Confidential Informants

A Closer Look at Police Policy

Author: Jon Shane

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331922252X

Category: Social Science

Page: 112

View: 3252

While confidential informants (CI’s) can play a crucial role in police investigations, they also have the potential to cause great harm if they are dishonest. The process by which police agencies qualify a CI to work and the strength of agency policy may be the source of the problem. This Brief examines the integrity problem involving CIs in police operations within the United States, provides an overview of pitfalls and problems related to veracity and informant integrity including the difficulties in detecting when a CI is lying, and compares the provisions of actual published police policy to the model CI policy published by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). The analysis shows a wide divergence between actual police policy and the national standard promulgated by the IACP. The Brief provides policy recommendations for improving use of CIs that can potentially reduce or eliminate integrity problems that can lead to organizational accidents such as wrongful arrests and convictions, injuries or deaths. Some Courts have issued measures to ensure that information received from CIs is reliable by examining sworn testimony and documents related to their work. However, as this Brief explores, this judicial effort arises only after a police operation has taken place, and the use of force – even deadly force—has already been employed. The author proposes integrity testing beforehand, which would allow police to have a greater understanding of a CI’s motivation, ability and veracity when conducting law enforcement operations. In addition, there are aspects of police policy that can enhance CI management such as training, supervision and entrapment that can further guard against integrity problems. Although integrity testing is not flawless, it does interpose an additional step in the CI management process that can help guard against wrongful conviction and perjury that harms the judicial process.

Translational Criminology and Counterterrorism

Global Threats and Local Responses

Author: Leslie W. Kennedy,Yasemin Irvin-Erickson,Alexis R. Kennedy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1461455561

Category: Social Science

Page: 63

View: 773

This brief focuses on translational criminology practices as they relate to counter-terrorism and homeland security. The work provides a detailed and practical examination of how global threats (such as, terrorism and cybercrime) are managed through local response. It covers emerging strategies in data collection procedures, inter-agency cooperation, and new analytical techniques including risk-terrain modeling. In addition, it presents a common methodology, including steps in risk assessment, risk management, and decision-making, that can be used to frame and analyze global and local threats. The authors examine these issues using examples of how law enforcement responded to specific security threats including the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, the 2003 terrorist attack in Istanbul, Turkey, and the 2010 Stuxnet attack on the Natanz nuclear facility in Iran. This work expands on existing literature covering the impact that globalization has on cross national threats, drawing on disciplines related to criminology, such as international relations and political science.

Societal Implications of Community-Oriented Policing and Technology

Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319892975

Category: Social Science

Page: 102

View: 8305

This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize the societal implications of new technologies for community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through strengthed community feeling and lower feeling of insecurity - Reducing the fear of crime and enhancing the perception of security in large, urban environments -Enhancing citizens feelings' of empowerment, belonging, and collective efficacy Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Producing Bias-Free Policing

A Science-Based Approach

Author: Lorie A. Fridell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319331752

Category: Social Science

Page: 117

View: 8512

This Brief provides specific recommendations for police professionals to reduce the influence of implicit bias on police practice, which will improve both effectiveness (in a shift towards evidence-based, rather than bias-based) practices and police legitimacy. The author is donating her proceeds from this book to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (nleomf.org).

Learning from Error in Policing

A Case Study in Organizational Accident Theory

Author: Jon Shane

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319000411

Category: Social Science

Page: 91

View: 8841

​While the proximate cause of any accident is usually someone’s immediate action— or omission (failure to act)—there is often a trail of underlying latent conditions that facilitated their error: the person has, in effect, been unwittingly “set up” for failure by the organization. This Brief explores an accident in policing, as a framework for examining existing police practices. Learning from Error in Policing describes a case of wrongful arrest from the perspective of organizational accident theory, which suggests a single unsafe act—in this case a wrongful arrest—is facilitated by several underlying latent conditions that triggered the event and failed to stop the harm once in motion. The analysis demonstrates that the risk of errors committed by omission (failing to act) were significantly more likely to occur than errors committed by acts of commission. By examining this case, policy implications and directions for future research are discussed. The analysis of this case, and the underlying lessons learned from it will have important implications for researchers and practitioners in the policing field.​

Developing and Maintaining Police-Researcher Partnerships to Facilitate Research Use

A Comparative Analysis

Author: Jeff Rojek,Peter Martin,Geoffrey P. Alpert

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493920561

Category: Social Science

Page: 84

View: 1244

This Brief discusses methods to develop and maintain police – researcher partnerships. First, the authors provide information that will be useful to police managers and researchers who are interested in creating and maintaining partnerships to conduct research, work together to improve policing and help others understand the linkages between the two groups. Then, more specifically, they describe how police managers consider and utilize research in policing and criminal justice and its findings from a management perspective in both the United States and Australia. While both countries experience similar issues of trust, acceptance, utility, and accountability between researchers and practitioners, the experiences in the countries differ. In the United States with 17,000 agencies, the use of research findings by police agencies requires understanding, diffusion and acceptance. In Australia with a small number of larger agencies, the problems of research-practitioner partnerships have different translational issues, including acceptance and application. As long as police practitioners and academic researchers hold distinct and different impressions of each other, the likelihood of positive, cooperative, and sustainable agreements between them will suffer.

Ethical Research with Sex Workers

Anthropological Approaches

Author: Susan Dewey,Tiantian Zheng

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461464927

Category: Social Science

Page: 111

View: 2852

This volume is the result of the many years the authors have spent conducting ethnographic field research with sex workers, conversing with other researchers, and, perhaps most importantly, developing a deep sense of empathy for the sex worker participants in the research as well as the colleagues who carry out this work with the goal of advancing social justice. They have a combined total of twenty-five years’ experience carrying out research with sex workers, and this extensive period of time has given them ample opportunity to reflect upon the topic of ethics. Sex work, defined as the exchange of sexual or sexualized intimacy for money or something of value, encompasses a wide range of legal and illegal behaviors that present researchers with key ethical challenges explored in the volume. These ethical challenges include: · Research methodology · Distinguishing research from activism · Navigating the politically and ideologically charged environments in which researchers must remain constantly attuned to the legal and public policy implications of their work · Possibilities for participatory sex work research processes · Strategies for incorporating participants in a variety of collaborative ways Sex work presents a unique set of challenges that are not always well understood by those working outside of anthropology and disciplines closely related to it. This book serves an important function by honestly and openly reviewing strategies for overcoming these ethical challenges with the end goal of producing path-breaking research that actively incorporates the perspectives of research participants on their own terms. Ever attuned to the reality that research on sex work remains a deeply political act, Ethical Research with Sex Workers: Anthropological Approaches aspires to begin a dialogue about the meanings and practices ascribed to ethics in a fraught environment. Drawing upon a review of published scholarly and activist work on the subject, as well as on interviews with researchers, social service providers, and sex workers themselves, this volume is an unprecedented contribution to the literature that will engage researchers across a variety of disciplines, such as academics and researchers in anthropology, sociology, criminal justice, and public health, as well as activists and policymakers.

Gender-based Violence and Depression in Women

A Feminist Group Work Response

Author: Deborah Western

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461475325

Category: Social Science

Page: 102

View: 6266

​​​​Social workers, in whatever capacity they work, can expect to come into contact with women who have experienced/are experiencing violence and with women who are experiencing depression. Therefore, a range of social work supports and interventions are required in order to meet the needs of diverse women and assist them in their recovery. One of these methods is group work where women can share their experiences, learn from each other, reflect on their learnings and identify and achieve changes in their circumstances. This book is based on original research by the author that sought to understand depression in women from a feminist and gender-informed perspective, develop a feminist-based group work response, and highlight the activities of consciousness-raising and resistance as methods for women to achieve change in their lives and in their selves. An innovative and creative group work program, the Women’s Journaling Group Program, was developed from this research and provides a new method of working with women who have experienced/are experiencing violence and mild-moderate depression. The Women’s Journaling Group Program is research-informed, theoretically-grounded, practice-based and feminist and gender-focused. This book, and the program model within it, is an important contribution to the field of critical feminist social work practice.​

On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language

Author: Giovanni Acampora,Vincenzo Loia,Chang-Shing Lee,Mei-Hui Wang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642354882

Category: Computers

Page: 188

View: 7994

One of the most successful methodology that arose from the worldwide diffusion of Fuzzy Logic is Fuzzy Control. After the first attempts dated in the seventies, this methodology has been widely exploited for controlling many industrial components and systems. At the same time, and very independently from Fuzzy Logic or Fuzzy Control, the birth of the Web has impacted upon almost all aspects of computing discipline. Evolution of Web, Web2.0 and Web 3.0 has been making scenarios of ubiquitous computing much more feasible; consequently information technology has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. What happens when Fuzzy Logic meets Web technology? Interesting results might come out, as you will discover in this book. Fuzzy Mark-up Language is a son of this synergistic view, where some technological issues of Web are re-interpreted taking into account the transparent notion of Fuzzy Control, as discussed here. The concept of a Fuzzy Control that is conceived and modeled in terms of a native web wisdom represents another step towards the last picture of Pervasive Web Intelligence.

Sex Workers and Criminalization in North America and China

Ethical and Legal Issues in Exclusionary Regimes

Author: Susan Dewey,Tiantian Zheng,Treena Orchard

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319257633

Category: Social Science

Page: 99

View: 4685

Sex work continues to provoke controversial legal and public policy debates world-wide that raise fundamental questions about the state’s role in protecting individual rights, status quo social relations, and public health. This book unites ethnographic research from China, Canada, and the United States to argue that criminalization results in a totalizing set of negative consequences for sex workers’ health, safety, and human rights. Such consequences are enabled through the operations of an exclusionary regime, a dense coalescence of punitive forces that involves both governance, in the form of the criminal justice system and other state agents, and dynamic interpersonal encounters in which individuals both enforce and negotiate stigma-related discrimination against sex workers. Chapter Two demonstrates how criminalization harms sex workers by isolating their work to potentially dangerous locations, fostering mistrust of authority figures, further limiting their abilities to find legal work and housing, and restricting possibilities for collective rights-based organizing. Criminalized sex workers report police harassment, seizure of condoms, and adversarial police-sex worker relations that enable others to abuse them with impunity. Chapter Three describes how sex workers negotiate these restrictions on their rights and personal autonomy via their arrest avoidance and client management strategies, self-treatment of health issues, selective mutual aid, rights-based organizing, and entrenchment in sex work or other criminalized activities. Chapter Four describes how researchers working in countries or locales that criminalize sex work face ethical concerns as well as barriers to their work at the practical, institutional, and political levels.

Homicide Data Sources

An Interdisciplinary Overview for Researchers

Author: Adam Dobrin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319198815

Category: Social Science

Page: 44

View: 5589

This Brief provides a detailed guide to national data sources that collect and report data on homicides in the United States, and some key international sources abroad. It provides in-depth coverage of well-known sources, and highlights more obscure sources, providing a useful tool for research design and planning across disciplines. This Brief includes detailed discussions of the benchmark sources in the United States: police data compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reporting Programs, as well as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics’ National Vital Statistics System. It also brings to light in one place many other less commonly-known sources for the United States. The author also highlights international data sources with worldwide data, but not country-specific studies. For each source covered, this unique work provides discussion of how to access the data source, interpret data from the source, and provides necessary background information about strengths and weaknesses of the sources. It does not presume expertise in statistics or methodology, and assumes no prior exposure to the data sources described. It is organized by data source, with some comparisons between the sources. It will be useful as a guide for researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, Public Administration, Demography, and any related field interested in homicide statistics.

Labor Unions, Management Innovation and Organizational Change in Police Departments

Author: John DeCarlo,Michael J. Jenkins

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319215841

Category: Social Science

Page: 60

View: 1348

This Brief examines the role of Police Unions in law enforcement policy development. It provides an overview of the historical and political background of police labor unions, and takes a critical look at the shifting perception of labor unions from generally positive to somewhat negative, to compare this perception with their real impact. It examines the perceived role that unions play, whether positive, negative, or neutral in the development and advancement of contemporary law enforcement agencies and their respective policies. This work provides a multisite survey of police administrators’ views and opinions on police union impact on a variety of police functions including: delivery of services, prevention of crime and disorder, and interaction with the public. The results of this research provide a comprehensive look at ways to improve the ways police departments operate and how they improve and enhance legitimacy in their communities.It provides a context for the current state of the public sector labor relations environment. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, police science, and public policy.

Ethical Concerns in Research on Human Trafficking

Author: Dina Siegel,Roos de Wildt

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319215213

Category: Social Science

Page: 277

View: 8789

This book presents a vivid description of the solutions that researchers have discovered for ethical dilemmas that pose themselves at studying disadvantaged, vulnerable and victimized populations. Ethical codes prescribe that the scholar should in all circumstances avoid potential harm, that informed consent is necessary and that the limits of confidentiality should always be respected. However, in the practice of research among women involved in prostitution, illegal immigrant workers, enslaved children, people who sell their organs and all the traffickers thereof, the ethical rules cannot always be followed. This book shows that there is a surprising variety of arguable possibilities in dealing with ethical dilemmas in the field. Authors reflect on concrete experiences from their own fieldwork in a wide variety of settings such as the USA, Singapore, Kosovo and The Netherlands. Some choose to work on the basis of conscientious partiality, others negotiate the rules with their informants and still others purposely break the rules in order to disclose and damage the exploiters. Researchers may find themselves in a vulnerable position. Their experiences, as presented in this volume, will help field workers, university administrators, representatives of vulnerable groups, philosophers of ethics and most of all students to go into the field well-prepared. This is a book that every researcher planning to do fieldwork in the difficult field of hidden, illicit and victimized people should read in advance. Dr. Frank Bovenkerk, Professor (Emeritus), Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands This book allows a peek in the kitchen of empirical fieldwork, going into not only “best practices,” but mistakes made, in a frank, courageous and honest way. Dr. Brenda C. Oude Breuil, Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands

Pilgrims

A Nonfiction Companion to Magic Tree House #27: Thanksgiving on Thursday

Author: Mary Pope Osborne,Natalie Pope Boyce

Publisher: Random House Books for Young Readers

ISBN: 0307975312

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 128

View: 8458

The #1 bestselling chapter book series of all time celebrates 25 years with new covers and a new, easy-to-use numbering system! Getting the facts behind the fiction has never looked better. Track the facts with Jack and Annie!! When Jack and Annie got back from their adventure in Magic Tree House #27: Thanksgiving on Thursday, they had lots of questions. What was it like to sail on the Mayflower? Why did the Pilgrims choose Plymouth? How did they survive in their new home? What did they really eat at the first Thanksgiving? Find out the answers to these questions and more as Jack and Annie track the facts. Filled with up-to-date information, photos, illustrations, and fun tidbits from Jack and Annie, the Magic Tree House Fact Trackers are the perfect way for kids to find out more about the topics they discovered in their favorite Magic Tree House adventures. And teachers can use Fact Trackers alongside their Magic Tree House fiction companions to meet common core text pairing needs. Did you know that there’s a Magic Tree House book for every kid? Magic Tree House: Adventures with Jack and Annie, perfect for readers who are just beginning chapter books Merlin Missions: More challenging adventures for the experienced reader Super Edition: A longer and more dangerous adventure Fact Trackers: Nonfiction companions to your favorite Magic Tree House adventures Have more fun with Jack and Annie at MagicTreeHouse.com!

Novel Psychoactive Substances

Policy, Economics and Drug Regulation

Author: Ornella Corazza,Andres Roman-Urrestarazu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331960600X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 178

View: 6991

In light of the recent emergence of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) on a global scale, this book provides a timely analysis of the social and economic impact of the NPS phenomenon, and of the global policy and regulatory responses to it. It presents the first comprehensive overview of the international regulation, policy and market structure of the NPS phenomenon, offering a guide to inform legislative discussions and demonstrating from a comparative perspective the different approaches used to address the rise of NPS to date. It covers topics such as organized crime, drug markets, clinical evidence on NPS, and different regulatory approaches also in less explored settings such as prisons and sport environments. Overall, this highly informative and well-structured repository of different experiences with NPS policy, law and regulation offers an essential primary source of evidence for anyone interested in the area of drug and NPS policy, health economics and p ublic health.

Financial Crime in China

Developments, Sanctions, and the Systemic Spread of Corruption

Author: Hongming Cheng

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137571063

Category: Social Science

Page: 194

View: 5863

Given China's rapid development, many observers assert that world economic growth and key economic indicators are now depending on the country alone, including the prospects of the dollar, the Euro, oil prices, industrial commodities, global equity markets and bond prices. On the other hand, China faces a number of major social and economic challenges which could undermine future growth, such as prevalent corruption, financial crime, and the relative lack of the rule of law. Financial Crime in China builds upon original research into the topic and offers a never-before-seen look at the systemic spread of state-controlled corruption in the form of bank fraud, securities fraud, insider trading, and Ponzi schemes. Cheng presents an authentic picture of financial crime in China by identifying the latest manifestations, analyzing empirical data and case studies, and drawing conclusions about the origin, characteristics, dynamics, and developmental features of financial criminality in the context of political economy.

Offending from Childhood to Young Adulthood

Recent Results from the Pittsburgh Youth Study

Author: Wesley G. Jennings,Rolf Loeber,Dustin A. Pardini,Alex R. Piquero,David P. Farrington

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319259660

Category: Social Science

Page: 74

View: 3400

This Brief examines criminal careers by providing the most extensive and comprehensive investigation to date on the official offending, self-reported offending, and trajectories of offending of the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS) participants. The PYS is a longitudinal study, which was initiated in 1987, and involves repeated follow-ups on several community cohorts (starting in grades 1, 4, and 7) of inner-city boys in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This Brief covers the Youngest and Oldest PYS cohorts (which had the most follow-up and most data available) from ages 10-30. It provides the most complete descriptive analyses of the criminal careers of these males to date. The three cohorts are commonly referred to as the Youngest, Middle, and Oldest cohorts, respectively. Consistent with several prior publications with the PYS data (Loeber et al., 2008), this book focuses only on data from the Youngest and Oldest cohorts as these cohorts were followed up the most frequently and have the longest time window of data available. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as related fields like Sociology, Developmental Psychology, Social Policy, and Education.

The Two Mafias

A Transatlantic History, 1888-2008

Author: Salvatore Lupo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113749137X

Category: Social Science

Page: 236

View: 3793

A realistic understanding of the mafia must avoid depictions both of a monolithic organization and of localized, isolated groups. Here, renowned historian Salvatore Lupo analyzes the mafia as a network of varied relationships and institutions, the result of a complex cultural and social encounter that was shaped by multiple, diverse environments.

Sexual Orientation and Transgender Issues in Organizations

Global Perspectives on LGBT Workforce Diversity

Author: Thomas Köllen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331929623X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 560

View: 1618

Over the last decade workforce diversity has attracted much scientific attention. Given the shortage of literature on issues related to homosexual, bisexual and transgender employees, compared to other facets of workforce diversity, this book opens up new perspectives on this issue. Emphasis is placed on the equal consideration of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender issues. Thus the predominance of lesbian and gay issues in LGBT research (and practice), will be contrasted by an explicit consideration of the unique experiences, stressors and related needs of bisexual and transgender employees. Contributions provide deeper insights into the differing experiences the whole spectrum of LGBT employees make in the workplace in different national and occupational contexts. Furthermore, the collection offers contextualized insights for evaluating and conceptualizing organizational initiatives aiming at a higher level of inclusion for LGBT employees.

Police Use of Research Evidence

Recommendations for Improvement

Author: Elizabeth A. Stanko,Paul Dawson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319206486

Category: Social Science

Page: 79

View: 4916

This brief takes the reader through a 10-year journey of seeking to embed Evidence Based Policing within one of the largest police forces in the world - the Metropolitan Police Service in London, England - from the inside. As a topic, Evidence Based Policing has generated considerable recent interest and academic discussion - although largely remains without a consistent guiding voice for police practitioners. The aim of the brief is to expand upon the current discussions and address this gap within the day-to-day reality of policing where translation of research is a routine part of the day job. The book is organised into three sections: the first explores receptivity to evidence, asking practitioners to locate where they are on a continuum of evidence based craftwork; the second presents the importance of programme integrity and effective implementation in police craft; and the final section explores the challenges in professionalising policing and offers a more nuanced discussion around what it really means to be evidenced based. Throughout the brief the authors promote an insider whole-force strategic approach in landing evidence into policing 'business as normal' as opposed to an external academic or educated individual officer translation approach. Over the course of the monograph the authors draw upon their decade of experience providing case studies, toolkits, exercises, anecdotes and research experience as an inspiration for police practitioners both to practically support and inspire better evidence based working as part of the day job.