and standards infrastructure. ITL develops tests, test methods, reference data, proof of concept implementations, and technical analyses to advance the development and productive use of information technology. ITL's responsibilities include the development of management, administrative, technical, and physical standards and guidelines for the cost-effective security and privacy of other than national security-related information in federal information systems. The Special Publication 800-series reports on ITL's research, guidelines, and outreach efforts in information system security, and its collaborative activities with industry, government, and academic organizations. This publication provides guidance on how to secure Industrial Control Systems (ICS), including Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, Distributed Control Systems (DCS), and other control system configurations such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), while addressing their unique performance, reliability, and safety requirements. The publication provides an overview of ICS and typical system topologies, identifies typical threats and vulnerabilities to these systems, and provides recommended security countermeasures to mitigate the associated risks.

Critical Infrastructure Protection VIII

8th IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference, ICCIP 2014, Arlington, VA, USA, March 17-19, 2014, Revised Selected Papers

Author: Jonathan Butts,Sujeet Shenoi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 366245355X

Category: Computers

Page: 276

View: 9822

The information infrastructure - comprising computers, embedded devices, networks and software systems - is vital to day-to-day operations in every sector: information and telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, chemicals and hazardous materials, agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services, transportation, postal and shipping, government and defense. Global business and industry, governments, indeed society itself, cannot function effectively if major components of the critical information infrastructure are degraded, disabled or destroyed. Critical Infrastructure Protection VIII describes original research results and innovative applications in the interdisciplinary field of critical infrastructure protection. Also, it highlights the importance of weaving science, technology and policy in crafting sophisticated, yet practical, solutions that will help secure information, computer and network assets in the various critical infrastructure sectors. Areas of coverage include: control systems security, infrastructure security, infrastructure modeling and simulation, risk and impact assessment, and advanced techniques. This book is the eighth volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.10 on Critical Infrastructure Protection, an international community of scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers dedicated to advancing research, development and implementation efforts focused on infrastructure protection. The book contains a selection of seventeen edited papers from the 8th Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection, held at SRI International, Arlington, Virginia, DC, USA in the spring of 2014. Critical Infrastructure Protection VIII is an important resource for researchers, faculty members and graduate students, as well as for policy makers, practitioners and other individuals with interests in homeland security.

Programmable Logic Controllers

Author: William Bolton

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0081003536

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 424

View: 796

This textbook, now in its sixth edition, continues to be straightforward and easy-to-read, presenting the principles of PLCs while not tying itself to one manufacturer or another. Extensive examples and chapter ending problems utilize several popular PLCs, highlighting understanding of fundamentals that can be used regardless of manufacturer. This book will help you to understand the main design characteristics, internal architecture, and operating principles of PLCs, as well as Identify safety issues and methods for fault diagnosis, testing, and debugging. New to This edition: A new chapter 1 with a comparison of relay-controlled systems, microprocessor-controlled systems, and the programmable logic controller, a discussion of PLC hardware and architecture, examples from various PLC manufacturers, and coverage of security, the IEC programming standard, programming devices and manufacturer’s software More detail of programming using Sequential Function Charts Extended coverage of the sequencer More Information on fault finding, including testing inputs and outputs with an illustration of how it is done with the PLC manufacturer’s software New case studies A methodical introduction, with many illustrations, describing how to program PLCs, no matter the manufacturer, and how to use internal relays, timers, counters, shift registers, sequencers, and data-handling facilities Consideration of the standards given by IEC 1131-3 and the programming methods of ladder, functional block diagram, instruction list, structured text, and sequential function chart Many worked examples, multiple-choice questions, and problems are included, with answers to all multiple-choice questions and problems given at the end of the book

Conflict and Cooperation in Cyberspace

The Challenge to National Security

Author: Panayotis A Yannakogeorgos,Adam B Lowther

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1466592028

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 360

View: 9114

Conflict and Cooperation in Cyberspace: The Challenge to National Security brings together some of the world’s most distinguished military leaders, scholars, cyber operators, and policymakers in a discussion of current and future challenges that cyberspace poses to the United States and the world. Maintaining a focus on policy-relevant solutions, it offers a well-reasoned study of how to prepare for war, while attempting to keep the peace in the cyberspace domain. The discussion begins with thoughtful contributions concerning the attributes and importance of cyberspace to the American way of life and global prosperity. Examining the truths and myths behind recent headline-grabbing malicious cyber activity, the book spells out the challenges involved with establishing a robust system of monitoring, controls, and sanctions to ensure cooperation amongst all stakeholders. The desire is to create a domain that functions as a trusted and resilient environment that fosters cooperation, collaboration, and commerce. Additionally, the book: Delves into the intricacies and considerations cyber strategists must contemplate before engaging in cyber war Offers a framework for determining the best ways to engage other nations in promoting global norms of behavior Illustrates technologies that can enable cyber arms control agreements Dispels myths surrounding Stuxnet and industrial control systems General Michael V. Hayden, former director of the National Security Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency, begins by explaining why the policymakers, particularly those working on cyber issues, must come to understand the policy implications of a dynamic domain. Expert contributors from the Air Force Research Institute, MIT, the Rand Corporation, Naval Postgraduate School, NSA, USAF, USMC, and others examine the challenges involved with ensuring improved cyber security. Outlining the larger ethical, legal, and policy challenges facing government, the private sector, civil society, and individual users, the book offers plausible solutions on how to create an environment where there is confidence in the ability to assure national security, conduct military operations, and ensure a vibrant and stable global economy.

Collaborative Cyber Threat Intelligence

Detecting and Responding to Advanced Cyber Attacks at the National Level

Author: Florian Skopik

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1315397889

Category: Computers

Page: 430

View: 5434

Threat intelligence is a surprisingly complex topic that goes far beyond the obvious technical challenges of collecting, modelling and sharing technical indicators. Most books in this area focus mainly on technical measures to harden a system based on threat intel data and limit their scope to single organizations only. This book provides a unique angle on the topic of national cyber threat intelligence and security information sharing. It also provides a clear view on ongoing works in research laboratories world-wide in order to address current security concerns at national level. It allows practitioners to learn about upcoming trends, researchers to share current results, and decision makers to prepare for future developments.

Scada Security

What's Broken and How to Fix It

Author: Andrew Ginter

Publisher: Scada Security - What's Broken and How to Fix It

ISBN: 9780995298408

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 2992

Modern attacks routinely breach SCADA networks that are defended to IT standards. This is unacceptable. Defense in depth has failed us. In "SCADA Security" Ginter describes this failure and describes an alternative. Strong SCADA security is possible, practical, and cheaper than failed, IT-centric, defense-in-depth. While nothing can be completely secure, we decide how high to set the bar for our attackers. For important SCADA systems, effective attacks should always be ruinously expensive and difficult. We can and should defend our SCADA systems so thoroughly that even our most resourceful enemies tear their hair out and curse the names of our SCADA systems' designers.