Author: Claire Voisin

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400850533

Category: Mathematics

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### Chow Rings, Decomposition of the Diagonal, and the Topology of Families (AM-187)

In this book, Claire Voisin provides an introduction to algebraic cycles on complex algebraic varieties, to the major conjectures relating them to cohomology, and even more precisely to Hodge structures on cohomology. The volume is intended for both students and researchers, and not only presents a survey of the geometric methods developed in the last thirty years to understand the famous Bloch-Beilinson conjectures, but also examines recent work by Voisin. The book focuses on two central objects: the diagonal of a variety—and the partial Bloch-Srinivas type decompositions it may have depending on the size of Chow groups—as well as its small diagonal, which is the right object to consider in order to understand the ring structure on Chow groups and cohomology. An exploration of a sampling of recent works by Voisin looks at the relation, conjectured in general by Bloch and Beilinson, between the coniveau of general complete intersections and their Chow groups and a very particular property satisfied by the Chow ring of K3 surfaces and conjecturally by hyper-Kähler manifolds. In particular, the book delves into arguments originating in Nori's work that have been further developed by others.

### The Fourier Transform for Certain HyperKahler Fourfolds

Using a codimension-1 algebraic cycle obtained from the Poincaré line bundle, Beauville defined the Fourier transform on the Chow groups of an abelian variety A and showed that the Fourier transform induces a decomposition of the Chow ring CH∗(A). By using a codimension-2 algebraic cycle representing the Beauville-Bogomolov class, the authors give evidence for the existence of a similar decomposition for the Chow ring of Hyperkähler varieties deformation equivalent to the Hilbert scheme of length-2 subschemes on a K3 surface. They indeed establish the existence of such a decomposition for the Hilbert scheme of length-2 subschemes on a K3 surface and for the variety of lines on a very general cubic fourfold.

### Trends in Contemporary Mathematics

The topics faced in this book cover a large spectrum of current trends in mathematics, such as Shimura varieties and the Lang lands program, zonotopal combinatorics, non linear potential theory, variational methods in imaging, Riemann holonomy and algebraic geometry, mathematical problems arising in kinetic theory, Boltzmann systems, Pell's equations in polynomials, deformation theory in non commutative algebras. This work contains a selection of contributions written by international leading mathematicians who were speakers at the "INdAM Day", an initiative born in 2004 to present the most recent developments in contemporary mathematics.

### Fundamental Algebraic Geometry

Alexander Grothendieck introduced many concepts into algebraic geometry; they turned out to be astoundingly powerful and productive and truly revolutionized the subject. Grothendieck sketched his new theories in a series of talks at the Seminaire Bourbaki between 1957 and 1962 and collected his write-ups in a volume entitled ``Fondements de la Geometrie Algebrique,'' known as FGA. Much of FGA is now common knowledge; however, some of FGA is less well known, and its full scope is familiar to few. The present book resulted from the 2003 ``Advanced School in Basic Algebraic Geometry'' at the ICTP in Trieste, Italy. The book aims to fill in Grothendieck's brief sketches. There are four themes: descent theory, Hilbert and Quot schemes, the formal existence theorem, and the Picard scheme. Most results are proved in full detail; furthermore, newer ideas are introduced to promote understanding, and many connections are drawn to newer developments. The main prerequisite is a thorough acquaintance with basic scheme theory. Thus this book is a valuable resource for anyone doing algebraic geometry.

### The Geometry of Algebraic Cycles

The subject of algebraic cycles has its roots in the study of divisors, extending as far back as the nineteenth century. Since then, and in particular in recent years, algebraic cycles have made a significant impact on many fields of mathematics, among them number theory, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics. The present volume contains articles on all of the above aspects of algebraic cycles. It also contains a mixture of both research papers and expository articles, so that it would be of interest to both experts and beginners in the field.

### Modular Forms and Special Cycles on Shimura Curves. (AM-161)

Modular Forms and Special Cycles on Shimura Curves is a thorough study of the generating functions constructed from special cycles, both divisors and zero-cycles, on the arithmetic surface "M" attached to a Shimura curve "M" over the field of rational numbers. These generating functions are shown to be the q-expansions of modular forms and Siegel modular forms of genus two respectively, valued in the Gillet-Soulé arithmetic Chow groups of "M". The two types of generating functions are related via an arithmetic inner product formula. In addition, an analogue of the classical Siegel-Weil formula identifies the generating function for zero-cycles as the central derivative of a Siegel Eisenstein series. As an application, an arithmetic analogue of the Shimura-Waldspurger correspondence is constructed, carrying holomorphic cusp forms of weight 3/2 to classes in the Mordell-Weil group of "M". In certain cases, the nonvanishing of this correspondence is related to the central derivative of the standard L-function for a modular form of weight 2. These results depend on a novel mixture of modular forms and arithmetic geometry and should provide a paradigm for further investigations. The proofs involve a wide range of techniques, including arithmetic intersection theory, the arithmetic adjunction formula, representation densities of quadratic forms, deformation theory of p-divisible groups, p-adic uniformization, the Weil representation, the local and global theta correspondence, and the doubling integral representation of L-functions.

### On Certain L-functions

This volume constitutes the proceedings of a conference, ``On Certain $L$-functions'', held July 23-27, 2007 at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. The conference was organized in honor of the 60th birthday of Freydoon Shahidi, widely recognized as having made groundbreaking contributions to the Langlands program. The articles in this volume represent a snapshot of the state of the field from several viewpoints. Contributions illuminate various areas of the study of geometric, analytic, and number theoretic aspects of automorphic forms and their $L$-functions, and both local and global theory are addressed. Topics discussed in the articles include Langlands functoriality, the Rankin-Selberg method, the Langlands-Shahidi method, motivic Galois groups, Shimura varieties, orbital integrals, representations of $p$-adic groups, Plancherel formula and its consequences, the Gross-Prasad conjecture, and more. The volume also includes an expository article on Shahidi's contributions to the field, which serves as an introduction to the subject. Experts will find this book a useful reference, and beginning researchers will be able to use it to survey major results in the Langlands program.

### Differential Algebraic Topology

This book presents a geometric introduction to the homology of topological spaces and the cohomology of smooth manifolds. The author introduces a new class of stratified spaces, so-called stratifolds. He derives basic concepts from differential topology such as Sard's theorem, partitions of unity and transversality. Based on this, homology groups are constructed in the framework of stratifolds and the homology axioms are proved. This implies that for nice spaces these homology groups agree with ordinary singular homology. Besides the standard computations of homology groups using the axioms, straightforward constructions of important homology classes are given. The author also defines stratifold cohomology groups following an idea of Quillen. Again, certain important cohomology classes occur very naturally in this description, for example, the characteristic classes which are constructed in the book and applied later on. One of the most fundamental results, Poincare duality, is almost a triviality in this approach. Some fundamental invariants, such as the Euler characteristic and the signature, are derived from (co)homology groups. These invariants play a significant role in some of the most spectacular results in differential topology. In particular, the author proves a special case of Hirzebruch's signature theorem and presents as a highlight Milnor's exotic 7-spheres. This book is based on courses the author taught in Mainz and Heidelberg. Readers should be familiar with the basic notions of point-set topology and differential topology. The book can be used for a combined introduction to differential and algebraic topology, as well as for a quick presentation of (co)homology in a course about differential geometry.

### The Ricci Flow in Riemannian Geometry

Focusing on Hamilton's Ricci flow, this volume begins with a detailed discussion of the required aspects of differential geometry. The discussion also includes existence and regularity theory, compactness theorems for Riemannian manifolds, and much more.

### Introduction to the Theory of Standard Monomials

The book is a reproduction of a course of lectures delivered by the author in 1983-84 which appeared in the Brandeis Lecture Notes series. The aim of this course was to give an introduction to the series of papers by concentrating on the case of the full linear group. In recent years, there has been great progress in standard monomial theory due to the work of Peter Littelmann. The author’s lectures (reproduced in this book) remain an excellent introduction to standard monomial theory. Standard monomial theory deals with the construction of nice bases of finite dimensional irreducible representations of semi-simple algebraic groups or, in geometric terms, nice bases of coordinate rings of flag varieties (and their Schubert subvarieties) associated with these groups. Besides its intrinsic interest, standard monomial theory has applications to the study of the geometry of Schubert varieties. Standard monomial theory has its origin in the work of Hodge, giving bases of the coordinate rings of the Grassmannian and its Schubert subvarieties by “standard monomials”. In its modern form, standard monomial theory was developed by the author in a series of papers written in collaboration with V. Lakshmibai and C. Musili. In the second edition of the book, conjectures of a standard monomial theory for a general semi-simple (simply-connected) algebraic group, due to Lakshmibai, have been added as an appendix, and the bibliography has been revised.

### Torus Actions and Their Applications in Topology and Combinatorics

This book presents the study of torus actions on topological spaces that is presented as a bridge connecting combinatorial and convex geometry with commutative and homological algebra, algebraic geometry, and topology. This established link helps in understanding the geometry and topology of a space with torus action by studying the combinatorics of the space of orbits. Conversely, subtle properties of a combinatorial object can be realized by interpreting it as the orbit structure for a proper manifold or as a complex acted on by a torus. The latter can be a symplectic manifold with Hamiltonian torus action, a toric variety or manifold, a subspace arrangement complement, etc., while the combinatorial objects include simplicial and cubical complexes, polytopes, and arrangements.This approach also provides a natural topological interpretation in terms of torus actions of many constructions from commutative and homological algebra used in combinatorics. The exposition centers around the theory of moment-angle complexes, providing an effective way to study invariants of triangulations by methods of equivariant topology. The book includes many new and well-known open problems and would be suitable as a textbook. It will be useful for specialists both in topology and in combinatorics and will help to establish even tighter connections between the subjects involved.

### Hodge Theory and Complex Algebraic Geometry I:

The first of two volumes offering a modern introduction to Kaehlerian geometry and Hodge structure. The book starts with basic material on complex variables, complex manifolds, holomorphic vector bundles, sheaves and cohomology theory, the latter being treated in a more theoretical way than is usual in geometry. The author then proves the Kaehler identities, which leads to the hard Lefschetz theorem and the Hodge index theorem. The book culminates with the Hodge decomposition theorem. The meanings of these results are investigated in several directions. Completely self-contained, the book is ideal for students, while its content gives an account of Hodge theory and complex algebraic geometry as has been developed by P. Griffiths and his school, by P. Deligne, and by S. Bloch. The text is complemented by exercises which provide useful results in complex algebraic geometry.

### Hodge Theory and Complex Algebraic Geometry II:

The 2003 second volume of this account of Kaehlerian geometry and Hodge theory starts with the topology of families of algebraic varieties. Proofs of the Lefschetz theorem on hyperplane sections, the Picard–Lefschetz study of Lefschetz pencils, and Deligne theorems on the degeneration of the Leray spectral sequence and the global invariant cycles follow. The main results of the second part are the generalized Noether–Lefschetz theorems, the generic triviality of the Abel–Jacobi maps, and most importantly Nori's connectivity theorem, which generalizes the above. The last part of the book is devoted to the relationships between Hodge theory and algebraic cycles. The book concludes with the example of cycles on abelian varieties, where some results of Bloch and Beauville, for example, are expounded. The text is complemented by exercises giving useful results in complex algebraic geometry. It will be welcomed by researchers in both algebraic and differential geometry.

### Mathematics of Planet Earth

It is widely recognized that the degree of development of a science is given by the transition from a mainly descriptive stage to a more quantitative stage. In this transition, qualitative interpretations (conceptual models) are complemented with quantification (numerical models, both, deterministic and stochastic). This has been the main task of mathematical geoscientists during the last forty years - to establish new frontiers and new challenges in the study and understanding of the natural world. Mathematics of Planet Earth comprises the proceedings of the International Association for Mathematical Geosciences Conference (IAMG2013), held in Madrid from September 2-6, 2013. The Conference addresses researchers, professionals and students. The proceedings contain more than 150 original contributions and give a multidisciplinary vision of mathematical geosciences.

### Introduction to Tropical Geometry

Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of the six chapters concludes with problems that will help the readers to practice their tropical skills, and to gain access to the research literature.

### Finite Dimensional Algebras and Quantum Groups

The interplay between finite dimensional algebras and Lie theory dates back many years. In more recent times, these interrelations have become even more strikingly apparent. This text combines, for the first time in book form, the theories of finite dimensional algebras and quantum groups. More precisely, it investigates the Ringel-Hall algebra realization for the positive part of a quantum enveloping algebra associated with a symmetrizable Cartan matrix and it looks closely at the Beilinson-Lusztig-MacPherson realization for the entire quantum $\mathfrak {gl}_n$. The book begins with the two realizations of generalized Cartan matrices, namely, the graph realization and the root datum realization. From there, it develops the representation theory of quivers with automorphisms and the theory of quantum enveloping algebras associated with Kac-Moody Lie algebras. These two independent theories eventually meet in Part 4, under the umbrella of Ringel-Hall algebras. Cartan matrices can also be used to define an important class of groups--Coxeter groups--and their associated Hecke algebras. Hecke algebras associated with symmetric groups give rise to an interesting class of quasi-hereditary algebras, the quantum Schur algebras. The structure of these finite dimensional algebras is used in Part 5 to build the entire quantum $\mathfrak{gl}_n$ through a completion process of a limit algebra (the Beilinson-Lusztig-MacPherson algebra). The book is suitable for advanced graduate students. Each chapter concludes with a series of exercises, ranging from the routine to sketches of proofs of recent results from the current literature.

### Lectures on K3 Surfaces

K3 surfaces are central objects in modern algebraic geometry. This book examines this important class of Calabi–Yau manifolds from various perspectives in eighteen self-contained chapters. It starts with the basics and guides the reader to recent breakthroughs, such as the proof of the Tate conjecture for K3 surfaces and structural results on Chow groups. Powerful general techniques are introduced to study the many facets of K3 surfaces, including arithmetic, homological, and differential geometric aspects. In this context, the book covers Hodge structures, moduli spaces, periods, derived categories, birational techniques, Chow rings, and deformation theory. Famous open conjectures, for example the conjectures of Calabi, Weil, and Artin–Tate, are discussed in general and for K3 surfaces in particular, and each chapter ends with questions and open problems. Based on lectures at the advanced graduate level, this book is suitable for courses and as a reference for researchers.

### The Riemann Legacy

very small domain (environment) affects through analytic continuation the whole of Riemann surface, or analytic manifold . Riemann was a master at applying this principle and also the first who noticed and emphasized that a meromorphic function is determined by its 'singularities'. Therefore he is rightly regarded as the father of the huge 'theory of singularities' which is developing so quickly and whose importance (also for physics) can hardly be overe~timated. Amazing and mysterious for our cognition is the role of Euclidean space. Even today many philosophers believe (following Kant) that 'real space' is Euclidean and other spaces being 'abstract constructs of mathematicians, should not be called spaces'. The thesis is no longer tenable - the whole of physics testifies to that. Nevertheless, there is a grain of truth in the 3 'prejudice': E (three-dimensional Euclidean space) is special in a particular way pleasantly familiar to us - in it we (also we mathematicians!) feel particularly 'confident' and move with a sense of greater 'safety' than in non-Euclidean spaces. For this reason perhaps, Riemann space M stands out among the multitude of 'interesting geometries'. For it is: 1. Locally Euclidean, i. e. , M is a differentiable manifold whose tangent spaces TxM are equipped with Euclidean metric Uxi 2. Every submanifold M of Euclidean space E is equipped with Riemann natural metric (inherited from the metric of E) and it is well known how often such submanifolds are used in mechanics (e. g. , the spherical pendulum).

### Grothendieck-Serre Correspondence

The book is a bilingual (French and English) edition of the mathematical correspondence between A. Grothendieck and J-P. Serre. The original French text of 84 letters is supplemented here by the English translation, with French text printed on the left-hand pages and the corresponding English text printed on the right-hand pages. The book also includes several facsimiles of original letters. The letters presented in the book were mainly written between 1955 and 1965. During this period, algebraic geometry went through a remarkable transformation, and Grothendieck and Serre were among central figures in this process. The reader can follow the creation of some of the most important notions of modern mathematics, like sheaf cohomology, schemes, Riemann-Roch type theorems, algebraic fundamental group, motives. The letters also reflect the mathematical and political atmosphere of this period (Bourbaki, Paris, Harvard, Princeton, war in Algeria, etc.). Also included are a few letters written between 1984 and 1987. The letters are supplemented by J-P. Serre's notes, which give explanations, corrections, and references further results. The book should be useful to specialists in algebraic geometry, in history of mathematics, and to all mathematicians who want to understand how great mathematics is created.

### An Invitation to Morse Theory

This self-contained treatment of Morse theory focuses on applications and is intended for a graduate course on differential or algebraic topology, and will also be of interest to researchers. This is the first textbook to include topics such as Morse-Smale flows, Floer homology, min-max theory, moment maps and equivariant cohomology, and complex Morse theory. The reader is expected to have some familiarity with cohomology theory and differential and integral calculus on smooth manifolds. Some features of the second edition include added applications, such as Morse theory and the curvature of knots, the cohomology of the moduli space of planar polygons, and the Duistermaat-Heckman formula. The second edition also includes a new chapter on Morse-Smale flows and Whitney stratifications, many new exercises, and various corrections from the first edition.

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