Critical Perspectives on the Responsibility to Protect

Interrogating Theory and Practice

Author: Philip Cunliffe

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136848460

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 8637

This edited volume critically examines the widely supported doctrine of the 'Responsibility to Protect', and investigates the claim that it embodies progressive values in international politics. Since the United Nations World Summit of 2005, a remarkable consensus has emerged in support of the doctrine of the ‘responsibility to protect’ (R2P) – the idea that states and the international community bear a joint duty to protect peoples around the world from mass atrocities. While there has been plenty of discussion over how this doctrine can best be implemented, there has been no systematic criticism of the principles underlying R2P. This volume is the first critically to interrogate both the theoretical principles and the policy consequences of this doctrine. The authors in this collection argue that the doctrine of R2P does not in fact embody progressive values, and they explore the possibility that the R2P may undermine political accountability within states and international peace between them. This volume not only advances a novel set of arguments, but will also spur debate by offering views that are seldom heard in discussions of R2P. The aim of the volume is to bring a range of criticisms to bear from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, including international law, political science, IR theory and security studies. This book will be of much interest to students of the Responsibility to Protect, humanitarian intervention, human security, critical security studies and IR in general.

The Responsibility to Protect

Perspectives on the Concept's Meaning, Proper Application and Value

Author: SONJA GROVER

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113498961X

Category: Political Science

Page: 324

View: 5810

This book presents the views of various international law and human rights experts on the contested meaning, scope of application, value and viability of R2P; the principle of the Responsibility to Protect . R2P refers to the notion that the international community has a legal responsibility to protect civilians against the potential or ongoing occurrence of the mass atrocity crimes of genocide, large scale war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. R2P allows for intervention where the individual State is unable or unwilling to so protect its people or is in fact a perpetrator. The book addresses also the controversial issue of whether intervention by States implementing R2P with or without the endorsement of the United Nations Security Council constitutes a State act of aggression or instead is legally justified and not an infringement on the offending State’s sovereign jurisdiction. The adverse impact on global peace and security of the failure to protect civilians from mass atrocity crimes has put in stark relief the need to address anew the principle of ‘responsibility to protect’ and the feasibility and wisdom of its application and this book is a significant contribution to that effort. This book was originally published as a special issue of the International Journal of Human Rights.

The United Nations, Peace and Security

From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect

Author: Ramesh Thakur

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316828522

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 6535

Ending humanitarian atrocities has become as important for the United Nations as preventing interstate war. This book examines the transformation of UN operations, analysing its changing role and structure. Ramesh Thakur asks why, when and how force may be used, and argues that the growing gulf between legality and legitimacy is evidence of an eroded sense of international community. He considers the tension between the United States, with its capacity to use force and project power, and the United Nations, as the centre of the international law enforcement system. He asserts the central importance of the rule of law and a rules-based order focused on the United Nations as the foundation of a civilised system of international relations. This book will be of interest to students of the United Nations and international organisations in politics, law and international relations departments, as well as policymakers in governmental and non-governmental international organisations.

The Responsibility to Protect

Research, Bibliography, Background : Supplementary Volume to the Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty

Author: International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty,International Development Research Centre (Canada)

Publisher: IDRC

ISBN: 9780889369634

Category: Political Science

Page: 410

View: 3015

Responsibility to Protect: Research, bibliography, background. Supplementary volume to the Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty

Africa and the Responsibility to Protect

Article 4(h) of the African Union Constitutive Act

Author: Dan Kuwali,Frans Viljoen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131791774X

Category: Law

Page: 398

View: 2841

Situations of serious or massive violations of human rights are no longer purely of domestic concern, and sovereignty can no longer be an absolute shield for repressive governments in such circumstances. Based on this realization, the international community has recognized a responsibility to protect individuals in states where their governments are unable or unwilling to provide protection against the most serious violations. However, so far, only one intergovernmental organization, the African Union (AU), has explicitly made the right to intervene in a Member State part of its foundational text in Article 4(h) of its Constitutive Act. Although there have been cases of Article 4(h)-type interventions in Africa, the AU Assembly has not yet invoked Article 4(h) explicitly. This book brings together experts in the field to explore the potential application of Article 4(h), and the complexities that may explain its non-invocation so far. Although Article 4(h) is noble in purpose, its implementation faces several legal and policy challenges given that the use of force penetrates the principles of state sovereignty and non-intervention – the very cornerstones upon which the AU is founded. This book considers these issues, as well as the need to reconcile Article 4(h), in so far as it allows the AU to exercise military intervention to protect populations at risk of mass atrocities, with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations. Drawing from the insights of law, political science, diplomacy and military strategy, the book offers a unique combination of multi-disciplinary expertise that harnesses the views of a diverse group of authors, focused on the legal, policy, and practical insights on the implementation of Article 4(h) and the responsibility to protect in Africa in order to provide concrete recommendations on how to end mass atrocities on the continent

Citizen Designer

Perspectives on Design Responsibility (Second Edition)

Author: Steven Heller,Veronique Vienne

Publisher: Skyhorse Publishing Inc.

ISBN: 1621536440

Category: Design

Page: 334

View: 9079

Balancing Social, Professional, and Artistic Views What does it mean to be a designer in today's corporate-driven, overbranded global consumer culture? Citizen Designer, Second Edition, attempts to answer this question with more than seventy debate-stirring essays and interviews espousing viewpoints ranging from the cultural and the political to the professional and the social. This new edition contains a collection of definitions and brief case studies on topics that today's citizen designers must consider, including new essays on social innovation, individual advocacy, group strategies, and living as an ethical designer. Edited by two prominent advocates of socially responsible design, this innovative reference responds to the tough questions today's designers continue to ask themselves, such as: How can a designer affect social or political change? Can design become more than just a service to clients? At what point does a designer have to take responsibility for the client's actions? When should a designer take a stand? Readers will find dozens of captivating insights and opinions on such important issues as reality branding, game design and school violence, advertising and exploitation, design as an environmental driving force, and much more. This candid guide encourages designers to carefully research their clients; become alert about corporate, political, and social developments; and design responsible products. Citizen Designer, Second Edition, includes insights on such contemporary topics as advertising of harmful products, branding to minors, and violence and game design. Readers are presented with an enticing mix of opinions in an appealing format that juxtaposes essays, interviews, and countless illustrations of "design citizenship."

Global Politics and the Responsibility to Protect

From Words to Deeds

Author: Alex J. Bellamy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136868631

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 4477

This book provides an in-depth introduction to, and analysis of, the issues relating to the implementation of the recent Responsibility to Protect principle in international relations The Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) has come a long way in a short space of time. It was endorsed by the General Assembly of the UN in 2005, and unanimously reaffirmed by the Security Council in 2006 (Resolution 1674) and 2009 (Resolution 1894). UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has identified the challenge of implementing RtoP as one of the cornerstones of his Secretary-Generalship. The principle has also become part of the working language of international engagement with humanitarian crises and has been debated in relation to almost every recent international crisis – including Sudan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Georgia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Darfur and Somalia. Concentrating mainly on implementation challenges including the prevention of genocide and mass atrocities, strengthening the UN’s capacity to respond, and the role of regional organizations, this book introducing readers to contemporary debates on R2P and provides the first book-length analysis of the implementation agenda. The book will be of great interest to students of the responsibility to protect, humanitarian intervention, human rights, foreign policy, security studies and IR and politics in general.

International Responses to Mass Atrocities in Africa

Responsibility to Protect, Prosecute, and Palliate

Author: Kurt Mills

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 081224737X

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 6449

Kurt Mills here develops a typology of responses to mass atrocities, investigates the limitations of these responses and calls for such responses to be implemented in a more timely and thoughtful manner. To illustrate his points, he considers four cases of international responses to mass atrocities - in Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda and Darfur.

Protecting Human Rights in the 21st Century

Author: Aidan Hehir,Robert W. Murray

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 131543668X

Category: Political Science

Page: 278

View: 8670

This book contributes to current debates on the protection of human rights in the 21st century. With the global economic collapse, the rise of the BRICS, the post-intervention chaos in Libya, the migration crisis in Europe, and the regional conflagration sparked by the conflict in Syria, the need to protect human rights has arguably never been greater. In light of the precipitous decline in global respect for human rights and the eruption or escalation of intra-state crises across the world, this book asks 'what is the future of human rights protection?'. Seeking to avoid both denial and fatalism, this book thus aims to: examine the principles at the very foundation of the debate on human rights; diagnose the causes of the decline of liberal internationalism so as to offer guiding lessons for future initiatives; identify those practices and developments that can, and should, be preserved in the new era; question the parameters of the contemporary debate and advance perspectives that aim to identify the contours of future ideas and practices that may offer a way forward. This book will be of much interest to students of humanitarian intervention, R2P, international organisations, human rights and security studies.

Sovereignty and the Responsibility to Protect

The Power of Norms and the Norms of the Powerful

Author: Theresa Reinold

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415626293

Category: Political Science

Page: 196

View: 3369

This book explores how the bedrock institution of today's global order – sovereignty – is undergoing transformation as a result of complex interactions between power and norms, between politics and international law. This book analyses a series of controversial military interventions into the internal affairs of "irresponsible sovereigns" and discusses their consequences for the rules on the use of force and the principle of sovereign equality. Featuring case studies on Kosovo, Darfur and Afghanistan, It shows that frames from one discourse (for example the debate over the responsibility to protect) have been imported into other discourses (on counter-terrorism and nuclear non-proliferation) in an attempt to legitimize a bold challenge to the global legal order. Although the 'demise' of sovereignty is widely debated, this book instead seeks to 'deconstruct' sovereignty by explaining how this institution has been reconstituted by global powers whose hegemonic law-making activities have popularized the notion of sovereignty as responsibility. Drawing on international relations theory, international law and sociology, Sovereignty and the Responsibility to Protect develops a truly interdisciplinary perspective on the transformation of sovereignty and will be of strong interest to students and scholars in these fields.

The Power of Tests

A Critical Perspective on the Uses of Language Tests

Author: Elana Shohamy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317875486

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 208

View: 4942

Language in Social Life is a major series which highlights the importance of language to an understanding of issues of social and professional concern. It will be of practical relevance to all those wanting to understand how the ways we communicate both influence and are influenced by the structures and forces of contemporary social institutions. In all modern societies individuals are subject to tests, whether to enter educational programs, to pass from one level to the next or to grant certificates to practice. Yet, tests are powerful tools which are often introduced in undemocratic and unethical ways as disciplinary tools for carrying out various policy agendas. Tests can be detrimental to people's lives as they are capable of affecting and defining the knowledge and behaviour of those who are being tested. The Power of Tests applies a critical perspective of language tests by examining their uses and consequences in education and society and by viewing tests not as isolated events but rather as embedded in social, educational and political contexts. The book is divided into four parts: the first part establishes the power of tests through echoing the voices of test takers, describing the features of the power of tests, and the temptations that tests offer to bureaucrats who use them for power and control. The second part reports on studies that provide empirical evidence about intentions and effects of a number of large scale language tests. The third part interprets the results by examining their consequences on education and society, arriving at a model of tests' use. The final section of the book offers strategies for controlling and minimising the misuses of tests by introducing the notion of Critical Language Testing which calls for the examination of the consequences and misuses of tests, monitoring of power and pointing to their unethical uses. It also provides a comprehensive discussion of the responsibilities of language testers, including a new Code of Ethics, as well as strategies for guarding and protecting the rights of test takers.

Fighting for Darfur

Public Action and the Struggle to Stop Genocide

Author: Rebecca Hamilton

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 9780230112407

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 2102

Around the world, millions of people have added their voices to protest marches and demonstrations because they believe that, together, they can make a difference. When we failed to stop the genocide in Rwanda in 1994, we promised to never let such a thing happen again. But nine years later, as news began to trickle out of killings in western Sudan, an area known as Darfur, the international community again faced the problem of how the United Nations and the United States government could respond to mass atrocity. Rebecca Hamilton passionately narrates the six-year grassroots campaign to draw global attention to the plight of Darfur's people. From college students who galvanized entire university campuses in the belief that their outcry could save millions of Darfuris still at risk, to celebrities such as Mia Farrow, who spurred politicians to act, to Steven Spielberg, who boycotted the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, Hamilton details how advocacy for Darfur was an exuberant, multibillion-dollar effort. She then does what no one has done to date: she takes us into the corridors of power and the camps of Darfur, and reveals the impact of ordinary people's fierce determination to uphold the mantra of "never again." Fighting for Darfur weaves a gripping story that both dramatizes our moral dilemma and shows the promise and perils of citizen engagement in a new era of global compassion.

Humanitarian Imperialism

Using Human Rights to Sell War

Author: Jean Bricmont

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1583674888

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 9084

Since the end of the Cold War, the idea of human rights has been made into a justification for intervention by the world's leading economic and military powers—above all, the United States—in countries that are vulnerable to their attacks. The criteria for such intervention have become more arbitrary and self-serving, and their form more destructive, from Yugoslavia to Afghanistan to Iraq. Until the U.S. invasion of Iraq, the large parts of the left was often complicit in this ideology of intervention—discovering new “Hitlers” as the need arose, and denouncing antiwar arguments as appeasement on the model of Munich in 1938. Jean Bricmont’s Humanitarian Imperialism is both a historical account of this development and a powerful political and moral critique. It seeks to restore the critique of imperialism to its rightful place in the defense of human rights. It describes the leading role of the United States in initiating military and other interventions, but also on the obvious support given to it by European powers and NATO. It outlines an alternative approach to the question of human rights, based on the genuine recognition of the equal rights of people in poor and wealthy countries. Timely, topical, and rigorously argued, Jean Bricmont’s book establishes a firm basis for resistance to global war with no end in sight.

War, Police and Assemblages of Intervention

Author: Jan Bachmann,Colleen Bell,Caroline Holmqvist

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317587642

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 1071

This book reflects on the way in which war and police/policing intersect in contemporary Western-led interventions in the global South. The volume combines empirically oriented work with ground-breaking theoretical insights and aims to collect, for the first time, thoughts on how war and policing converge, amalgamate, diffuse and dissolve in the context both of actual international intervention and in understandings thereof. The book uses the caption WAR:POLICE to highlight the distinctiveness of this volume in presenting a variety of approaches that share a concern for the assemblage of war-police as a whole. The volume thus serves to bring together critical perspectives on liberal interventionism where the logics of war and police/policing blur and bleed into a complex assemblage of WAR:POLICE. Contributions to this volume offer an understanding of police as a technique of ordering and collectively take issue with accounts of the character of contemporary war that argue that war is simply reduced to policing. In contrast, the contributions show how – both historically and conceptually – the two are ‘always already’ connected. Contributions to this volume come from a variety of disciplines including international relations, war studies, geography, anthropology, and law but share a critical/poststructuralist approach to the study of international intervention, war and policing. This volume will be useful to students and scholars who have an interest in social theories on intervention, war, security, and the making of international order.

The UN Human Rights Council

Author: Bertrand G. Ramcharan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136657010

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 5111

The UN Human Rights Council provides a detailed insight into this important organization. The UN was founded in the hope that lasting peace would be built on the foundations of human rights and economic and social progress. In 2006 the Commission on Human Rights was replaced by the Human Rights Council as the principal UN body concerned with human rights. It is even possible that the council might eventually become a principal organ of the world organization. The Human Rights Council is already the subject of major public interest and controversy. The Council has been criticized for having dropped some of the protection strategies of the former commission and this book aims to present a balanced view of the council, outlining its current role, acknowledging where it has made positive contributions, highlighting the deficiencies, and identifying options for improving the body’s future work. This book is destined to become the leading text on the Human Rights Council and will be essential reading for all those concerned with the future of international relations international organizations and human rights.

Reconciling Canada

Critical Perspectives on the Culture of Redress

Author: Jennifer Henderson,Pauline Wakeham

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442695471

Category: Social Science

Page: 496

View: 7202

Truth and reconciliation commissions and official governmental apologies continue to surface worldwide as mechanisms for coming to terms with human rights violations and social atrocities. As the first scholarly collection to explore the intersections and differences between a range of redress cases that have emerged in Canada in recent decades, Reconciling Canada provides readers with the contexts for understanding the phenomenon of reconciliation as it has played out in this multicultural settler state. In this volume, leading scholars in the humanities and social sciences relate contemporary political and social efforts to redress wrongs to the fraught history of government relations with Aboriginal and diasporic populations. The contributors offer ground-breaking perspectives on Canada’s ‘culture of redress,’ broaching questions of law and constitutional change, political coalitions, commemoration, testimony, and literatures of injury and its aftermath. Also assembled together for the first time is a collection of primary documents – including government reports, parliamentary debates, and redress movement statements – prefaced with contextual information. Reconciling Canada provides a vital and immensely relevant illumination of the dynamics of reconciliation, apology, and redress in contemporary Canada.

Sovereignty and the Responsibility to Protect

A New History

Author: Luke Glanville

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022607708X

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 1904

In 2011, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1973, authorizing its member states to take measures to protect Libyan civilians from Muammar Gadhafi’s forces. In invoking the “responsibility to protect,” the resolution draws on the principle that sovereign states are responsible and accountable to the international community for the protection of their populations and that the international community can act to protect populations when national authorities fail to do so. The idea that sovereignty includes the responsibility to protect is often seen as a departure from the classic definition, but it actually has deep historical roots. In Sovereignty and the Responsibility to Protect, Luke Glanville argues that this responsibility extends back to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and that states have since been accountable for this responsibility to God, the people, and the international community. Over time, the right to national self-governance came to take priority over the protection of individual liberties, but the noninterventionist understanding of sovereignty was only firmly established in the twentieth century, and it remained for only a few decades before it was challenged by renewed claims that sovereigns are responsible for protection. Glanville traces the relationship between sovereignty and responsibility from the early modern period to the present day, and offers a new history with profound implications for the present.

The Endtimes of Human Rights

Author: Stephen Hopgood

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801469309

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 5521

"We are living through the endtimes of the civilizing mission. The ineffectual International Criminal Court and its disastrous first prosecutor, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, along with the failure in Syria of the Responsibility to Protect are the latest pieces of evidence not of transient misfortunes but of fatal structural defects in international humanism. Whether it is the increase in deadly attacks on aid workers, the torture and 'disappearing' of al-Qaeda suspects by American officials, the flouting of international law by states such as Sri Lanka and Sudan, or the shambles of the Khmer Rouge tribunal in Phnom Penh, the prospect of one world under secular human rights law is receding. What seemed like a dawn is in fact a sunset. The foundations of universal liberal norms and global governance are crumbling."—from The Endtimes of Human Rights In a book that is at once passionate and provocative, Stephen Hopgood argues, against the conventional wisdom, that the idea of universal human rights has become not only ill adapted to current realities but also overambitious and unresponsive. A shift in the global balance of power away from the United States further undermines the foundations on which the global human rights regime is based. American decline exposes the contradictions, hypocrisies and weaknesses behind the attempt to enforce this regime around the world and opens the way for resurgent religious and sovereign actors to challenge human rights. Historically, Hopgood writes, universal humanist norms inspired a sense of secular religiosity among the new middle classes of a rapidly modernizing Europe. Human rights were the product of a particular worldview (Western European and Christian) and specific historical moments (humanitarianism in the nineteenth century, the aftermath of the Holocaust). They were an antidote to a troubling contradiction—the coexistence of a belief in progress with horrifying violence and growing inequality. The obsolescence of that founding purpose in the modern globalized world has, Hopgood asserts, transformed the institutions created to perform it, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross and recently the International Criminal Court, into self-perpetuating structures of intermittent power and authority that mask their lack of democratic legitimacy and systematic ineffectiveness. At their best, they provide relief in extraordinary situations of great distress; otherwise they are serving up a mixture of false hope and unaccountability sustained by “human rights” as a global brand. The Endtimes of Human Rights is sure to be controversial. Hopgood makes a plea for a new understanding of where hope lies for human rights, a plea that mourns the promise but rejects the reality of universalism in favor of a less predictable encounter with the diverse realities of today’s multipolar world.

Norms of Protection

Responsibility to Protect, Protection of Civilians and Their Interaction

Author: Angus Francis,Vesselin Popovski,Charles J. G. Sampford

Publisher: UN

ISBN: 9789280812183

Category: Political Science

Page: 301

View: 2916

A series of humanitarian tragedies in the 1990s (Somalia, Rwanda, Srebrenica, Kosovo) demonstrated the failure of the international community to protect civilians in the context of complex emergencies. These brought to life two norms of protection - Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and Protection of Civilians (POC) - both deeply rooted in the empathy that human beings have for the suffering of innocent people. Both norms raise concerns of misinterpretation and misuse. They are developing - sometimes in parallel, sometimes diverging and sometimes converging - with varying degrees of institutionalisation and acceptance. This book engages in a profound comparative analysis of the norms and aims to serve policy-makers at various levels; practitioners with protective roles; academics and researchers; civil society and R2P and POC advocates