Crime and Terrorism Risk

Studies in Criminology and Criminal Justice

Author: Leslie W. Kennedy,Professor and Dean in the School of Criminal Justice Leslie W Kennedy,Edmund F. McGarrell

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1135851921

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 546

Crime and Terrorism Risk is a collection of original essays and articles that presents a broad overview of the issues related to the assessment and management of risk in the new security age. These original articles show how researchers, experts and the public are beginning to think about crime and terrorism issues in terms of a new risk paradigm that emphasizes establishing a balance between threat and resources in developing prevention and response strategies.

Societies in Transition

Economic, Political and Security Transformations in Contemporary Europe

Author: Savvas Katsikides,Pavlos I. Koktsidis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319138146

Category: Political Science

Page: 234

View: 9240

​This edited volume discusses critically the social implications of current structural transformations in Europe within the broader context of the global financial crisis. Experts from across Europe and the US discuss challenges and solutions to political and economic stability, security, growth, governance and integration on a country and regional level, especially focusing on vulnerable Southern and Eastern European states. New economic, political and security processes and realities are examined closely, with the aim to describe them in a coherent framework. Drawing on carefully selected interdisciplinary research, this collection offers fresh insights into the social repercussions of the transition from traditionally established practices and perceptions to new forms of collaboration, integration and governance.

Translational Criminology and Counterterrorism

Global Threats and Local Responses

Author: Leslie W. Kennedy,Yasemin Irvin-Erickson,Alexis R. Kennedy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1461455561

Category: Social Science

Page: 63

View: 1692

This brief focuses on translational criminology practices as they relate to counter-terrorism and homeland security. The work provides a detailed and practical examination of how global threats (such as, terrorism and cybercrime) are managed through local response. It covers emerging strategies in data collection procedures, inter-agency cooperation, and new analytical techniques including risk-terrain modeling. In addition, it presents a common methodology, including steps in risk assessment, risk management, and decision-making, that can be used to frame and analyze global and local threats. The authors examine these issues using examples of how law enforcement responded to specific security threats including the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, the 2003 terrorist attack in Istanbul, Turkey, and the 2010 Stuxnet attack on the Natanz nuclear facility in Iran. This work expands on existing literature covering the impact that globalization has on cross national threats, drawing on disciplines related to criminology, such as international relations and political science.

The Handbook of the Criminology of Terrorism

Author: Gary LaFree,Joshua D. Freilich

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118923960

Category: Social Science

Page: 632

View: 4239

The Handbook of the Criminology of Terrorism features a collection of essays that represent the most recent criminological research relating to the origins and evolution of, along with responses to, terrorism, from a criminological perspective. Offers an authoritative overview of the latest criminological research into the causes of and responses to terrorism in today’s world Covers broad themes that include terrorism’s origins, theories, methodologies, types, relationship to other forms of crime, terrorism and the criminal justice system, ways to counter terrorism, and more Features original contributions from a group of international experts in the field Provides unique insights into the field through an exclusive focus on criminological conceptual frameworks and empirical studies that engage terrorism and responses to it

Pre-crime

Pre-emption, precaution and the future

Author: Jude McCulloch,Dean Wilson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131767023X

Category: Social Science

Page: 154

View: 6093

Pre-crime aims to pre-empt ‘would-be-criminals’ and predict future crime. Although the term is borrowed from science ?ction, the drive to predict and pre-empt crime is a present-day reality. This book critically explores this major twenty-first century development in crime and justice. This first in-depth study of pre-crime defines and describes different types of pre-crime and compares it to traditional post-crime and crime risk approaches. It analyses the rationales that underpin pre-crime as a response to threats, particularly terrorism, and shows how it is spreading to other areas. It also underlines the historical continuities that prefigure the emergence of pre-crime, as well as exploring the new technologies and forms of surveillance that claim the ability to predict crime and identify future criminals. Through the use of examples and case studies it provides insights into how pre-crime generates the crimes it purports to counter, providing compelling evidence of the problems that arise when we act as if we know the future and aim to control it through punishing, disrupting or incapacitating those we predict might commit future crimes. Drawing on literature from criminology, law, international relations, security and globalization studies, this book sets out a coherent framework for the continued study of pre-crime and addresses key issues such as terminology, its links to past practises, its likely future trajectories and its impact on security, crime and justice. It is essential reading for academics and students in security studies, criminology, counter-terrorism, surveillance, policing and law, as well as practitioners and professionals in these fields.

Conflict and Cooperation in Cyberspace

The Challenge to National Security

Author: Panayotis A Yannakogeorgos,Adam B Lowther

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1466592028

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 360

View: 7430

Conflict and Cooperation in Cyberspace: The Challenge to National Security brings together some of the world’s most distinguished military leaders, scholars, cyber operators, and policymakers in a discussion of current and future challenges that cyberspace poses to the United States and the world. Maintaining a focus on policy-relevant solutions, it offers a well-reasoned study of how to prepare for war, while attempting to keep the peace in the cyberspace domain. The discussion begins with thoughtful contributions concerning the attributes and importance of cyberspace to the American way of life and global prosperity. Examining the truths and myths behind recent headline-grabbing malicious cyber activity, the book spells out the challenges involved with establishing a robust system of monitoring, controls, and sanctions to ensure cooperation amongst all stakeholders. The desire is to create a domain that functions as a trusted and resilient environment that fosters cooperation, collaboration, and commerce. Additionally, the book: Delves into the intricacies and considerations cyber strategists must contemplate before engaging in cyber war Offers a framework for determining the best ways to engage other nations in promoting global norms of behavior Illustrates technologies that can enable cyber arms control agreements Dispels myths surrounding Stuxnet and industrial control systems General Michael V. Hayden, former director of the National Security Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency, begins by explaining why the policymakers, particularly those working on cyber issues, must come to understand the policy implications of a dynamic domain. Expert contributors from the Air Force Research Institute, MIT, the Rand Corporation, Naval Postgraduate School, NSA, USAF, USMC, and others examine the challenges involved with ensuring improved cyber security. Outlining the larger ethical, legal, and policy challenges facing government, the private sector, civil society, and individual users, the book offers plausible solutions on how to create an environment where there is confidence in the ability to assure national security, conduct military operations, and ensure a vibrant and stable global economy.

Criminal Law and Precrime

Legal Studies in Canadian Punishment and Surveillance in Anticipation of Criminal Guilt

Author: Richard Jochelson

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351678647

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 4773

In Philip K. Dick's short story Minority Report, the institution of Precrime punishes people with imprisonment for crimes they would have committed had they not been prevented. With Dick's allegorical inspiration, the authors of Criminal Law and Precrime: Legal Studies in Canadian Punishment and Surveillance in Anticipation of Criminal Guilt posit that recent developments in Canadian law indicate a trend toward imposing punitive measures at increasingly earlier stages of the prosecutorial process. The result is a potentially new field of criminal management that could be characterized as "precrime"-particularly the use of the law as a technology of surveillance and prevention since "terror" became a justification for intervention. The authors note that as risk management logics (based in actuarial sciences) have shifted to precautionary ones (based in administrative sciences), the law has responded by developing techniques in the arena of criminal regulation in light of the "war on terror" the need to ensure security, the proliferation of digital data, and the development of drones, social networking, and cloud storage to gather personal data. The authors view shifts in criminal investigation; the substantive criminal law of sexual expression, conduct, and work; and civil forfeiture as emblematic of precrime populism. The unifying theme of these techniques is that they occur prior to state-identified crime, arise out of a precautionary philosophy, and seek to presume (or circumvent) criminality. The book is a provocative read for scholars and students in criminal law, policing, and surveillance, as well as for those interested in how areas of law, such as immigration, health, and anti-terrorism, are mobilizing the logics of risk and surveillance in new ways that emphasize precaution. The authors invite legal scholars to place the analytical lens of precrime on criminal and regulatory practices in Canada as well as other Western nations across the globe.

Dirty Assets

Emerging Issues in the Regulation of Criminal and Terrorist Assets

Author: Colin King,Clive Walker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317150457

Category: Law

Page: 372

View: 2052

Adopting a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, this book focuses on the emerging and innovative aspects of attempts to target the accumulated assets of those engaged in criminal and terrorist activity, organized crime and corruption. It examines the ’follow-the-money’ approach and explores the nature of criminal, civil and regulatory responses used to attack the financial assets of those engaged in financial crime in order to deter and disrupt future criminal activity as well as terrorism networks. With contributions from leading international academics and practitioners in the fields of law, economics, financial management, criminology, sociology and political science, the book explores law and practice in countries with significant problems and experiences, revealing new insights into these dilemmas. It also discusses the impact of the ’follow-the-money’ approach on human rights while also assessing effectiveness. The book will appeal to academics and researchers of financial crime, organized crime and terrorism as well as practitioners in the police, prosecution, financial and taxation agencies, policy-makers and lawyers.

Evidence-Based Counterterrorism Policy

Author: Cynthia Lum,Leslie W. Kennedy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461409533

Category: Social Science

Page: 388

View: 719

In the past eight years, there has been a massive increase in government spending on counterterrorism intervention development and implementation. Given this increase, there are two evidence-based policy questions that are important to address: Is there evidence that any of these programs are effective – in other words, can they be shown to be linked to reducing terrorism, terrorist recruiting, or to improving the response and management of terrorist events? Do these interventions have secondary or collateral effects that may be costly, harmful, illegal, beneficial, or otherwise? As Lum and Kennedy discovered in an evaluation research on counterterrorism interventions, only a minuscule number of empirical studies of terrorism exist and there is an almost complete absence of evaluation research on counter-terrorism strategies. This is startling given the enormous increases in the development and use of counter-terrorism programs, as well as spending on counter-terrorism activity. Even more disconcerting was the nature of the evaluations we did find; some programs were shown to either have no discernible effect on terrorism or lead to increases in terrorism. The emphasis of the need for empirical research in evaluating interventions and informing policy cannot be overstated, and is the primary goal of Evidence-Based Counterterrorism Policy.

Digital Criminology

Crime and Justice in Digital Society

Author: Anastasia Powell,Gregory Stratton,Robin Cameron

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351795058

Category: Social Science

Page: 210

View: 9518

The infusion of digital technology into contemporary society has had significant effects for everyday life and for everyday crimes. Digital Criminology: Crime and Justice in Digital Society is the first interdisciplinary scholarly investigation extending beyond traditional topics of cybercrime, policing and the law to consider the implications of digital society for public engagement with crime and justice movements. This book seeks to connect the disparate fields of criminology, sociology, legal studies, politics, media and cultural studies in the study of crime and justice. Drawing together intersecting conceptual frameworks, Digital Criminology examines conceptual, legal, political and cultural framings of crime, formal justice responses and informal citizen-led justice movements in our increasingly connected global and digital society. Building on case study examples from across Australia, Canada, Europe, China, the UK and the United States, Digital Criminology explores key questions including: What are the implications of an increasingly digital society for crime and justice? What effects will emergent technologies have for how we respond to crime and participate in crime debates? What will be the foundational shifts in criminological research and frameworks for understanding crime and justice in this technologically mediated context? What does it mean to be a ‘just’ digital citizen? How will digital communications and social networks enable new forms of justice and justice movements? Ultimately, the book advances the case for an emerging digital criminology: extending the practical and conceptual analyses of ‘cyber’ or ‘e’ crime beyond a focus foremost on the novelty, pathology and illegality of technology-enabled crimes, to understandings of online crime as inherently social.

Transnational Crime and Criminal Justice

Author: Marinella Marmo,Nerida Chazal

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1473966167

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 9987

Providing you with a wide-ranging introduction to key international issues in crime and its control, this book covers all essential theories, and clearly explains their relevance to the world today. Going beyond just looking at organized crime, the book covers a range of topics including: Human rights Terrorism Trafficking Cybercrime Environmental crime International Law Plenty of case studies and examples are included throughout, including the Bali 9, Rana Plaza and the shooting of Charles De Menezes , and tips on further reading make it easy to know where to go to engage with more debates in the field. Making sure you’re up to date with current issues, this book will be essential reading for students in Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as those in Law and International Relations.

The Routledge Handbook of International Crime and Justice Studies

Author: Bruce Arrigo,Heather Bersot

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136868496

Category: Social Science

Page: 688

View: 7644

The Routledge Handbook of International Crime and Justice Studies presents the enduring debates and emerging challenges in crime and justice studies from an international and multi-disciplinary perspective. Guided by the pivotal, although vastly under-examined, role that consumerism, politics, technology, and culture assume in shaping these debates and in organizing these challenges, individual chapters probe the global landscape of crime and justice with astonishing clarity and remarkable depth. A distinguished collection of experts examine the interdisciplinary field of international crime and justice. Their contributions are divided into thematic sections, including: theory, culture, and society industries of crime and justice: systems of policing, law, corrections and punishment the criminal enterprise global technologies media, crime, and culture green criminology political violence public health criminology the political economy of crime and justice. All the chapters include full pedagogy and instructional resources for easy referencing or classroom use. This Handbook will be useful for students, scholars and practitioners of law, medicine, history, economics, sociology, politics, philosophy, education, public health, and social policy.

Crime and Risk

Author: Pat O'Malley

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 0857026984

Category: Social Science

Page: 120

View: 4116

Over recent years, the governance of crime - from policing and crime prevention to sentencing and prison organization - has moved away from a focus on reforming offenders toward preventing crime and managing behaviour using predictive and distributional (such as risk) techniques. Crime and Risk presents an engaging discussion of risk strategies and risk-taking in the domain of crime and criminal justice. It outlines the broad theoretical issues and political approaches involved, relating risk in contemporary crime governance to risk in criminal activity. Taking a broad and discursive approach, it covers: Risk-taking and contemporary culture The excitement associated with risk-taking and the impact of criminal activity The application of risk-oriented developments in crime prevention and control The use of genetic and related biotechnologies to assess and react to perceived threats The conceptualization of risk in relation to race and gender The influence of excitement upon criminal activity Evidence and accountability. ? Compact Criminology is an exciting series that invigorates and challenges the international field of criminology. Books in the series are short, authoritative, innovative assessments of emerging issues in criminology and criminal justice – offering critical, accessible introductions to important topics. They take a global rather than a narrowly national approach. Eminently readable and first-rate in quality, each book is written by a leading specialist. Compact Criminology provides a new type of tool for teaching, learning and research, one that is flexible and light on its feet. The series addresses fundamental needs in the growing and increasingly differentiated field of criminology.

Global Injustice and Crime Control

Author: Wendy Laverick

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317576764

Category: Political Science

Page: 306

View: 7736

Global Injustice and Crime Control places cross-border, cross-national and international crime and crime control within its wider context. It examines theory from a range of disciplines and introduces students to the frequently neglected area of the world order and world politics, in an effort to direct attention to the links between events, power, ideas, institutions, policies, actions and counter-actions at the international and domestic level. In an increasingly interconnected and interdependent world, the various dimensions of globalisation play a pivotal role in issues of crime and criminal justice in the 21st century. This interdisciplinary textbook offers a critical treatment of the development and recent acceleration of national, regional and international efforts at cross-border crime control and law enforcement. The book not only places cross-national and international efforts by police, courts, regional and international agencies within their historical context, but also focuses on elucidating leading theoretical perspectives from within globalisation literature, criminology and international relations to shed light upon both sides of this phenomenon. Areas covered include: cross-border crime and security, state crime and corruption, international responses to genocide, terrorism and counter-terrorism, organised crime. This book will be perfect reading for modules in transnational crime and justice and will be of interest to students in criminology, policing, public policy and international relations.

The Critical Criminology Companion

Author: Thalia Anthony

Publisher: Hawkins Press

ISBN: 9781876067236

Category: Crime

Page: 336

View: 3515

This companion presents the major debates and issues in critical criminology. It presents new research on crime, policy and the internationalisation of the criminal justice system. It sheds light on traditional debates in critical criminology through a confronting analysis of contemporary developments in criminal justice and criminology. This is the first textbook that brings together the major Australian and New Zealand theorists in critical criminology. The chapters represent the contribution of these authors in both their established work and their recent scholarship. It includes new approaches to theory, methodology, case studies and contemporary issues. It traverses a range of debates including the criminalisation of Indigenous people, ethnic communities, the working class, rural communities and young people from critical perspectives, as well as introduces new concepts of state crime. There is coverage of the developments in the penal system that have responded to globalisation and neo-liberalism, particularly in law and order and anti-terror campaigns. This coverage is counterpoised by portrayals of resistance within the penal system and considerations of restorative justice. The companion is relevant to a broad range of courses and levels of study. It covers the major components of a criminology course through a critical lens. It is a wonderful introduction to the concepts and critiques in criminology, as well as a provocative analysis of the assumptions underpinning the criminal justice system. Students, teachers and scholars in criminology, law and sociology will find this reader an invaluable companion.

Risk Terrain Modeling

Crime Prediction and Risk Reduction

Author: Joel M. Caplan,Leslie W. Kennedy

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520958802

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 4466

Imagine using an evidence-based risk management model that enables researchers and practitioners alike to analyze the spatial dynamics of crime, allocate resources, and implement custom crime and risk reduction strategies that are transparent, measurable, and effective. Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) diagnoses the spatial attractors of criminal behavior and makes accurate forecasts of where crime will occur at the microlevel. RTM informs decisions about how the combined factors that contribute to criminal behavior can be targeted, connections to crime can be monitored, spatial vulnerabilities can be assessed, and actions can be taken to reduce worst effects. As a diagnostic method, RTM offers a statistically valid way to identify vulnerable places. To learn more, visit http://www.riskterrainmodeling.com and begin using RTM with the many free tutorials and resources.

Crime, Violence and Security in the Caribbean

Author: M. Raymond Izarali

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315525755

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 5610

Security challenges pose significant hardship for citizens of Caribbean nations. Public safety is threatened by?high rates of crime – especially violent crime – in much of the region, the plague of the illicit drug trade, transnational organized crime, gangs, the current global proliferation of crimes of terrorism and related violent extremism and radicalization.?The situation diminishes morale among the youth, their education and their future, and operates as a major push factor.?? Yet, surprisingly, there has been a scarcity of scholarly work that addresses these conditions.? This interdisciplinary volume succinctly responds to the gap in criminological and security studies on the Caribbean by drawing attention to the understudied nexus of crime, violence, and security that is so pervasive in the region, and the ways in which underdevelopment re/creates environments for insecurity. The book is organized in three parts: Part one encompasses conceptualizations of crime, violence and punishment.?? Part two takes up country cases on crime and security.? Part three addresses issues of regional security, both public and private. This timely volume will be valuable reading for scholars, students, practitioners and policy makers who share a critical interest in the scope, impact, and inter-relationality of crime, violence, and in/security in the region.

Governing Through Crime

How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear

Author: Jonathan Simon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195181085

Category: History

Page: 330

View: 8549

Across America today gated communities sprawl out from urban centers, employers enforce mandatory drug testing, and schools screen students with metal detectors. Social problems ranging from welfare dependency to educational inequality have been reconceptualized as crimes, with an attendant focus on assigning fault and imposing consequences. Even before the recent terrorist attacks, non-citizen residents had become subject to an increasingly harsh regime of detention and deportation, and prospective employees subjected to background checks. How and when did our everyday world become dominated by fear, every citizen treated as a potential criminal?In this startlingly original work, Jonathan Simon traces this pattern back to the collapse of the New Deal approach to governing during the 1960s when declining confidence in expert-guided government policies sent political leaders searching for new models of governance. The War on Crime offered a ready solution to their problem: politicians set agendas by drawing analogies to crime and redefined the ideal citizen as a crime victim, one whose vulnerabilities opened the door to overweening government intervention. By the 1980s, this transformation of the core powers of government had spilled over into the institutions that govern daily life. Soon our schools, our families, our workplaces, and our residential communities were being governed through crime.This powerful work concludes with a call for passive citizens to become engaged partners in the management of risk and the treatment of social ills. Only by coming together to produce security, can we free ourselves from a logic of domination by others, and from the fear that currently rules our everyday life.

The Palgrave Handbook of Criminal and Terrorism Financing Law

Author: Colin King,Clive Walker,Jimmy Gurulé

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331964498X

Category: Social Science

Page: 1260

View: 4818

The Palgrave Handbook of Criminal and Terrorism Financing Law focuses on how criminal and terrorist assets pose significant and unrelenting threats to the integrity, security, and stability of contemporary societies. In response to the funds generated by or for organised crime and transnational terrorism, strategies have been elaborated at national, regional, and international levels for laws, organisations and procedures, and economic systems. Reflecting on these strands, this handbook brings together leading experts from different jurisdictions across Europe, America, Asia, and Africa and from different disciplines, including law, criminology, political science, international studies, and business. The authors examine the institutional and legal responses, set within the context of both policy and practice, with a view to critiquing these actions on the grounds of effective delivery and compliance with legality and rights. In addition, the book draws upon the experiences of the many senior practitioners and policy-makers who participated in the research project which was funded by a major Arts and Humanities Research Council grant. This comprehensive collection is a must-read for academics and practitioners alike with an interest in money laundering, terrorism financing, security, and international relations.