Origins of Religion, Cognition and Culture

Author: Armin W. Geertz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317544552

Category: Religion

Page: 488

View: 6230

Attempts to understand the origins of humanity have raised fundamental questions about the complex relationship between cognition and culture. Central to the debates on origins is the role of religion, religious ritual and religious experience. What came first: individual religious (ecstatic) experiences, collective observances of transition situations, fear of death, ritual competence, magical coercion; mirror neurons or temporal lobe religiosity? Cognitive scientists are now providing us with important insights on phylogenetic and ontogenetic processes. Together with insights from the humanities and social sciences on the origins, development and maintenance of complex semiotic, social and cultural systems, a general picture of what is particularly human about humans could emerge. Reflections on the preconditions for symbolic and linguistic competence and practice are now within our grasp. Origins of Religion, Cognition and Culture puts culture centre stage in the cognitive science of religion.

Evolution, Religion, and Cognitive Science

Critical and Constructive Essays

Author: Fraser Watts,Léon P. Turner

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191512443

Category: Religion

Page: 288

View: 6265

The cognitive science of religion is an inherently heterogeneous subject, incorporating theory and data from anthropology, psychology, sociology, evolutionary biology, and philosophy of mind amongst other subjects. One increasingly influential area of research in this field is concerned specifically with exploring the relationship between the evolution of the human mind, the evolution of culture in general, and the origins and subsequent development of religion. This research has exerted a strong influence on many areas of religious studies over the last twenty years, but, for some, the so-called 'evolutionary cognitive science of religion' remains a deeply problematic enterprise. This book's primary aim is to engage critically and constructively with this complex and diverse body of research from a wide range of perspectives. To these ends, the book brings together authors from a variety of relevant disciplines, in the thorough exploration of many of the key debates in the field. These include, for example: can certain aspects of religion be considered adaptive, or are they evolutionary by-products? Is the evolutionary cognitive science of religion compatible with theism? Is the evolutionary cognitive approach compatible with other, more traditional approaches to the study of religion? To what extent is religion shaped by cultural evolutionary processes? Is the evolutionary account of the mind that underpins the evolutionary cognitive approach the best or only available account? Written in accessible language, with an introductory chapter by Ilkka Pyssiäinen, a leading scholar in the field, this book is a valuable resource for specialists, undergraduate and graduate students, and newcomers to the evolutionary cognitive science of religion.

Evolution, Cognition, and the History of Religion: A New Synthesis

Festschrift in Honour of Armin W. Geertz

Author: Anders Klostergaard Petersen,Gilhus Ingvild Sælid,Luther H. Martin,Jeppe Sinding Jensen,Jesper Sørensen

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004385371

Category: Religion

Page: 702

View: 2299

The chapters explore the possible development of a new scholarly synthesis for the study of religion, founded on the triadic space constituted by evolution, cognition, cultural and ecological environment. Chapters focus on either evolution, cognition, and/or the history of religion.

Textual, Comparative, Sociological, and Cognitive Approaches

Author: Peter Antes,Armin W. Geertz,Randi R. Warne

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110211718

Category: Religion

Page: 503

View: 9853

Since its founding by Jacques Waardenburg in 1971, Religion and Reason has been a leading forum for contributions on theories, theoretical issues and agendas related to the phenomenon and the study of religion. Topics include (among others) category formation, comparison, ethnophilosophy, hermeneutics, methodology, myth, phenomenology, philosophy of science, scientific atheism, structuralism, and theories of religion. From time to time the series publishes volumes that map the state of the art and the history of the discipline.

Religion: immediate experience and the mediacy of research

interdisciplinary studies, concepts and methodology of empirical research in religion

Author: Hans-Günter Heimbrock,Christopher P. Scholtz

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 9783525604342

Category: Religion

Page: 283

View: 7332

This volume deals with the question of how the immediacy of religious experience can best and scientifically apt be presented? Twelve internationally renowned scholars from Europe, North America, and Africa approach this fundamental issue drawing from their expertise in theology, the philosophy of religion, cultural anthropology, and the social sciences. In doing so this volume relates to a broad scope of religious experience from various cultural and religious contexts.

Handbook of Religion and Health

Author: Harold Koenig,Dana King,Verna B. Carson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199912718

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 1192

View: 4347

The Handbook of Religion and Health has become the seminal research text on religion, spirituality, and health, outlining a rational argument for the connection between religion and health. The Second Edition completely revises and updates the first edition. Its authors are physicians: a psychiatrist and geriatrician, a primary care physician, and a professor of nursing and specialist in mental health nursing. The Second Edition surveys the historical connections between religion and health and grapples with the distinction between the terms ''religion'' and ''spirituality'' in research and clinical practice. It reviews research on religion and mental health, as well as extensive research literature on the mind-body relationship, and develops a model to explain how religious involvement may impact physical health through the mind-body mechanisms. It also explores the direct relationships between religion and physical health, covering such topics as immune and endocrine function, heart disease, hypertension and stroke, neurological disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases; and examines the consequences of illness including chronic pain, disability, and quality of life. Finally, the Handbook reviews research methods and addresses applications to clinical practice. Theological perspectives are interwoven throughout the chapters. The Handbook is the most insightful and authoritative resource available to anyone who wants to understand the relationship between religion and health.

Constructs of Meaning and Religious Transformation

Current Issues in the Psychology of Religion

Author: Herman Westerink

Publisher: V&R unipress GmbH

ISBN: 3847100998

Category: Religion

Page: 319

View: 9335

One of the major trends in the psychology of religion is the growing interest in religious and spiritual meaning making in relation to religious and spiritual transformation processes, notably as the aftermath of traumatic experiences and in situations of crisis, stress or disease when personal well-being is at stake and coping activities and skills are enhanced. This volume covers this broad and complex area of interrelated issues. The contributions focus on religious and spiritual meaning making and transformation. They do not compose an integrated perspective on religious meaning making and transformation processes. Rather, this volume assembles and presents the current state of research on this complex of issues. Thus it not only provides an excellent overview of the psychological study of constructs of meaning and religious transformation, but also contributes to our knowledge of contemporary religious life in the context of socio-cultural transformation processes (pluralisation, globalization).

Mild Cognitive Impairment

International Perspectives

Author: Holly A. Tuokko,David F. Hultsch

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134953895

Category: Psychology

Page: 336

View: 5669

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) has been identified as an important clinical transition between normal aging and the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since treatments for AD are most likely to be most effective early in the course of the disease, MCI has become a topic of great importance and has been investigated in different populations of interest in many countries. This book brings together these differing perspectives on MCI for the first time. This volume provides a comprehensive resource for clinicians, researchers, and students involved in the study, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of people with MCI. Clinical investigators initially defined mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a transitional condition between normal aging and the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Because the prevalence of AD increases with age and very large numbers of older adults are affected worldwide, these clinicians saw a pressing need to identify AD as early as possible. It is at this very early stage in the disease course that treatments to slow the progress and control symptoms are likely to be most effective. Since the first introduction of MCI, research interest has grown exponentially, and the utility of the concept has been investigated from a variety of perspectives in different populations of interest (e.g., clinical samples, volunteers, population-based screening) in many different countries. Much variability in findings has resulted. Although it has been acknowledged that the differences observed between samples may be ‘legitimate variations’, there has been no attempt to understand what it is we have learned about MCI (i.e., common features and differences) from each of these perspectives. This book brings together information about MCI in different populations from around the world. Mild Cognitive Impairment will be an important resource for any clinician, researcher, or student involved in the study, detection, treatment, and rehabilitation of people with MCI.

Religion, Belief and Unbelief

A Psychological Study

Author: Antoine Vergote

Publisher: Rodopi

ISBN: 9789042000063

Category: Religion

Page: 344

View: 2971

This book focuses attention on the central elements of human religious existence. Vergote's primary aim and viewpoint are clear: to examine empirically and to interpret dynamically the psychological factors at work in the field of religion. Vergote consistently adheres to the position that psychology is neither philosophy nor theology and that its task is not to explain religion. In this work he situates religion as a cultural fact and studies how persons orient themselves to it, positively and/or negatively. Rather than emphasise and juxtapose belief and unbelief as alternative positions, he sees them as threads of experiences interwoven throughout the human existence of persons and institutions. In this context he studies motivations and their ambivalences, religious experiences and their ambiguities, conflicts between religious belief and unbelief, and the various expressions and practices of religion.

The Roots of Religion

Exploring the Cognitive Science of Religion

Author: Roger Trigg,Justin L. Barrett

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317016939

Category: Religion

Page: 242

View: 4293

The cognitive science of religion is a new discipline that looks at the roots of religious belief in the cognitive architecture of the human mind. The Roots of Religion deals with the philosophical and theological implications of the cognitive science of religion which grounds religious belief in human cognitive structures: religious belief is ’natural’, in a way that even scientific thought is not. Does this new discipline support religious belief, undermine it, or is it, despite many claims, perhaps eventually neutral? This subject is of immense importance, particularly given the rise of the ’new atheism’. Philosophers and theologians from North America, UK and Australia, explore the alleged conflict between truth claims and examine the roots of religion in human nature. Is it less ’natural’ to be an atheist than to believe in God, or gods? On the other hand, if we can explain theism psychologically, have we explained it away. Can it still claim any truth? This book debates these and related issues.

Science and Religious Anthropology

A Spiritually Evocative Naturalist Interpretation of Human Life

Author: Dr Wesley J Wildman

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409478351

Category: Religion

Page: 294

View: 1768

Science and Religious Anthropology explores the convergence of the biological sciences, human sciences, and humanities around a spiritually evocative, naturalistic vision of human life. The disciplinary contributions are at different levels of complexity, from evolution of brains to existential longings, and from embodied sociality to ecosystem habitat. The resulting interpretation of the human condition supports some aspects of traditional theological thinking in the world's religious traditions while seriously challenging other aspects. Wesley Wildman draws out these implications for philosophical and religious anthropology and argues that the modern secular interpretation of humanity is most compatible with a religious form of naturalistic humanism. This book resists the reduction of meaning and value questions while taking scientific theories about human life with full seriousness. It argues for a religious interpretation of human beings as bodily creatures emerging within a natural environment that permits engagement with the valuational potentials of reality. This engagement promotes socially borne spiritual quests to realize and harmonize values in everything human beings do, from the forging of cultures to the crafting of personal convictions.

Moral Dilemmas

Philosophical and Psychological Issues in the Development of Moral Reasoning

Author: Carol Gibb Harding

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412829014

Category: Philosophy

Page: 198

View: 5726

Dilemmas are often thought to be unresolvable situations, typically having equally abhorrant alternatives. In everyday affairs however one must not only face moral dilemmas but live through them by making moral choices. This book is a study of dilemmas, choices, and the process of reasoning that goes into both. Contents: Carol Harding, "The Psychological Reality of Moral Dilemmas"; Marvin W. Berkowitz, "Four Perspectives on Moral Argumentation"; Georg Lind, "Growth and Regression in Cognitive-Moral Development of Young University Students"; Lawrence Kohlberg, "The Just Community Approach of High School Moral Education"; Larry P. Nucci, "Children's Conceptions of Morality, Societal Convention, and Religious Prescription"; Larry May, "The Moral Adequacy of Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory"; Marilyn Friedman, "Abraham, Socrates, and Heinz: Where Are the Women? Care and Context in Moral Reasoning"; Laurence Hunman, "The Emotions and the Development of Moral Awareness."

The Cognitive Science of Religion

Author: James A. Van Slyke

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317037928

Category: Religion

Page: 192

View: 3600

The cognitive science of religion is a relatively new academic field in the study of the origins and causes of religious belief and behaviour. The focal point of empirical research is the role of basic human cognitive functions in the formation and transmission of religious beliefs. However, many theologians and religious scholars are concerned that this perspective will reduce and replace explanations based in religious traditions, beliefs, and values. This book attempts to bridge the reductionist divide between science and religion through examination and critique of different aspects of the cognitive science of religion and offers a conciliatory approach that investigates the multiple causal factors involved in the emergence of religion.

Religion in Mind

Cognitive Perspectives on Religious Belief, Ritual, and Experience

Author: Jensine Andresen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521801522

Category: Psychology

Page: 294

View: 5267

Originally published in 2001, Religion in Mind summarizes and extends the advances in the cognitive study of religion throughout the 1990s.

Why Religion is Natural and Science is Not

Author: Robert N. McCauley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199912300

Category: Religion

Page: 352

View: 1574

The battle between religion and science, competing methods of knowing ourselves and our world, has been raging for many centuries. Now scientists themselves are looking at cognitive foundations of religion--and arriving at some surprising conclusions. Over the course of the past two decades, scholars have employed insights gleaned from cognitive science, evolutionary biology, and related disciplines to illuminate the study of religion. In Why Religion is Natural and Science Is Not, Robert N. McCauley, one of the founding fathers of the cognitive science of religion, argues that our minds are better suited to religious belief than to scientific inquiry. Drawing on the latest research and illustrating his argument with commonsense examples, McCauley argues that religion has existed for many thousands of years in every society because the kinds of explanations it provides are precisely the kinds that come naturally to human minds. Science, on the other hand, is a much more recent and rare development because it reaches radical conclusions and requires a kind of abstract thinking that only arises consistently under very specific social conditions. Religion makes intuitive sense to us, while science requires a lot of work. McCauley then draws out the larger implications of these findings. The naturalness of religion, he suggests, means that science poses no real threat to it, while the unnaturalness of science puts it in a surprisingly precarious position. Rigorously argued and elegantly written, this provocative book will appeal to anyone interested in the ongoing debate between religion and science, and in the nature and workings of the human mind.

Changing Minds and Brains - The Legacy of Reuven Feuerstein

Higher Thinking and Cognition Through Mediated Learning

Author: Reuven Feuerstein,Louis H. Falik,Refael S. Feuerstein

Publisher: Teachers College Press

ISBN: 0807756202

Category: Education

Page: 222

View: 6487

Decades before educators began to draw teaching and learning implications from neuroscientists’ groundbreaking findings on brain plasticiy, Reuven Feuerstein had already theorized it and developed practices for teaching and developing higher level cognition and learning for all students, even those with Down syndrome and other learning disabilities. His mediated learning, enrichment instruments, and dynamic assessment are used in urban districts in the United States and around the world to raise student achievement, success levels, and self-regulation. In this final work, Feuerstein provides a first-person reflective narrative of the implementation of mediated learning experience (MLE) past and present, including stories, new insights, observations, and newly formulated concepts on MLE and how it contributes to higher-level thinking and overcoming disability. Featuring both educational and clinical case examples, it offers a more detailed picture of the practical applications than any other publication to date. Those familiar with Feuerstein’s methods will find this book an important resource in deepening their knowledge. It is also essential reading for all educators looking for approaches that promote thinking skills that improve educational outcomes for diverse learners.