Climate and Ancient Societies

Author: Susanne Kerner,Rachael Dann,Pernille Bangsgaard

Publisher: Museum Tusculanum Press

ISBN: 8763541998

Category: Science

Page: 351

View: 1253

Climate and human responses to it have a strongly interconnected relationship. Thus when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In Climate and Societies, scholars from diverse disciplines includ-ing archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies responded. Organized around four key themes each dealing with ways to understand past climates, human impact, and sustainability – holocene climate reconstruction; responses of complex societies to climatic variation; Archaeological evidence for pollution and its ecological implica-tions; and stable isotope analysis in the Middle East – the chapters demonstrate the value of a longue durée perspective on a topic of crucial importance to the future of our planet. Climate and Ancient Societies is dedicated to the memory of the Danish scholar, zooarchaeologist, Dr. Stine Rossel, University of Copenhagen who died following a freak accident, while hiking with her husband in the White Mountains of New Hampshire (USA), shortly after having submitted her dissertation to Harvard’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences for the PhD in Anthropology. The dissertation The Development of Productive Subsistence Economies in the Nile Valley: Zooarchaeological Analysis at El-Mahâsna and South Abydos, Upper Egypt is available online (ProQuest document ID: 1464110981; ISBN 9780549278788). Stine Rossel carried out her main fieldwork in Turkey, Egypt, Syria and Pakistan and published her findings in numerous publications, which laid the groundwork for what would no doubt have been a promising career. Contributors: Peter M.M.G. Akkermans, Benjamin S. Arbuckle, Pernille Bangsgaard, Miroslav Bárta, Peter F. Biehl, Tom Boiy, Joachim Bretschneider, Valentina Caracuta, Elise Van Campo, Claudio Casati, Louis Chaix, Rachael J. Dann, Maurits Ertsen, Girolamo Fiorentino, Karin Margarita Frei, Matthieu Honegger, Greta Jans, Akemi Kaneda, David Kaniewski, Eva Kapteijn, Susanne Kerner, Karel Van Lerberghe, Cheryl Makarewicz, Richard H. Meadow, Christopher Meiklejohn, Deborah C. Merrett, Olivier P. Nieuwenhuyse, Johannes van der Plicht, Simone Riehl, Neil Roberts, Anna Russell, Lasse Sørensen, Jason Ur, Joshua Wright. Susanne Kerner is associate professor at the Institute for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies at the University of Copenhagen. Rachael J. Dann is associate professor of Egyptian and Sudanese Archaeology at the Institute for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies at the University of Copenhagen. Pernille Bangsgaard is assistant professor at the Natural History Museum of Denmark at the University of Copenhagen.

Water Engineering in the Ancient World

Archaeological and Climate Perspectives on Societies of Ancient South America, the Middle East, and South-East Asia

Author: Charles R. Ortloff

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199239096

Category: History

Page: 424

View: 8649

Charles Ortloff provides a new perspective on archaeological studies of the urban and agricultural water supply and distribution systems of the major ancient civilizations of South America, the Middle East, and South-East Asia, by using modern computer analysis methods to extract the true hydraulic/hydrological knowledge base available to these peoples. His many new revelations about the capabilities and innovations of ancient water engineers force us to re-evaluate what was knownand practised in the hydraulic sciences in ancient times. Given our current concerns about global warming and its effect on economic stability, it is fascinating to observe how some ancient civilizations successfully coped with major climate change events by devising defensive agricultural survivalstrategies, while others, which did not innovate, failed to survive.

Soils, Climate and Society

Archaeological Investigations in Ancient America

Author: John D. Wingard,Sue Eileen Hayes

Publisher: University Press of Colorado

ISBN: 1607322137

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 2600

Much recent archaeological research focuses on social forces as the impetus for cultural change. Soils, Climate and Society, however, focuses on the complex relationship between human populations and the physical environment, particularly the land--the foundation of agricultural production and, by extension, of agricultural peoples. The volume traces the origins of agriculture, the transition to agrarian societies, the sociocultural implications of agriculture, agriculture's effects on population, and the theory of carrying capacity, considering the relation of agriculture to the profound social changes that it wrought in the New World. Soil science plays a significant, though varied, role in each case study, and is the common component of each analysis. Soil chemistry is also of particular importance to several of the studies, as it determines the amount of food that can be produced in a particular soil and the effects of occupation or cultivation on that soil, thus having consequences for future cultivators. Soils, Climate and Society demonstrates that renewed investigation of agricultural production and demography can answer questions about the past, as well as stimulate further research. It will be of interest to scholars of archaeology, historical ecology and geography, and agricultural history.

Climate and Cultural Change in Prehistoric Europe and the Near East

Author: Peter F. Biehl,Olivier P. Nieuwenhuyse

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 1438461844

Category: Social Science

Page: 318

View: 863

Rich case studies examining responses to climatic events in ancient Europe and the Near East. The subject of climate change could hardly be more timely. In Climate and Cultural Change in Prehistoric Europe and the Near East, an interdisciplinary group of contributors examine climate change through the lens of new archaeological and paleo-environmental data over the course of more than 10,000 years from the Near East to Europe. Key climatic and other events are contextualized with cultural changes and transitions for which the authors discuss when, how, and if, changes in climate and environment caused people to adapt, move or perish. More than this publication of crucial archaeological and paleo-environmental data, however, the volume seeks to understand the social, political and economic significance of climate change as it was manifested in various ways around the Old World. Contrary to perceptions of threatening global warming in our popular media, and in contrast to grim images of collapse presented in some archaeological discussions of past climate change, this book rejects outright societal collapse as a likely outcome. Yet this does not keep the authors from considering climate change as a potential factor in explaining culture change by adopting a critical stance with regard to the long-standing practice of equating synchronicity with causality, and explicitly considering alternative explanations.

The Great Warming

Climate Change and the Rise and Fall of Civilizations

Author: Brian Fagan

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 9781596917804

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 9237

From the 10th to 15th centuries the earth experienced a rise in surface temperature that changed climate worldwide-a preview of today's global warming. In some areas, including much of Western Europe, longer summers brought bountiful crops and population growth that led to cultural flowering. In others, drought shook long-established societies, such as the Maya and the Indians of the American Southwest, whose monumental buildings were left deserted as elaborate social structures collapsed. Brian Fagan examines how subtle changes in the environment had far-reaching effects on human life, in a narrative that sweeps from the Arctic ice cap to the Sahara to the Indian Ocean. The lessons of history suggest we may be yet be underestimating the power of climate change to disrupt our lives today.

Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments

Author: Vivien Gornitz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402045514

Category: Science

Page: 1049

View: 9522

One of Springer’s Major Reference Works, this book gives the reader a truly global perspective. It is the first major reference work in its field. Paleoclimate topics covered in the encyclopedia give the reader the capability to place the observations of recent global warming in the context of longer-term natural climate fluctuations. Significant elements of the encyclopedia include recent developments in paleoclimate modeling, paleo-ocean circulation, as well as the influence of geological processes and biological feedbacks on global climate change. The encyclopedia gives the reader an entry point into the literature on these and many other groundbreaking topics.

Why Did Ancient Civilizations Fail?

Author: Scott A J Johnson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315512874

Category: Social Science

Page: 308

View: 1621

Ideas abound as to why certain complex societies collapsed in the past, including environmental change, subsistence failure, fluctuating social structure and lack of adaptability. Why Did Ancient Civilizations Fail? evaluates the current theories in this important topic and discusses why they offer only partial explanations of the failure of past civilizations. This engaging book offers a new theory of collapse, that of social hubris. Through an examination of Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Roman, Maya, Inca, and Aztec societies, Johnson persuasively argues that hubris blinded many ancient peoples to evidence that would have allowed them to adapt, and he further considers how this has implications for contemporary societies. Comprehensive and well-written, this volume serves as an ideal text for undergraduate courses on ancient complex societies, as well as appealing to the scholar interested in societal collapse.

The Winds of Change

Climate, Weather, and the Destruction of Civilizations

Author: Eugene Linden

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0684863529

Category: History

Page: 302

View: 5392

A concise history of significant world events that occurred as a direct result of climate changes describes lost societies in Greenland, central America, and central Africa, in a cautionary account that evaluates the present world's readiness for threatening climate changes. By the author of The Octopus and the Orangutan. 35,000 first printing

1177 B.C.

The Year Civilization Collapsed

Author: Eric H. Cline

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400874491

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 1519

In 1177 B.C., marauding groups known only as the "Sea Peoples" invaded Egypt. The pharaoh's army and navy managed to defeat them, but the victory so weakened Egypt that it soon slid into decline, as did most of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized world of the Bronze Age came to an abrupt and cataclysmic end. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the course of just a few decades. No more Minoans or Mycenaeans. No more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economy and cultures of the late second millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, suddenly ceased to exist, along with writing systems, technology, and monumental architecture. But the Sea Peoples alone could not have caused such widespread breakdown. How did it happen? In this major new account of the causes of this "First Dark Ages," Eric Cline tells the gripping story of how the end was brought about by multiple interconnected failures, ranging from invasion and revolt to earthquakes, drought, and the cutting of international trade routes. Bringing to life the vibrant multicultural world of these great civilizations, he draws a sweeping panorama of the empires and globalized peoples of the Late Bronze Age and shows that it was their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic collapse and ushered in a dark age that lasted centuries. A compelling combination of narrative and the latest scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new light on the complex ties that gave rise to, and ultimately destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the Late Bronze Age—and that set the stage for the emergence of classical Greece.

The Fate of Rome

Climate, Disease, and the End of an Empire

Author: Kyle Harper

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400888913

Category: History

Page: 440

View: 7309

A sweeping new history of how climate change and disease helped bring down the Roman Empire Here is the monumental retelling of one of the most consequential chapters of human history: the fall of the Roman Empire. The Fate of Rome is the first book to examine the catastrophic role that climate change and infectious diseases played in the collapse of Rome’s power—a story of nature’s triumph over human ambition. Interweaving a grand historical narrative with cutting-edge climate science and genetic discoveries, Kyle Harper traces how the fate of Rome was decided not just by emperors, soldiers, and barbarians but also by volcanic eruptions, solar cycles, climate instability, and devastating viruses and bacteria. He takes readers from Rome’s pinnacle in the second century, when the empire seemed an invincible superpower, to its unraveling by the seventh century, when Rome was politically fragmented and materially depleted. Harper describes how the Romans were resilient in the face of enormous environmental stress, until the besieged empire could no longer withstand the combined challenges of a “little ice age” and recurrent outbreaks of bubonic plague. A poignant reflection on humanity’s intimate relationship with the environment, The Fate of Rome provides a sweeping account of how one of history’s greatest civilizations encountered and endured, yet ultimately succumbed to the cumulative burden of nature’s violence. The example of Rome is a timely reminder that climate change and germ evolution have shaped the world we inhabit—in ways that are surprising and profound.

Climate Change - Environment and Civilization in the Middle East

Author: Arie S. Issar,Mattanyah Zohar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 366206264X

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 5913

This survey of ancient levels of lakes, rivers and sea, and changes in stalagmites and sediments shows an astonishing correlation between climate change and rise and fall of civilizations in the Middle East. Warm periods were characterized by aridization, economic crisis and mass migration. Cold periods brought abundant rain, prosperity and settlement. The authors conclude that climate change was the decisive factor in the origins of the "cradle of civilization".

Civilizing Climate

Social Responses to Climate Change in the Ancient Near East

Author: Arlene Miller Rosen

Publisher: Rowman Altamira

ISBN: 9780759104945

Category: Science

Page: 209

View: 2777

This book provides a description, based upon research evidence from the Near East and elsewhere, of changes in climate and how they affected social and political developments. It includes three major case studies of the Neolithic, Early Bronze, and Roman/Byzantine periods.

The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Climate and Culture

Author: Karen M. Barbera

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199395926

Category: Psychology

Page: 752

View: 9809

The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Climate and Culture presents the breadth of topics from Industrial and Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior through the lenses of organizational climate and culture. The Handbook reveals in great detail how in both research and practice climate and culture reciprocally influence each other. The details reveal the many practices that organizations use to acquire, develop, manage, motivate, lead, and treat employees both at home and in the multinational settings that characterize contemporary organizations. Chapter authors are both expert in their fields of research and also represent current climate and culture practice in five national and international companies (3M, McDonald's, the Mayo Clinic, PepsiCo and Tata). In addition, new approaches to the collection and analysis of climate and culture data are presented as well as new thinking about organizational change from an integrated climate and culture paradigm. No other compendium integrates climate and culture thinking like this Handbook does and no other compendium presents both an up-to-date review of the theory and research on the many facets of climate and culture as well as contemporary practice. The Handbook takes a climate and culture vantage point on micro approaches to human issues at work (recruitment and hiring, training and performance management, motivation and fairness) as well as organizational processes (teams, leadership, careers, communication), and it also explicates the fact that these are lodged within firms that function in larger national and international contexts.

Collapse

How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive

Author: Jared Diamond

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141976969

Category: History

Page: 608

View: 9657

From the author of Guns, Germs and Steel, Jared Diamond's Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive is a visionary study of the mysterious downfall of past civilizations. Now in a revised edition with a new afterword, Jared Diamond's Collapse uncovers the secret behind why some societies flourish, while others founder - and what this means for our future. What happened to the people who made the forlorn long-abandoned statues of Easter Island? What happened to the architects of the crumbling Maya pyramids? Will we go the same way, our skyscrapers one day standing derelict and overgrown like the temples at Angkor Wat? Bringing together new evidence from a startling range of sources and piecing together the myriad influences, from climate to culture, that make societies self-destruct, Jared Diamond's Collapse also shows how - unlike our ancestors - we can benefit from our knowledge of the past and learn to be survivors. 'A grand sweep from a master storyteller of the human race' Daily Mail 'Riveting, superb, terrifying' Observer 'Gripping ... the book fulfils its huge ambition, and Diamond is the only man who could have written it' Economist 'This book shines like all Diamond's work' Sunday Times Jared Diamond (b. 1937) is Professor of Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles. Until recently he was Professor of Physiology at the UCLA School of Medicine. He is the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of the widely acclaimed Guns, Germs, and Steel: the Fates of Human Societies, which also is the winner of Britain's 1998 Rhone-Poulenc Science Book Prize.

A Cultural History of Climate

Author: Wolfgang Behringer

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 0745645291

Category: Science

Page: 295

View: 4890

Explores the latest historical research on the development of the earth's climate, showing how even minor changes in the climate could result in major social, political, and religious upheavals.

Climate and Culture Change in North America AD 900–1600

Author: William C. Foster

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292742703

Category: Social Science

Page: 234

View: 5565

Climate change is today’s news, but it isn’t a new phenomenon. Centuries-long cycles of heating and cooling are well documented for Europe and the North Atlantic. These variations in climate, including the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), AD 900 to 1300, and the early centuries of the Little Ice Age (LIA), AD 1300 to 1600, had a substantial impact on the cultural history of Europe. In this pathfinding volume, William C. Foster marshals extensive evidence that the heating and cooling of the MWP and LIA also occurred in North America and significantly affected the cultural history of Native peoples of the American Southwest, Southern Plains, and Southeast. Correlating climate change data with studies of archaeological sites across the Southwest, Southern Plains, and Southeast, Foster presents the first comprehensive overview of how Native American societies responded to climate variations over seven centuries. He describes how, as in Europe, the MWP ushered in a cultural renaissance, during which population levels surged and Native peoples substantially intensified agriculture, constructed monumental architecture, and produced sophisticated works of art. Foster follows the rise of three dominant cultural centers—Chaco Canyon in New Mexico, Cahokia on the middle Mississippi River, and Casas Grandes in northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico—that reached population levels comparable to those of London and Paris. Then he shows how the LIA reversed the gains of the MWP as population levels and agricultural production sharply declined; Chaco Canyon, Cahokia, and Casas Grandes collapsed; and dozens of smaller villages also collapsed or became fortresses.

Climate Change and the Course of Global History

A Rough Journey

Author: John L. Brooke

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521871646

Category: History

Page: 631

View: 2525

Climate Change and the Course of Global History presents the first global study by a historian to fully integrate the earth-system approach of the new climate science with the material history of humanity. Part I argues that geological, environmental, and climatic history explain the pattern and pace of biological and human evolution. Part II explores the environmental circumstances of the rise of agriculture and the state in the Early and Mid-Holocene, and presents an analysis of human health from the Paleolithic through the rise of the state, including the Neolithic Demographic Transition. Part III introduces the problem of economic growth and examines the human condition in the Late Holocene from the Bronze Age through the Black Death, assessing the relationships among human technologies, climatic change, and epidemic disease. Part IV explores the move to modernity, stressing the emerging role of human economic and energy systems as earth-system agents in the Anthropocene. Supported by climatic, demographic, and economic data with forty-nine figures and tables custom-made for this book, A Rough Journey provides a pathbreaking model for historians of the environment, the world, and science, among many others.

Water, Life and Civilisation

Climate, Environment and Society in the Jordan Valley

Author: Steven Mithen,Emily Black

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139496670

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 2387

A unique interdisciplinary study of the relationships between climate, hydrology and human society from 20,000 years ago to the present day within the Jordan Valley. It describes how state-of-the-art models can simulate the past, present and future climates of the Near East, reviews and provides new evidence for environmental change from geological deposits, builds hydrological models for the River Jordan and associated wadis and explains how present day urban and rural communities manage their water supply. The volume provides a new approach and new methods that can be applied for exploring the relationships between climate, hydrology and human society in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. It is an invaluable reference for researchers and advanced students concerned with the impacts of climate change and hydrology on human society, especially in the Near East.

Public Archaeology and Climate Change

Author: Tom Dawson,Marie-yvane Daire

Publisher: Oxbow Books Limited

ISBN: 9781785707049

Category:

Page: 208

View: 8595

Identifies and presents a wide ranging discussion on the major threats posed by climate change to world heritage and archaeology and demonstrates with case studies the proactive role that archaeologists and heritage professionals can take to engage the public in rasing the awareness of envrionemtal issues and in assisting with the protection, presw