Climate and human responses to it have a strongly interconnected relationship. Thus when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In Climate and Societies, scholars from diverse disciplines includ-ing archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies responded. Organized around four key themes each dealing with ways to understand past climates, human impact, and sustainability – holocene climate reconstruction; responses of complex societies to climatic variation; Archaeological evidence for pollution and its ecological implica-tions; and stable isotope analysis in the Middle East – the chapters demonstrate the value of a longue durée perspective on a topic of crucial importance to the future of our planet. Climate and Ancient Societies is dedicated to the memory of the Danish scholar, zooarchaeologist, Dr. Stine Rossel, University of Copenhagen who died following a freak accident, while hiking with her husband in the White Mountains of New Hampshire (USA), shortly after having submitted her dissertation to Harvard’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences for the PhD in Anthropology. The dissertation The Development of Productive Subsistence Economies in the Nile Valley: Zooarchaeological Analysis at El-Mahâsna and South Abydos, Upper Egypt is available online (ProQuest document ID: 1464110981; ISBN 9780549278788). Stine Rossel carried out her main fieldwork in Turkey, Egypt, Syria and Pakistan and published her findings in numerous publications, which laid the groundwork for what would no doubt have been a promising career. Contributors: Peter M.M.G. Akkermans, Benjamin S. Arbuckle, Pernille Bangsgaard, Miroslav Bárta, Peter F. Biehl, Tom Boiy, Joachim Bretschneider, Valentina Caracuta, Elise Van Campo, Claudio Casati, Louis Chaix, Rachael J. Dann, Maurits Ertsen, Girolamo Fiorentino, Karin Margarita Frei, Matthieu Honegger, Greta Jans, Akemi Kaneda, David Kaniewski, Eva Kapteijn, Susanne Kerner, Karel Van Lerberghe, Cheryl Makarewicz, Richard H. Meadow, Christopher Meiklejohn, Deborah C. Merrett, Olivier P. Nieuwenhuyse, Johannes van der Plicht, Simone Riehl, Neil Roberts, Anna Russell, Lasse Sørensen, Jason Ur, Joshua Wright. Susanne Kerner is associate professor at the Institute for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies at the University of Copenhagen. Rachael J. Dann is associate professor of Egyptian and Sudanese Archaeology at the Institute for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies at the University of Copenhagen. Pernille Bangsgaard is assistant professor at the Natural History Museum of Denmark at the University of Copenhagen.
Author: Susanne Kerner,Rachael Dann,Pernille Bangsgaard
Publisher: Museum Tusculanum Press
Rich case studies examining responses to climatic events in ancient Europe and the Near East. The subject of climate change could hardly be more timely. In Climate and Cultural Change in Prehistoric Europe and the Near East, an interdisciplinary group of contributors examine climate change through the lens of new archaeological and paleo-environmental data over the course of more than 10,000 years from the Near East to Europe. Key climatic and other events are contextualized with cultural changes and transitions for which the authors discuss when, how, and if, changes in climate and environment caused people to adapt, move or perish. More than this publication of crucial archaeological and paleo-environmental data, however, the volume seeks to understand the social, political and economic significance of climate change as it was manifested in various ways around the Old World. Contrary to perceptions of threatening global warming in our popular media, and in contrast to grim images of collapse presented in some archaeological discussions of past climate change, this book rejects outright societal collapse as a likely outcome. Yet this does not keep the authors from considering climate change as a potential factor in explaining culture change by adopting a critical stance with regard to the long-standing practice of equating synchronicity with causality, and explicitly considering alternative explanations.
Author: Peter F. Biehl,Olivier P. Nieuwenhuyse
Publisher: SUNY Press
Category: Social Science
Ideas abound as to why certain complex societies collapsed in the past, including environmental change, subsistence failure, fluctuating social structure and lack of adaptability. Why Did Ancient Civilizations Fail? evaluates the current theories in this important topic and discusses why they offer only partial explanations of the failure of past civilizations. This engaging book offers a new theory of collapse, that of social hubris. Through an examination of Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Roman, Maya, Inca, and Aztec societies, Johnson persuasively argues that hubris blinded many ancient peoples to evidence that would have allowed them to adapt, and he further considers how this has implications for contemporary societies. Comprehensive and well-written, this volume serves as an ideal text for undergraduate courses on ancient complex societies, as well as appealing to the scholar interested in societal collapse.
Author: Scott A J Johnson
Category: Social Science
Charles Ortloff provides a new perspective on archaeological studies of the urban and agricultural water supply and distribution systems of the major ancient civilizations of South America, the Middle East, and South-East Asia, by using modern computer analysis methods to extract the true hydraulic/hydrological knowledge base available to these peoples. His many new revelations about the capabilities and innovations of ancient water engineers force us to re-evaluate what was knownand practised in the hydraulic sciences in ancient times. Given our current concerns about global warming and its effect on economic stability, it is fascinating to observe how some ancient civilizations successfully coped with major climate change events by devising defensive agricultural survivalstrategies, while others, which did not innovate, failed to survive.
Archaeological and Climate Perspectives on Societies of Ancient South America, the Middle East, and South-East Asia
Author: Charles R. Ortloff
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Much recent archaeological research focuses on social forces as the impetus for cultural change. Soils, Climate and Society, however, focuses on the complex relationship between human populations and the physical environment, particularly the land--the foundation of agricultural production and, by extension, of agricultural peoples. The volume traces the origins of agriculture, the transition to agrarian societies, the sociocultural implications of agriculture, agriculture's effects on population, and the theory of carrying capacity, considering the relation of agriculture to the profound social changes that it wrought in the New World. Soil science plays a significant, though varied, role in each case study, and is the common component of each analysis. Soil chemistry is also of particular importance to several of the studies, as it determines the amount of food that can be produced in a particular soil and the effects of occupation or cultivation on that soil, thus having consequences for future cultivators. Soils, Climate and Society demonstrates that renewed investigation of agricultural production and demography can answer questions about the past, as well as stimulate further research. It will be of interest to scholars of archaeology, historical ecology and geography, and agricultural history.
Archaeological Investigations in Ancient America
Author: John D. Wingard,Sue Eileen Hayes
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
Category: Social Science
The impact of climate on human activities and the effect of humans on cli mate are two of the most important areas of inquiry in climatology. These interactions conducted through physical, chemical and biological process es were described as early as Roman and Greek times. Marcus Vitruvius (75-25 B. C. ), a famous Roman engineer and architect, made the following observation about the climatic conditions necessary for founding a city: Land ideal for the health is slightly elevated and there should be neither fog nor frost. The direction of the slope and the distance to the swamps, lakes, and beaches must also be considered. The prevailing wind directions, observed by a wind tower at the center of the city, like Horologium at Athens, should be taken into consideration in city planning. The main and narrow streets should be placed in the middle angle of the two prevailing wind directions. Then the location of the Pantheons and squares should be decided. The influence of humans on climate was a major subject for discussion in the 19th century, inspired in part, by the rapid industrial growth and expanding deforestation of the time. D. L. Howard wrote brilliant pieces on the climate of London in the 1830s, while G . P. Marsh discussed the effects of forests on precipitation in the U. S . A. in the second half of the 19th century.
A Contribution on Global Change and Related Problems Prepared by the Commission on Climatology of the International Geographical Union
Author: M. Yoshino,Manfred Domrös,Annick Douguédroit,J. Paszynski,L.C. Nkemdirim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Climate change is today’s news, but it isn’t a new phenomenon. Centuries-long cycles of heating and cooling are well documented for Europe and the North Atlantic. These variations in climate, including the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), AD 900 to 1300, and the early centuries of the Little Ice Age (LIA), AD 1300 to 1600, had a substantial impact on the cultural history of Europe. In this pathfinding volume, William C. Foster marshals extensive evidence that the heating and cooling of the MWP and LIA also occurred in North America and significantly affected the cultural history of Native peoples of the American Southwest, Southern Plains, and Southeast. Correlating climate change data with studies of archaeological sites across the Southwest, Southern Plains, and Southeast, Foster presents the first comprehensive overview of how Native American societies responded to climate variations over seven centuries. He describes how, as in Europe, the MWP ushered in a cultural renaissance, during which population levels surged and Native peoples substantially intensified agriculture, constructed monumental architecture, and produced sophisticated works of art. Foster follows the rise of three dominant cultural centers—Chaco Canyon in New Mexico, Cahokia on the middle Mississippi River, and Casas Grandes in northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico—that reached population levels comparable to those of London and Paris. Then he shows how the LIA reversed the gains of the MWP as population levels and agricultural production sharply declined; Chaco Canyon, Cahokia, and Casas Grandes collapsed; and dozens of smaller villages also collapsed or became fortresses.
Author: William C. Foster
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Category: Social Science
Die internationale Klimapolitik ist an einem Wendepunkt angekommen. Die Annahme des Kyoto-Protokolls ist ein großer Schritt in dem Versuch der Menschheit, die schädlichen Folgen des Klimawandels zu begrenzen. Dieses Buch, geschrieben von zwei deutschen Experten, erklärt die naturwissenschaftlichen, ökonomischen sowie politischen Bedingungen desTreibhauseffekts und erläutert die Hintergründe der Annahme des Kyoto-Protokolls. Das Buch analysiert in seinem Mittelteil den Vertragstext im Stile eines Gesetzeskommentars, nennt die offenen Fragen und gibt mögliche Antworten für die Weiterentwicklung der Normen. In einem dritten Teil werden Schlussfolgerungen gezogen, die politische Landschaft nach Kyoto beleuchtet und eine Leadership-Initiative für die Europäische Union vorgestellt, um die Handlungsmacht gegenüber den USA wieder zu erlangen.
Internationale Klimapolitik für das 21. Jahrhundert
Author: Sebastian Oberthür,Hermann E. Ott
Category: Social Science
Climate Change and the Course of Global History presents the first global study by a historian to fully integrate the earth-system approach of the new climate science with the material history of humanity. Part I argues that geological, environmental, and climatic history explain the pattern and pace of biological and human evolution. Part II explores the environmental circumstances of the rise of agriculture and the state in the Early and Mid-Holocene, and presents an analysis of human health from the Paleolithic through the rise of the state, including the Neolithic Demographic Transition. Part III introduces the problem of economic growth and examines the human condition in the Late Holocene from the Bronze Age through the Black Death, assessing the relationships among human technologies, climatic change, and epidemic disease. Part IV explores the move to modernity, stressing the emerging role of human economic and energy systems as earth-system agents in the Anthropocene. Supported by climatic, demographic, and economic data with forty-nine figures and tables custom-made for this book, A Rough Journey provides a pathbreaking model for historians of the environment, the world, and science, among many others.
A Rough Journey
Author: John L. Brooke
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The Turkish economy is very dynamic and growing at phenomenal speeds. For instance, Turkey’s first quarter GDP growth rate was 11 percent in 2011. This growth brings its own risks and benefits. The lessons learned from surviving and thriving in such an environment can be applied to supply chains in any country. Packed with interesting and timely examples from industries such as automotive, airline, and manufacturing, Risk Intelligent Supply Chains: How Leading Turkish Companies Thrive in the Age of Fragility presents strategic insights from various leading Turkish companies regarding their management of supply chain risks. Çağrı Haksöz brings the risk intelligent supply chain (RISC) concept to life for the first time. It answers the question of how to become a risk intelligent supply chain. He proposes the I-Quartet Model with four essential roles "Integrator, Inquirer, Improviser, and Ingenious," that any supply chain network must play to become risk intelligent. The book also presents never-before-published cases and practices of leading Turkish companies that thrive globally in the age of fragility with their supply chain risk intelligence. While providing real-life examples, the book also shares insights obtained in various scientific disciplines. It provides not only an industry focus but also details numerous industry approaches, analyzing their similarities and differences in a manner that allows each industry to learn from the other.
How Leading Turkish Companies Thrive in the Age of Fragility
Author: Çağrı Haksöz
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Business & Economics
This book, originally published 1915, is a product of the new science of geography. The old geography strove primarily to produce exact maps of the physical features of the earth's surface. The new goes farther. It adds to the physical maps an almost innumerable series showing the distribution of plants, animals, and man and of every phase of the life of these organisms. It does this, not as an end in itself, but for the purpose of comparing the physical and organic maps and thus determining how far vital phenomena depend upon geographic environment. Book jacket.
Author: Ellsworth Huntington
Publisher: The Minerva Group, Inc.
This book provides a description, based upon research evidence from the Near East and elsewhere, of changes in climate and how they affected social and political developments. It includes three major case studies of the Neolithic, Early Bronze, and Roman/Byzantine periods.
Social Responses to Climate Change in the Ancient Near East
Author: Arlene Miller Rosen
Publisher: Rowman Altamira
Everyone, everyday, everywhere has to cope with climatic cold or heat to satisfy survival needs, using money. This point of departure led to a decade of innovative research on the basis of the tenet that climate and affluence influence each other's impact on culture. Evert Van de Vliert discovered survival cultures in poor countries with demanding cold or hot climates, self-expression cultures in rich countries with demanding cold or hot climates, and easygoing cultures in poor and rich countries with temperate climates. These findings have implications for the cultural consequences of global warming and local poverty. Climate protection and poverty reduction are used in combination to sketch four scenarios for shaping cultures, from which the world community has to make a principal and principled choice soon.
Author: Evert Van de Vliert
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
"Offers an introduction to critical transitions in complex systems - the radical changes that happen at tipping points when thresholds are passed. This title describes the dynamical systems theory behind critical transitions, covering catastrophe theory, bifurcations and chaos." -- BOOK PUBLISHER WEBSITE.
Author: Marten Scheffer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
One of five new additions to the EPICS range published in 2001, dealing with more popular topics for the new specifications. EPICS brings a fresh approach to topics of current interest, allowing students to acquire an up-to-date and in-depth understanding of geographical issues. Each topic provides a wide range of detailed case studies and offers an intergrated approach to all aspects of geographical study.
Author: Raymond S. Bradley,Norman Law
Publisher: Nelson Thornes
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
This survey of ancient levels of lakes, rivers and sea, and changes in stalagmites and sediments shows an astonishing correlation between climate change and rise and fall of civilizations in the Middle East. Warm periods were characterized by aridization, economic crisis and mass migration. Cold periods brought abundant rain, prosperity and settlement. The authors conclude that climate change was the decisive factor in the origins of the "cradle of civilization".
Author: Arie S. Issar,Mattanyah Zohar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The Mediterranean region contains a diverse and interesting climate ranging from areas with permanent glaciers to areas of subtropical, semiarid regions. The region is potentially sensitive to climate change and its progress has environmental, social, and economic implications within and beyond the region. Produced by the Mediterranean Climate Variability and Predictability Research Networking Project, this book reviews the evolution of the Mediterranean climate over the past two millennia with projections further into the twenty-first century as well as examining in detail various aspects of the Mediterranean region's climate including evolution, atmospheric variables, and oceanic and land elements. Integrated with this, the book also considers the social and economic problems or vulnerabilities associated with the region. Written and reviewed by multiple researchers to ensure a high level of information presented clearly, Mediterranean Climate Variables will be an invaluable source of information for geologists, oceanographers, and anyone interested in learning more about the Mediterranean climate. Written by leading experts in the field Presents clear, compelling, and concise evidence Includes the latest thinking in Mediterranean climate research
From the Past to the Future
Author: Piero Lionello
Figuring in myth, religion, law, the military, commerce, and transportation, rivers were at the heart of Rome's increasing exploitation of the environment of the Mediterranean world. In Rivers and the Power of Ancient Rome, Brian Campbell explores the role and influence of rivers and their surrounding landscape on the society and culture of the Roman Empire. Examining artistic representations of rivers, related architecture, and the work of ancient geographers and topographers, as well as writers who describe rivers, Campbell reveals how Romans defined the geographical areas they conquered and how geography and natural surroundings related to their society and activities. In addition, he illuminates the prominence and value of rivers in the control and expansion of the Roman Empire--through the legal regulation of riverine activities, the exploitation of rivers in military tactics, and the use of rivers as routes of communication and movement. Campbell shows how a technological understanding of--and even mastery over--the forces of the river helped Rome rise to its central place in the ancient world.
Author: Brian Campbell
Publisher: UNC Press Books