Crystal Symmetries

Shubnikov Centennial Papers

Author: B. K. Vainshtein,I. Hargittai

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483299104

Category: Science

Page: 321

View: 7552

Crystal Symmetries is a timely account of the progress in the most diverse fields of crystallography. It presents a broad overview of the theory of symmetry and contains state of the art reports of its modern directions and applications to crystal physics and crystal properties. Geometry takes a special place in this treatise. Structural aspects of phase transitions, correlation of structure and properties, polytypism, modulated structures, and other topics are discussed. Applications of important techniques, such as X-ray crystallography, biophysical studies, EPR spectroscopy, crystal optics, and nuclear solid state physics, are represented. Contains 30 research and review papers.

In Our Own Image

Personal Symmetry in Discovery

Author: Istvan Hargittai,Magdolna Hargittai

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461541794

Category: Medical

Page: 235

View: 5640

The title of our volume refers to what is well described by the following two quota tions:"Godcreated man in his own image"l and "Man creates God in his own image."2 Our approach to symmetry is subjective, and the term "personal" symmetry reflects this approach in our discussion of selected scientific events. We have chosen six icons to symbolize six areas: Kepler for modeling, Fuller for new molecules, Pauling for helical structures, Kitaigorodskii for packing, Bernal for quasicrystals, and Curie for dissymmetry. For the past three decades we have been involved in learning, thinking, speaking, and writing about symmetry. This involvement has augmented our principal activities in molecular structure research. Our interest in symmetry had started with a simple fascination and has evolved into a highly charged personal topic for us. At the start of this volume, we had had several authored and edited symmetry related books behind 3 us. We owe a debt of gratitude to the numerous people whose interviews are quoted 4 in this volume. We very much appreciate the kind and gracious cooperation of Edgar J. Applewhite (Washington, DC), Lawrence S. Bartell (University of Michigan), R.

Advanced Mineralogy

Volume 1 Composition, Structure, and Properties of Mineral Matter: Concepts, Results, and Problems

Author: A.S. Marfunin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642785239

Category: Science

Page: 551

View: 8209

All existing introductory reviews of mineralogy are written accord ing to the same algorithm, sometimes called the "Dana System of Mineralogy". Even modern advanced handbooks, which are cer tainly necessary, include basic data on minerals and are essentially descriptive. When basic information on the chemistry, structure, optical and physical properties, distinguished features and para genesis of 200-400 minerals is presented, then there is practically no further space available to include new ideas and concepts based on recent mineral studies. A possible solution to this dilemma would be to present a book beginning where introductory textbooks end for those already famil iar with the elementary concepts. Such a volume would be tailored to specialists in all fields of science and industry, interested in the most recent results in mineralogy. This approach may be called Advanced Mineralogy. Here, an attempt has been made to survey the current possibilities and aims in mineral matter investigations, including the main characteristics of all the methods, the most important problems and topics of mineral ogy, and related studies. The individual volumes are composed of short, condensed chap ters. Each chapter presents in a complete, albeit condensed, form specific problems, methods, theories, and directions of investigations, and estimates their importance and strategic position in science and industry.

Symmetry through the Eyes of a Chemist

Author: Magdolna Hargittai,Istvan Hargittai

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402056284

Category: Science

Page: 520

View: 7037

It is gratifying to launch the third edition of our book. Its coming to life testi?es about the task it has ful?lled in the service of the com- nity of chemical research and learning. As we noted in the Prefaces to the ?rst and second editions, our book surveys chemistry from the point of view of symmetry. We present many examples from ch- istry as well as from other ?elds to emphasize the unifying nature of the symmetry concept. Our aim has been to provide aesthetic pl- sure in addition to learning experience. In our ?rst Preface we paid tribute to two books in particular from which we learned a great deal; they have in?uenced signi?cantly our approach to the subject matter of our book. They are Weyl’s classic, Symmetry, and Shubnikov and Koptsik’s Symmetry in Science and Art. The structure of our book has not changed. Following the Int- duction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 presents the simplest symmetries using chemical and non-chemical examples. Molecular geometry is discussed in Chapter 3. The next four chapters present gro- theoretical methods (Chapter 4) and, based on them, discussions of molecular vibrations (Chapter 5), electronic structures (Chapter 6), and chemical reactions (Chapter 7). For the last two chapters we return to a qualitative treatment and introduce space-group sym- tries (Chapter 8), concluding with crystal structures (Chapter 9). For the third edition we have further revised and streamlined our text and renewed the illustrative material.

Culture of Chemistry

The Best Articles on the Human Side of 20th-Century Chemistry from the Archives of the Chemical Intelligencer

Author: Balazs Hargittai,István Hargittai

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1489975659

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 4681

Includes specially selected articles that previously appeared in The Chemical Intelligencer magazine published (1995-2000). Excerpts of these Editor's choice chapters chronicle the culture and history of chemistry, featuring great chemists and discoverers. Contributors from among the best-known authors of the chemistry community, including numerous Nobel laureates. Features behind the scenes stories about pivotal discoveries, intricacies of laboratory life and interactions among scientists, favorite recipes of renowned researchers, life histories and anecdotes. Chapters detail the human side of science but also present scientific information communicated in an easy-to-perceive and entertaining way. This unique book is not only aimed at chemists but individuals who are interested in the cultural aspects of our science.

Symmetry through the Eyes of a Chemist

Author: Istvan Hargittai,Magdolna Hargittai

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0585312346

Category: Science

Page: 469

View: 2761

We have been gratified by the warm reception of our book, by reviewers, colleagues, and students alike. Our interest in the subject matter of this book has not decreased since its first appearance; on the contrary. The first and second editions envelop eight other symmetry-related books in the creation of which we have participated: I. Hargittai (ed.), Symmetry: Unifying Human Understanding, Pergamon Press, New York, 1986. I. Hargittai and B. K. Vainshtein (eds.), Crystal Symmetries. Shubnikov Centennial Papers, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1988. M. Hargittai and I. Hargittai, Fedezziikf6l a szimmetri6t! (Discover Sym- try, in Hungarian), Tank6nyvkiad6, Budapest, 1989. I. Hargittai (ed.), Symmetry 2: Unifying Human Understanding, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1989. I. Hargittai (ed.), Quasicrystals, Networks, and Molecules of Fivefold Sym- try, VCH, New York, 1990. I. Hargittai (ed.), Fivefold Symmetry, World Scientific, Singapore, 1992. I. Hargittai and C. A. Pickover (eds.), Spiral Symmetry, World Scientific, Singapore, 1992. I. Hargittai and M. Hargittai, Symmetry: A Unifying Concept, Shelter Publi- tions, Bolinas, California, 1994. We have also pursued our molecular structure research, and some books have appeared related to these activities: vi Preface to the Second Edition I. Hargittai and M. Hargittai (eds.), Stereochemical Applications of Gas-Phase Electron Diffraction, Parts A and B, VCH, New York, 1988. R. Gillespie and I. Hargittai, VSEPR Model of Molecular Geometry, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1991. A. Domenicano and I. Hargittai (eds.), Accurate Molecular Structures, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992.

Regular Solids and Isolated Singularities

Author: Klaus Lamotke

Publisher: Vieweg+Teubner Verlag

ISBN: 9783528089580

Category: Mathematics

Page: 224

View: 2345

The last book XIII of Euclid's Elements deals with the regular solids which therefore are sometimes considered as crown of classical geometry. More than two thousand years later around 1850 Schl~fli extended the classification of regular solids to four and more dimensions. A few decades later, thanks to the invention of group and invariant theory the old three dimensional regular solid were involved in the development of new mathematical ideas: F. Klein (Lectures on the Icosa hedron and the Resolution of Equations of Degree Five, 1884) emphasized the relation of the regular solids to the finite rotation groups. He introduced complex coordinates and by means of invariant theory associated polynomial equations with these groups. These equations in turn describe isolated singularities of complex surfaces. The structure of the singularities is investigated by methods of commutative algebra, algebraic and complex analytic geometry, differential and algebraic topology. A paper by DuVal from 1934 (see the References), in which resolutions play an important rele, marked an early stage of these investigations. Around 1970 Klein's polynomials were again related to new mathematical ideas: V. I. Arnold established a hierarchy of critical points of functions in several variables according to growing com plexity. In this hierarchy Kleinls polynomials describe the "simple" critical points.

Symmetrie Gruppe Dualität

Zur Beziehung zwischen theoretischer Mathematik und Anwendungen in Kristallographie und Baustatik des 19. Jahrhunderts

Author: Erhard Scholz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764319748

Category: Mathematics

Page: 401

View: 4168

Diese Arbeit enthiilt zwei grof3ere Fallstudien zur Beziehung zwischen theo­ retischer Mathematik und Anwendungen im 19. Jahrhundert. Sie ist das Ergebnis eines mathematikhistorischen Forschungsprojekts am Mathemati­ schen Fachbereich der Universitiit-Gesamthochschule Wuppertal und wurde dort als Habilitationsschrift vorgelegt. Ohne das wohlwollende Interesse von Herrn H. Scheid und den Kollegen der Abteilung fUr Didaktik der Mathema­ tik ware das nicht moglich gewesen: Inhaltlich verdankt sie - direkt oder indirekt - vielen Beteiligten et­ was. So wurde mein Interesse an den kristallographischen Symmetriekon­ zepten, dem Thema der ersten Fallstudie, durch Anregungen und Hinweise von Herrn E. Brieskorn geweckt. Sowohl von seiner Seite als auch von Herrn J. J. Burckhardt stammen uberdies viele wert volle Hinweise zum Manuskript von Kapitel I. Herrn C. J. Scriba mochte ich fur seine die gesamte Arbeit betreffenden priizisen Anmerkungen danken und Herrn W. Borho ebenso fUr seine ubergreifenden Kommentare und Vorschlage. Beziiglich der in Kapitel II behandelten projektiven Methoden in der Baustatik des 19. Jahrhunderts gilt mein besonderer Dank den Herren K. -E. Kurrer und T. Hiinseroth fUr ihre zum Teil sehr detaillierten Anmerkungen aus dem Blickwinkel der Geschichte der Bauwissenschaften. Schliefilich geht mein Dank an alle nicht namentlich Erwiihnten, die in Gesprachen, technisch oder auch anderweitig zur Fertig­ stellung dieser Arbeit beigetragen haben. Fur die vorliegende Publikation habe ich einen Anhang mit einer Skizze von in unserem Zusammenhang besonders wichtig erscheinenden Aspekten der Theorie der kristallographischen Raumgruppen hinzugefUgt. Ich hoffe, daB er zum Verstiindnis des mathematischen Hintergrunds der historischen Arbeiten des ersten Kapitels beitragt.

Flächenschluß

System der Formen lückenlos aneinanderschließender Flachteile

Author: H. Heesch,O. Kienzle

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642948839

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 143

View: 437


Wavelets

Theorie und Anwendungen

Author: Alfred K. Louis,Peter Maaß,Andreas Rieder

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322801365

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 330

View: 4270

In der 2. Auflage wird u.a. der Vorteil der Wavelet-Transformation gegenüber der gef. Fourier-Transformation deutlich herausgearbeitet. Die Konstruktionsprinzipien orthogonaler und biorthogonaler Wavelets werden durch Beispiele weitergehend erläutert. Zahlreiche Aufgaben erleichtern das Verständnis des Stoffes.

Supraleitung

Grundlagen und Anwendungen

Author: Werner Buckel,Reinhold Kleiner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527668691

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 6739

Grundlegende Konzepte und Eigenschaften von Supraleitern, die Herstellung und Entwicklung von neuen supraleitenden Materialien sowie moderne Anwendungsbereiche sind die Schwerpunktthemen des Buches. Das größte Potential zur Nutzung der Supraleitung liegt in der Energietechnik. Fast unbemerkt trägt die Einführung von Kabeln, Magneten, Transformatoren oder Lagern aus supraleitenden Materialien bei zur Effizienzsteigerung bei der Stromübertragung oder in Motoren. Durch seiner klare Sprache und zahlreiche erläuternde Abbildungen eignet sich der Band hervorragend als einführendes Lehrbuch. Der Schwierigkeitsgrad wird von Kapitel zu Kapitel gesteigert. So können auch Einsteiger ohne einschlägige Vorkenntnisse dem Stoff folgen. Dank der über 350 Literaturhinweise bekommt der Leser außerdem einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Publikationen zum Thema. Ein unverzichtbares Lehrbuch also für Physik-Studenten und Studierende der Ingenieurwissenschaften. Fachleuten in Forschung und Praxis leistet das Buch auch als Nachschlagewerk gute Dienste.

Das Geheimnis des Schmerzes

Ein Merrily-Watkins-Mystery

Author: Phil Rickman

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644505713

Category: Fiction

Page: 576

View: 7320

«Gruselig – Rickman war noch nie so gut.» (Daily Mail) Ein reicher Landwirt wird in Ledwardine auf seinem eigenen Hof grausam abgeschlachtet: die Geburtsstunde von «Das Land wehrt sich», einer rechten Bewegung, welche alles Übel auf dem nicht mehr idyllischen Lande den vielen osteuropäischen Landarbeitern anlastet. Wenig später findet man zwei junge Frauen tot auf einem Parkplatz. Sie kamen aus Rumänien. Zufall? Merrily Watkins stolpert über diese Fälle, als sie einem Priesterkollegen nachforscht, der kurz vor seinem rätselhaften Ableben ein beunruhigendes Interesse an Exorzismus entwickelte. Die Spuren weisen in die Vergangenheit: in die der Toten, aber auch viel, viel weiter zurück – bis in die Zeiten, als sich Römer und Kelten in der Region Schlachten lieferten und der blutige Mithras-Kult seine Opfer forderte ... «Äußerst originell und durchgehend faszinierend ... ein packender und nachdenklich machender Pageturner.» (Guardian)

M. C. Escher Kaleidozyklen

Author: Maurits Cornelis Escher,Doris Schattschneider,Wallace Walker

Publisher: Benedikt Taschen Verlag

ISBN: 9783822896006

Category:

Page: 40

View: 3401

Geometrische Figuren selber basteln Jeder liebt Überraschungen. In diesem Buch wird der Zauber von Eschers Werk dreidimensional zur Wirkung gebracht. Sie selbst können aus vorgestanzten Bögen wunderschön dekorierte geometrische Figuren basteln. Entdecken Sie die Schönheit von Regelmäßigkeit und Symmetrie, die aus der Kombination von Geometrie und Eschers Bildkunst hervorgeht.