essays in sociology and theology
Author: W. Widick Schroeder
The cognitive science of religion is an inherently heterogeneous subject, incorporating theory and data from anthropology, psychology, sociology, evolutionary biology, and philosophy of mind amongst other subjects. One increasingly influential area of research in this field is concerned specifically with exploring the relationship between the evolution of the human mind, the evolution of culture in general, and the origins and subsequent development of religion. This research has exerted a strong influence on many areas of religious studies over the last twenty years, but, for some, the so-called 'evolutionary cognitive science of religion' remains a deeply problematic enterprise. This book's primary aim is to engage critically and constructively with this complex and diverse body of research from a wide range of perspectives. To these ends, the book brings together authors from a variety of relevant disciplines, in the thorough exploration of many of the key debates in the field. These include, for example: can certain aspects of religion be considered adaptive, or are they evolutionary by-products? Is the evolutionary cognitive science of religion compatible with theism? Is the evolutionary cognitive approach compatible with other, more traditional approaches to the study of religion? To what extent is religion shaped by cultural evolutionary processes? Is the evolutionary account of the mind that underpins the evolutionary cognitive approach the best or only available account? Written in accessible language, with an introductory chapter by Ilkka Pyssiäinen, a leading scholar in the field, this book is a valuable resource for specialists, undergraduate and graduate students, and newcomers to the evolutionary cognitive science of religion.
Critical and Constructive Essays
Author: Fraser Watts,Léon P. Turner
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Examines 13 secular and 13 religious theories to produce a wide-ranging comparative study of the roots of moral development.
A Comparative Study
Author: Robert Murray Thomas
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
The chapters explore the possible development of a new scholarly synthesis for the study of religion, founded on the triadic space constituted by evolution, cognition, cultural and ecological environment. Chapters focus on either evolution, cognition, and/or the history of religion.
Festschrift in Honour of Armin W. Geertz
Author: Anders Klostergaard Petersen,Gilhus Ingvild Sælid,Luther H. Martin,Jeppe Sinding Jensen,Jesper Sørensen
Since its founding by Jacques Waardenburg in 1971, Religion and Reason has been a leading forum for contributions on theories, theoretical issues and agendas related to the phenomenon and the study of religion. Topics include (among others) category formation, comparison, ethnophilosophy, hermeneutics, methodology, myth, phenomenology, philosophy of science, scientific atheism, structuralism, and theories of religion. From time to time the series publishes volumes that map the state of the art and the history of the discipline.
Author: Peter Antes,Armin W. Geertz,Randi R. Warne
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
What effect does religion have on physical and mental health? In answering this question, this book reviews and discusses research on the relationship between religion and a variety of mental and physical health outcomes, including depression and anxiety; heart disease, stroke, and cancer; and health related behaviors such as smoking and substance abuse. The authors examine the positive and negative effects of religion on health throughout the life span, from childhood to old age. Based on their findings, they build theoretical models illustrating the behavioral, psychological, social, and physiological pathways through which religion may influence health. The authors also review research on the impact of religious affiliation, belief, and practice on the use of health services and compliance with medical treatment. In conclusion, they discuss the clinical relevance of their findings and make recommendations for future research priorities. Offering the first comprehensive examination of its topic, this volume is an indispensable resource for research scientists, health professionals, public policy makers, and anyone interested in the relationship between religion and health.
Author: Harold G. Koenig,Michael E. McCullough,David B. Larson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit
One of the major trends in the psychology of religion is the growing interest in religious and spiritual meaning making in relation to religious and spiritual transformation processes, notably as the aftermath of traumatic experiences and in situations of crisis, stress or disease when personal well-being is at stake and coping activities and skills are enhanced. This volume covers this broad and complex area of interrelated issues. The contributions focus on religious and spiritual meaning making and transformation. They do not compose an integrated perspective on religious meaning making and transformation processes. Rather, this volume assembles and presents the current state of research on this complex of issues. Thus it not only provides an excellent overview of the psychological study of constructs of meaning and religious transformation, but also contributes to our knowledge of contemporary religious life in the context of socio-cultural transformation processes (pluralisation, globalization).
Current Issues in the Psychology of Religion
Author: Herman Westerink
Publisher: V&R unipress GmbH
This volume deals with the question of how the immediacy of religious experience can best and scientifically apt be presented? Twelve internationally renowned scholars from Europe, North America, and Africa approach this fundamental issue drawing from their expertise in theology, the philosophy of religion, cultural anthropology, and the social sciences. In doing so this volume relates to a broad scope of religious experience from various cultural and religious contexts.
interdisciplinary studies, concepts and methodology of empirical research in religion
Author: Hans-Günter Heimbrock,Christopher P. Scholtz
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) has been identified as an important clinical transition between normal aging and the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since treatments for AD are most likely to be most effective early in the course of the disease, MCI has become a topic of great importance and has been investigated in different populations of interest in many countries. This book brings together these differing perspectives on MCI for the first time. This volume provides a comprehensive resource for clinicians, researchers, and students involved in the study, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of people with MCI. Clinical investigators initially defined mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a transitional condition between normal aging and the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Because the prevalence of AD increases with age and very large numbers of older adults are affected worldwide, these clinicians saw a pressing need to identify AD as early as possible. It is at this very early stage in the disease course that treatments to slow the progress and control symptoms are likely to be most effective. Since the first introduction of MCI, research interest has grown exponentially, and the utility of the concept has been investigated from a variety of perspectives in different populations of interest (e.g., clinical samples, volunteers, population-based screening) in many different countries. Much variability in findings has resulted. Although it has been acknowledged that the differences observed between samples may be ‘legitimate variations’, there has been no attempt to understand what it is we have learned about MCI (i.e., common features and differences) from each of these perspectives. This book brings together information about MCI in different populations from around the world. Mild Cognitive Impairment will be an important resource for any clinician, researcher, or student involved in the study, detection, treatment, and rehabilitation of people with MCI.
Author: Holly A. Tuokko,David F. Hultsch
Publisher: Psychology Press
Science and Religious Anthropology explores the convergence of the biological sciences, human sciences, and humanities around a spiritually evocative, naturalistic vision of human life. The disciplinary contributions are at different levels of complexity, from evolution of brains to existential longings, and from embodied sociality to ecosystem habitat. The resulting interpretation of the human condition supports some aspects of traditional theological thinking in the world's religious traditions while seriously challenging other aspects. Wesley Wildman draws out these implications for philosophical and religious anthropology and argues that the modern secular interpretation of humanity is most compatible with a religious form of naturalistic humanism. This book resists the reduction of meaning and value questions while taking scientific theories about human life with full seriousness. It argues for a religious interpretation of human beings as bodily creatures emerging within a natural environment that permits engagement with the valuational potentials of reality. This engagement promotes socially borne spiritual quests to realize and harmonize values in everything human beings do, from the forging of cultures to the crafting of personal convictions.
A Spiritually Evocative Naturalist Interpretation of Human Life
Author: Dr Wesley J Wildman
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Dilemmas are often thought to be unresolvable situations, typically having equally abhorrant alternatives. In everyday affairs however one must not only face moral dilemmas but live through them by making moral choices. This book is a study of dilemmas, choices, and the process of reasoning that goes into both. Contents: Carol Harding, "The Psychological Reality of Moral Dilemmas"; Marvin W. Berkowitz, "Four Perspectives on Moral Argumentation"; Georg Lind, "Growth and Regression in Cognitive-Moral Development of Young University Students"; Lawrence Kohlberg, "The Just Community Approach of High School Moral Education"; Larry P. Nucci, "Children's Conceptions of Morality, Societal Convention, and Religious Prescription"; Larry May, "The Moral Adequacy of Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory"; Marilyn Friedman, "Abraham, Socrates, and Heinz: Where Are the Women? Care and Context in Moral Reasoning"; Laurence Hunman, "The Emotions and the Development of Moral Awareness."
Philosophical and Psychological Issues in the Development of Moral Reasoning
Author: Carol Gibb Harding
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
The cognitive science of religion is a new discipline that looks at the roots of religious belief in the cognitive architecture of the human mind. The Roots of Religion deals with the philosophical and theological implications of the cognitive science of religion which grounds religious belief in human cognitive structures: religious belief is ’natural’, in a way that even scientific thought is not. Does this new discipline support religious belief, undermine it, or is it, despite many claims, perhaps eventually neutral? This subject is of immense importance, particularly given the rise of the ’new atheism’. Philosophers and theologians from North America, UK and Australia, explore the alleged conflict between truth claims and examine the roots of religion in human nature. Is it less ’natural’ to be an atheist than to believe in God, or gods? On the other hand, if we can explain theism psychologically, have we explained it away. Can it still claim any truth? This book debates these and related issues.
Exploring the Cognitive Science of Religion
Author: Roger Trigg,Justin L. Barrett
This is the first comprehensive survey in English of research methods in the field of religious studies. It is designed to enable non-specialists and students at upper undergraduate and graduate levels to understand the variety of research methods used in the field. The aim is to create awareness of the relevant methods currently available and to stimulate an active interest in exploring unfamiliar methods, encouraging their use in research and enabling students and scholars to evaluate academic work with reference to methodological issues. A distinguished team of contributors cover a broad spectrum of topics, from research ethics, hermeneutics and interviewing, to Internet research and video-analysis. Each chapter covers practical issues and challenges, the theoretical basis of the respective method, and the way it has been used in religious studies, illustrated by case studies.
Author: Michael Stausberg,Steven Engler
The battle between religion and science, competing methods of knowing ourselves and our world, has been raging for many centuries. Now scientists themselves are looking at cognitive foundations of religion--and arriving at some surprising conclusions. Over the course of the past two decades, scholars have employed insights gleaned from cognitive science, evolutionary biology, and related disciplines to illuminate the study of religion. In Why Religion is Natural and Science Is Not, Robert N. McCauley, one of the founding fathers of the cognitive science of religion, argues that our minds are better suited to religious belief than to scientific inquiry. Drawing on the latest research and illustrating his argument with commonsense examples, McCauley argues that religion has existed for many thousands of years in every society because the kinds of explanations it provides are precisely the kinds that come naturally to human minds. Science, on the other hand, is a much more recent and rare development because it reaches radical conclusions and requires a kind of abstract thinking that only arises consistently under very specific social conditions. Religion makes intuitive sense to us, while science requires a lot of work. McCauley then draws out the larger implications of these findings. The naturalness of religion, he suggests, means that science poses no real threat to it, while the unnaturalness of science puts it in a surprisingly precarious position. Rigorously argued and elegantly written, this provocative book will appeal to anyone interested in the ongoing debate between religion and science, and in the nature and workings of the human mind.
Author: Robert N. McCauley
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Decades before educators began to draw teaching and learning implications from neuroscientists’ groundbreaking findings on brain plasticiy, Reuven Feuerstein had already theorized it and developed practices for teaching and developing higher level cognition and learning for all students, even those with Down syndrome and other learning disabilities. His mediated learning, enrichment instruments, and dynamic assessment are used in urban districts in the United States and around the world to raise student achievement, success levels, and self-regulation. In this final work, Feuerstein provides a first-person reflective narrative of the implementation of mediated learning experience (MLE) past and present, including stories, new insights, observations, and newly formulated concepts on MLE and how it contributes to higher-level thinking and overcoming disability. Featuring both educational and clinical case examples, it offers a more detailed picture of the practical applications than any other publication to date. Those familiar with Feuerstein’s methods will find this book an important resource in deepening their knowledge. It is also essential reading for all educators looking for approaches that promote thinking skills that improve educational outcomes for diverse learners.
Higher Thinking and Cognition Through Mediated Learning
Author: Reuven Feuerstein,Louis H. Falik,Refael S. Feuerstein
Publisher: Teachers College Press
Originally published in 2001, Religion in Mind summarizes and extends the advances in the cognitive study of religion throughout the 1990s.
Cognitive Perspectives on Religious Belief, Ritual, and Experience
Author: Jensine Andresen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Analysis of a Theme for Religious Studies
Author: P. H. Vrijhof
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter