Communication in the Age of Virtual Reality

Author: Frank Biocca,Mark R. Levy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135693579

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 416

View: 6607

This volume addresses virtual reality (VR) -- a tantalizing communication medium whose essence challenges our most deeply held notions of what communication is or can be. The editors have gathered an expert team of engineers, social scientists, and cultural theorists for the first extensive treatment of human communication in this exciting medium. The first part introduces the reader to VR's state-of-the-art as well as future trends. In the next section, leading research scientists discuss how knowledge of communication can be used to build more effective and exciting communication applications of virtual reality. Looking ahead, the authors explore pioneering approaches to VR narratives, interpersonal communication, the use of 3D sound, and the building of VR entertainment complexes. In the final section, the authors zoom out to view the big picture -- the psychological, social, and cultural implications of virtual reality. Thought-provoking discussions consider important communication issues such as: * How will virtual reality influence perception of reality? * What are the legal issues defining communication in virtual reality? * What kind of cultural trends will this technology encourage?

Analyzing Rater Agreement

Manifest Variable Methods

Author: Alexander von Eye,Eun Young Mun

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135612447

Category: Education

Page: 208

View: 8874

Agreement among raters is of great importance in many domains. For example, in medicine, diagnoses are often provided by more than one doctor to make sure the proposed treatment is optimal. In criminal trials, sentencing depends, among other things, on the complete agreement among the jurors. In observational studies, researchers increase reliability by examining discrepant ratings. This book is intended to help researchers statistically examine rater agreement by reviewing four different approaches to the technique. The first approach introduces readers to calculating coefficients that allow one to summarize agreements in a single score. The second approach involves estimating log-linear models that allow one to test specific hypotheses about the structure of a cross-classification of two or more raters' judgments. The third approach explores cross-classifications or raters' agreement for indicators of agreement or disagreement, and for indicators of such characteristics as trends. The fourth approach compares the correlation or covariation structures of variables that raters use to describe objects, behaviors, or individuals. These structures can be compared for two or more raters. All of these methods operate at the level of observed variables. This book is intended as a reference for researchers and practitioners who describe and evaluate objects and behavior in a number of fields, including the social and behavioral sciences, statistics, medicine, business, and education. It also serves as a useful text for graduate-level methods or assessment classes found in departments of psychology, education, epidemiology, biostatistics, public health, communication, advertising and marketing, and sociology. Exposure to regression analysis and log-linear modeling is helpful.

Personnel Selection

Adding Value Through People - A Changing Picture

Author: Mark Cook

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118973569

Category: Psychology

Page: 368

View: 8029

This is a fully updated edition of Personnel Selection, a seminal text on the psychometric approach to personnel selection by a noted expert in the field. Focuses on cutting-edge topics including the influence of social networking sites, adverse impact, age differences and stereotypes, distribution of work performance, and the problems of selecting new employees using research based on incumbent employees Questions established beliefs in the field, especially issues that have been characterized as “not a problem,” such as differential validity, over-reliance on self-report, and “faking good” Contains expanded discussion of research and practice in the US and internationally, while maintaining the definitive coverage of UK and European selection approaches Provides comprehensive yet accessible information for professionals and students, as well as helpful pedagogical tools (technical and statistical boxes, simplified figures and tables, research agenda boxes, key point summaries, and key references)

Configural Frequency Analysis

Methods, Models, and Applications

Author: Alexander von Eye

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135630852

Category: Psychology

Page: 472

View: 1527

Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA) provides an up-to-the-minute comprehensive introduction to its techniques, models, and applications. Written in a formal yet accessible style, actual empirical data examples are used to illustrate key concepts. Step-by-step program sequences are used to show readers how to employ CFA methods using commercial software packages, such as SAS, SPSS, SYSTAT, S-Plus, or those written specifically to perform CFA. CFA is an important method for analyzing results involved with categorical and longitudinal data. It allows one to answer the question of whether individual cells or groups of cells of cross-classifications differ significantly from expectations. The expectations are calculated using methods employed in log-linear modeling or a priori information. It is the only statistical method that allows one to make statements about empty areas in the data space. Applied and or person-oriented researchers, statisticians, and advanced students interested in CFA and categorical and longitudinal data will find this book to be a valuable resource. Developed since 1969, this method is now used by a large number of researchers around the world in a variety of disciplines, including psychology, education, medicine, and sociology. Configural Frequency Analysis will serve as an excellent text for courses on configural frequency analysis, categorical variable analysis, or analysis of contingency tables. Prerequisites include an understanding of descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing, statistical model fitting, and some understanding of categorical data analysis and matrix algebra.

Statistical Analysis of Longitudinal Categorical Data in the Social and Behavioral Sciences

An introduction With Computer Illustrations

Author: Alexander von Eye,Keith E. Niedermeier

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135671249

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 8010

A comprehensive resource for analyzing a variety of categorical data, this book emphasizes the application of many recent advances of longitudinal categorical statistical methods. Each chapter provides basic methodology, helpful applications, examples using data from all fields of the social sciences, computer tutorials, and exercises. Written for social scientists and students, no advanced mathematical training is required. Step-by-step command files are given for both the CDAS and the SPSS software programs.

Introduction to Configural Frequency Analysis

The Search for Types and Antitypes in Cross-Classification

Author: Alexander von Eye

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521380904

Category: Psychology

Page: 270

View: 6718

Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA) is a method for analysis of groups of individuals in cross-classifications. Individuals belong to a type if their particular pattern of characteristics occurs more often than expected, and to an antityte if their particular pattern of characteristics occurs less often than expected. The author's original contribution is his linking of CFA to log-linear modeling and the General Linear Model, enabling the reader to relate CFA to a well-known statistical background. It is shown that CFA and log-linear modeling are methods that complement each other. Introduction to Configural Frequency Analysis covers the latest developments in CFA, and it will be easy to read even for those with only an elementary statistics course as a background.

Log-Linear Modeling

Concepts, Interpretation, and Application

Author: Alexander von Eye,Eun-Young Mun

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118391764

Category: Mathematics

Page: 472

View: 2836

An easily accessible introduction to log-linear modeling for non-statisticians Highlighting advances that have lent to the topic's distinct, coherent methodology over the past decade, Log-Linear Modeling: Concepts, Interpretation, and Application provides an essential, introductory treatment of the subject, featuring many new and advanced log-linear methods, models, and applications. The book begins with basic coverage of categorical data, and goes on to describe the basics of hierarchical log-linear models as well as decomposing effects in cross-classifications and goodness-of-fit tests. Additional topics include: The generalized linear model (GLM) along with popular methods of coding such as effect coding and dummy coding Parameter interpretation and how to ensure that the parameters reflect the hypotheses being studied Symmetry, rater agreement, homogeneity of association, logistic regression, and reduced designs models Throughout the book, real-world data illustrate the application of models and understanding of the related results. In addition, each chapter utilizes R, SYSTAT®, and §¤EM software, providing readers with an understanding of these programs in the context of hierarchical log-linear modeling. Log-Linear Modeling is an excellent book for courses on categorical data analysis at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It also serves as an excellent reference for applied researchers in virtually any area of study, from medicine and statistics to the social sciences, who analyze empirical data in their everyday work.

Cognition and Emotion

Reviews of Current Research and Theories

Author: Jan de Houwer,Dirk Hermans

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1136980946

Category: Psychology

Page: 360

View: 2267

Emotions are complex and multifaceted phenomena. Although they have been examined from a variety of perspectives, the study of the interaction between cognition and emotion has always occupied a unique position within emotion research. Many philosophers and psychologists have been fascinated by the relationship between thinking and feeling. During the past 30 years, research on the relationship between cognition and emotion has boomed and so many studies on this topic have been published that it is difficult to keep track of the evidence. This book fulfils the need for a review of the existing evidence on particular aspects of the interplay between cognition and emotion. The book assembles a collection of state-of-the-art reviews of the most important topics in cognition and emotion research: emotion theories, feeling and thinking, the perception of emotion, the expression of emotion, emotion regulation, emotion and memory, and emotion and attention. By bringing these reviews together, this book presents a unique overview of the knowledge that has been generated in the past decades about the many and complex ways in which cognition and emotion interact. As such, it provides a useful tool for both students and researchers alike, in the fields of social, clinical and cognitive psychology.

Neural Organization

Structure, Function, and Dynamics

Author: Michael A. Arbib,Péter Érdi,J?nos Szent?gothai

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262011594

Category: Medical

Page: 407

View: 5646

In "Neural Organization," Arbib, É rdi, and Szentá gothai integrate structural, functional, and dynamical approaches to the interaction of brain models and neurobiologcal experiments. Both structure-based "bottom-up" and function- based "top-down" models offer coherent concepts by which to evaluate the experimental data. The goal of this book is to point out the advantages of a multidisciplinary, multistrategied approach to the brain. Part I of "Neural Organization" provides a detailed introduction to each of the three areas of structure, function, and dynamics. "Structure" refers to the anatomical aspects of the brain and the relations between different brain regions. "Function" refers to skills and behaviors, which are explained by means of functional schemas and biologically based neural networks. "Dynamics" refers to the use of a mathematical framework to analyze the temporal change of neural activities and synaptic connectivities that underlie brain development and plasticity--in terms of both detailed single-cell models and large-scale network models. In part II, the authors show how their systematic approach can be used to analyze specific parts of the nervous system--the olfactory system, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia--as well as to integrate data from the study of brain regions, functional models, and the dynamics of neural networks. In conclusion, they offer a plan for the use of their methods in the development of cognitive neuroscience.

Advances in Configural Frequency Analysis

Author: Alexander von Eye,Patrick Mair,Eun Young Mun

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1606237195

Category: Psychology

Page: 306

View: 2551

Using real-world data examples, this authoritative book shows how to use the latest configural frequency analysis (CFA) techniques to analyze categorical data. Some of the techniques are presented here for the first time. In contrast to such methods as log-linear modeling, which focus on relationships among variables, CFA allows researchers to evaluate differences and change at the level of individual cells in a table. Illustrated are ways to identify and test for cell configurations that are either consistent with or contrary to hypothesized patterns (the types and antitypes of CFA); control for potential covariates that might influence observed results; develop innovative prediction models; address questions of moderation and mediation; and analyze intensive longitudinal data. The book also describes free software applications for executing CFA. This book will be invaluable to researchers and graduate students in psychology, education, management, public health, sociology, and other social, behavioral, and health science disciplines. It will also serve as a supplemental text in graduate-level courses on categorical data analysis, longitudinal analysis, and person-oriented research.

Attention

Theory and Practice

Author: Addie Johnson,Robert W. Proctor

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 0761927611

Category: Psychology

Page: 474

View: 399

Attention: Theory and Practice provides a balance between a readable overview of attention and an emphasis on how theories and paradigms for the study of attention have developed. The book highlights the important issues and major findings while giving sufficient details of experimental studies, models, and theories so that results and conclusions are easy to follow and evaluate. Rather than brushing over tricky technical details, the authors explain them clearly, giving readers the benefit of understanding the motivation for and techniques of the experiments in order to allow readers to think through results, models, and theories for themselves. Attention is an accessible text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in psychology, as well as an important resource for researchers and practitioners interested in gaining an overview of the field of attention.

The Paradoxical Brain

Author: Narinder Kapur

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139495798

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 6957

The Paradoxical Brain focuses on a range of phenomena in clinical and cognitive neuroscience that are counterintuitive and go against the grain of established thinking. The book covers a wide range of topics by leading researchers, including: • Superior performance after brain lesions or sensory loss • Return to normal function after a second brain lesion in neurological conditions • Paradoxical phenomena associated with human development • Examples where having one disease appears to prevent the occurrence of another disease • Situations where drugs with adverse effects on brain functioning may have beneficial effects in certain situations A better understanding of these interactions will lead to a better understanding of brain function and to the introduction of new therapeutic strategies. The book will be of interest to those working at the interface of brain and behaviour, including neuropsychologists, neurologists, psychiatrists and neuroscientists.

Regression Analysis for Social Sciences

Author: Alexander von Eye,Christof Schuster

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080550827

Category: Education

Page: 386

View: 3638

Regression Analysis for Social Sciences presents methods of regression analysis in an accessible way, with each method having illustrations and examples. A broad spectrum of methods are included: multiple categorical predictors, methods for curvilinear regression, and methods for symmetric regression. This book can be used for courses in regression analysis at the advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate level in the social and behavioral sciences. Most of the techniques are explained step-by-step enabling students and researchers to analyze their own data. Examples include data from the social and behavioral sciences as well as biology, making the book useful for readers with biological and biometrical backgrounds. Sample command and result files for SYSTAT are included in the text. Presents accessible methods of regression analysis Includes a broad spectrum of methods Techniques are explained step-by-step Provides sample command and result files for SYSTAT

Categorical Variables in Developmental Research

Methods of Analysis

Author: Alexander von Eye,Clifford C. Clogg

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080528717

Category: Psychology

Page: 286

View: 9338

Categorical Variables in Developmental Research provides developmental researchers with the basic tools for understanding how to utilize categorical variables in their data analysis. Covering the measurement of individual differences in growth rates, the measurement of stage transitions, latent class and log-linear models, chi-square, and more, the book provides a means for developmental researchers to make use of categorical data. Measurement and repeated observations of categorical data Catastrophe theory Latent class and log-linear models Applications

The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods, Vol. 2: Statistical Analysis

Author: Todd D. Little

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199934908

Category: Psychology

Page: 784

View: 1304

Research today demands the application of sophisticated and powerful research tools. Fulfilling this need, The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods is the complete tool box to deliver the most valid and generalizable answers to todays complex research questions. It is a one-stop source for learning and reviewing current best-practices in quantitative methods as practiced in the social, behavioral, and educational sciences. Comprising two volumes, this handbook covers a wealth of topics related to quantitative research methods. It begins with essential philosophical and ethical issues related to science and quantitative research. It then addresses core measurement topics before delving into the design of studies. Principal issues related to modern estimation and mathematical modeling are also detailed. Topics in the handbook then segway into the realm of statistical inference and modeling with chapters dedicated to classical approaches as well as modern latent variable approaches. Numerous chapters associated with longitudinal data and more specialized techniques round out this broad selection of topics. Comprehensive, authoritative, and user-friendly, this two-volume set will be an indispensable resource for serious researchers across the social, behavioral, and educational sciences.

Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology

Author: Harry T. Reis,Charles M. Judd

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139867369

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 2955

This indispensable sourcebook covers conceptual and practical issues in research design in the field of social and personality psychology. Key experts address specific methods and areas of research, contributing to a comprehensive overview of contemporary practice. This updated and expanded second edition offers current commentary on social and personality psychology, reflecting the rapid development of this dynamic area of research over the past decade. With the help of this up-to-date text, both seasoned and beginning social psychologists will be able to explore the various tools and methods available to them in their research as they craft experiments and imagine new methodological possibilities.

Principles of Synthetic Intelligence

Psi: An Architecture of Motivated Cognition

Author: Joscha Bach

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199708109

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 4251

From the Foreword: "In this book Joscha Bach introduces Dietrich Dörner's PSI architecture and Joscha's implementation of the MicroPSI architecture. These architectures and their implementation have several lessons for other architectures and models. Most notably, the PSI architecture includes drives and thus directly addresses questions of emotional behavior. An architecture including drives helps clarify how emotions could arise. It also changes the way that the architecture works on a fundamental level, providing an architecture more suited for behaving autonomously in a simulated world. PSI includes three types of drives, physiological (e.g., hunger), social (i.e., affiliation needs), and cognitive (i.e., reduction of uncertainty and expression of competency). These drives routinely influence goal formation and knowledge selection and application. The resulting architecture generates new kinds of behaviors, including context dependent memories, socially motivated behavior, and internally motivated task switching. This architecture illustrates how emotions and physical drives can be included in an embodied cognitive architecture. The PSI architecture, while including perceptual, motor, learning, and cognitive processing components, also includes several novel knowledge representations: temporal structures, spatial memories, and several new information processing mechanisms and behaviors, including progress through types of knowledge sources when problem solving (the Rasmussen ladder), and knowledge-based hierarchical active vision. These mechanisms and representations suggest ways for making other architectures more realistic, more accurate, and easier to use. The architecture is demonstrated in the Island simulated environment. While it may look like a simple game, it was carefully designed to allow multiple tasks to be pursued and provides ways to satisfy the multiple drives. It would be useful in its own right for developing other architectures interested in multi-tasking, long-term learning, social interaction, embodied architectures, and related aspects of behavior that arise in a complex but tractable real-time environment. The resulting models are not presented as validated cognitive models, but as theoretical explorations in the space of architectures for generating behavior. The sweep of the architecture can thus be larger-it presents a new cognitive architecture attempting to provide a unified theory of cognition. It attempts to cover perhaps the largest number of phenomena to date. This is not a typical cognitive modeling work, but one that I believe that we can learn much from." --Frank E. Ritter, Series Editor Although computational models of cognition have become very popular, these models are relatively limited in their coverage of cognition-- they usually only emphasize problem solving and reasoning, or treat perception and motivation as isolated modules. The first architecture to cover cognition more broadly is PSI theory, developed by Dietrich Dorner. By integrating motivation and emotion with perception and reasoning, and including grounded neuro-symbolic representations, PSI contributes significantly to an integrated understanding of the mind. It provides a conceptual framework that highlights the relationships between perception and memory, language and mental representation, reasoning and motivation, emotion and cognition, autonomy and social behavior. It is, however, unfortunate that PSI's origin in psychology, its methodology, and its lack of documentation have limited its impact. The proposed book adapts Psi theory to cognitive science and artificial intelligence, by elucidating both its theoretical and technical frameworks, and clarifying its contribution to how we have come to understand cognition.

The Cambridge Handbook of Applied Perception Research

Author: Robert R. Hoffman,Peter A. Hancock,Mark W. Scerbo,Raja Parasuraman,James L. Szalma

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139993534

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 8738

The Cambridge Handbook of Applied Perception Research covers core areas of research in perception with an emphasis on its application to real-world environments. Topics include multisensory processing of information, time perception, sustained attention, and signal detection, as well as pedagogical issues surrounding the training of applied perception researchers. In addition to familiar topics, such as perceptual learning, the Handbook focuses on emerging areas of importance, such as human-robot coordination, haptic interfaces, and issues facing societies in the twenty-first century (such as terrorism and threat detection, medical errors, and the broader implications of automation). Organized into sections representing major areas of theoretical and practical importance for the application of perception psychology to human performance and the design and operation of human-technology interdependence, it also addresses the challenges to basic research, including the problem of quantifying information, defining cognitive resources, and theoretical advances in the nature of attention and perceptual processes.

Executive Functions and the Frontal Lobes

A Lifespan Perspective

Author: Vicki Anderson,Rani Jacobs,Peter J. Anderson

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1136873538

Category: Psychology

Page: 544

View: 2137

This volume has as its primary aim the examination of issues concerning executive function and frontal lobe development. While many texts have addressed these issues, this is the first to do so within a specifically developmental framework. This area of cognitive function has received increasing attention over the past decade, and it is now established that the frontal lobes, and associated executive functions, are critical for efficient functioning in daily life. It is also clear, and of particular relevance to this text, that these functions develop gradually through childhood, and then deteriorate during old age. These developmental trajectories, and the impact of any interruption to them, are the focus of this volume.