Chemistry and Biology of Water, Air and Soil

Environmental Aspects

Author: J. Tölgyessy

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080875125

Category: Science

Page: 857

View: 2254

Environmental pollution is a universal problem which threatens the continued existence of mankind, rendering it one of the primary concerns of society. This book provides a comprehensive view of the chemistry and biology of water, air and soil, particularly those aspects connected with the protection of the environment. The first part of the book presents fundamental information on the chemistry and biology of water in its natural state, and the effects of water pollution from industry, traffic, agriculture and urbanization. It covers the composition of natural, service and wastewaters as well as methods of chemical and biological water analysis and water treatment. The second part deals with atmospheric problems, particularly the basic composition of atmosphere and the different sources of its pollution, methods of restriction, and air analysis. The final part of the volume focuses on the characteristics of soil and soil components, natural and anthropogenous soil processes, the chemistry, biology and microbiology of soil, and soil analysis. This book will be of great value to chemists, biologists, physicians, pharmacists, farmers, veterinarians and university students, as well as to those engaged in the sphere of environmental protection.

The Chemistry and Bacteriology of Public Health

Author: C. L. Dunn,D. D. Pandya

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 1483195538

Category: Medical

Page: 426

View: 875

The Chemistry and Bacteriology of Public Health deals with public health hygiene. This book reviews the alkalimetry, acidimetry, standard solutions, normal solutions, and the preparation of solutions in public health laboratories, including methods of estimating equivalent weights of substances. In collecting water samples for analysis, the investigator should avoid all sources of extraneous contamination. The Wanklyn's process analyzes organic matter in the water: different tests give quantitative estimates of water contamination or bacterial purity. The authors point that the process of analyzing sewage and sewage effluents are the same as in water analysis except that sewage is diluted with distilled water. The authors also explain how air and water are analyzed, soil analysis being a complex process. The authors discuss milk analysis (fresh, boiled, skimmed, powdered, condensed), butter, cheese, food grains. Microscopic examination of bacteria from samples taken are examined alive, in film preparations, or in sections. The book describes in detail the different types of bacteria, their occurrence, and how these are examined or cultured. This book is intended as a laboratory handbook for students taking up the examination in Public Health. The book can also prove beneficial for social worker, public health officials, and for undergraduate medical students.

Environmental Deterioration of Materials

Author: A. Moncmanová

Publisher: WIT Press

ISBN: 1845640322

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 3363

The increasing level of pollution in the environment not only harms the natural world, but also accelerates the deterioration and corrosion of materials used in technical work, as well as objects with historical or artistic value. It is impossible to eliminate the numerous sources of this negative effect, so there are currently increased efforts towards improved preservation, which require a thorough knowledge of the causes of the degradation of individual materials.This book deals with the fundamental principles underlying environmental degradation of widely-used and economically important construction materials such as metals, stone, brick, concrete, timber, cast iron, steel, copper alloys and aluminium. It features information on the methods of deterioration, as well as general information on the economic impact of the damaging processes, and offers some suggested fundamental protection techniques for buildings, industrial and agricultural facilities, monuments and culturally important structures.This book will be of interest to materials and corrosion engineering experts, civil and environmental engineers, students and practicing professionals, designers, architects and restoration engineers. It will also be a useful tool for managers from various sectors of industry, for auditors of environmental management systems, and it can be used as a complementary course book for university students.

Environmental modeling

fate and transport of pollutants in water, air, and soil

Author: Jerald L. Schnoor

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: 9780471124368

Category: Science

Page: 682

View: 2183

A comprehensive, thoroughly modern approach to environmental quality assessment The only textbook to combine engineering transport fundamentals and equilibrium aquatic chemistry, Environmental Modeling brings a uniquely contemporary perspective to the assessment of environmental quality. Addressing key questions about fate, transport, and long-term effects of chemical pollutants in the environment, this inherently practical text gives readers the important tools they need to develop and solve their own mathematical models. Contains detailed examples from a wide range of crucial water quality areas-conventional pollutants in rivers, eutrophication of lakes, and toxic organic chemicals and heavy metals in both surface and groundwaters Examines current global issues, including atmospheric deposition, hazardous wastes, soil pollution, global change, and more Features over 200 high-quality illustrations, plus skill-building problems in every chapter Fresh in approach and broad in scope, Environmental Modeling is must reading for today's graduate and advanced undergraduate students in environmental sciences and engineering-a rich, invaluable, and superlative new resource.

Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry, Third Edition

Author: Stanley E. Manahan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420052691

Category: Science

Page: 1264

View: 1847

Written by an expert, using the same approach that made the previous two editions so successful, Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry, Third Edition expands the scope of book to include the strongly emerging areas broadly described as sustainability science and technology, including green chemistry and industrial ecology. The new edition includes: Increased emphasis on the applied aspects of environmental chemistry Hot topics such as global warming and biomass energy Integration of green chemistry and sustainability concepts throughout the text More and updated questions and answers, including some that require Internet research Lecturers Pack on CD-ROM with solutions manual, PowerPoint presentations, and chapter figures available upon qualifying course adoptions The book provides a basic course in chemical science, including the fundamentals of organic chemistry and biochemistry. The author uses real-life examples from environmetnal chemistry, green chemistry, and related areas while maintaining brevity and simplicity in his explanation of concepts. Building on this foundation, the book covers environmental chemistry, broadly defined to include sustainability aspects, green chemistry, industrial ecology, and related areas. These chapters are organized around the five environmental spheres, the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and the anthrosphere. The last two chapters discuss analytical chemistry and its relevance to environmental chemistry. Manahan’s clear, concise, and readable style makes the information accessible, regardless of the readers’ level of chemistry knowledge. He demystifies the material for those who need the basics of chemical science for their trade, profession, or study curriculum, as well as for readers who want to have an understanding of the fundamentals of sustainable chemistry in its crucial role in maintaining a livable planet.

Key Concepts in Environmental Chemistry

Author: Grady Hanrahan

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012374993X

Category: Science

Page: 365

View: 1275

Key Concepts in Environmental Chemistry provides a modern and concise introduction to environmental chemistry principles and the dynamic nature of environmental systems. It offers an intense, one-semester examination of selected concepts encountered in this field of study and provides integrated tools in explaining complex chemical problems of environmental importance. Principles typically covered in more comprehensive textbooks are well integrated into general chapter topics and application areas. The goal of this textbook is to provide students with a valuable resource for learning the basic concepts of environmental chemistry from an easy to follow, condensed, application and inquiry-based perspective. Additional statistical, sampling, modeling and data analysis concepts and exercises will be introduced for greater understanding of the underlying processes of complex environmental systems and fundamental chemical principles. Each chapter will have problem-oriented exercises (with examples throughout the body of the chapter) that stress the important concepts covered and research applications/case studies from experts in the field. Research applications will be directly tied to theoretical concepts covered in the chapter. Overall, this text provides a condensed and integrated tool for student learning and covers key concepts in the rapidly developing field of environmental chemistry. Intense, one-semester approach to learning Application-based approach to learning theoretical concepts In depth analysis of field-based and in situ analytical techniques Introduction to environmental modeling

Cyanide in Water and Soil

Chemistry, Risk, and Management

Author: David A. Dzombak,Rajat S. Ghosh,George M. Wong-Chong

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420032070

Category: Science

Page: 616

View: 4236

The presence of cyanide is a significant issue in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment and management, in remediation of former manufactured gas plant sites and aluminum production waste disposal sites, in treatment and management of residuals from hydrometallurgical gold mining, and in other industrial operations in which cyanide-bearing wastes were produced. The complexity of the chemistry and toxicology of cyanide and the risk it poses in different environmental contexts make its management and remediation extremely challenging. Cyanide in Water and Soil is the first book to present the state-of-the-art in managing cyanide across a wide range of industrial and environmental contexts. The book brings together current knowledge and information about cyanide release to and behavior in the environment, and explores how to control or remediate these releases. No other broad-based examination of this topic exists. Exploring the anthropogenic and natural sources of cyanide in the environment, the authors address the full range of issues pertaining to cyanide fate, transport, treatment, and toxicity in water and soil as well as approaches currently used in risk assessment and management. They have developed a careful balance of depth and scope of coverage, providing current references that help readers learn more about topics of particular interest. An array of technologies is available for the treatment of cyanide in surface water and groundwater, wastewaters, and contaminated soils and sludges. These technologies span the gamut of biological, chemical, electrolytic, physical, and thermal treatment processing. Presenting examples of applications of the technologies employed most commonly in municipal and industrial settings, the book is a useful reference tool for engineers, scientists, practitioners, and researchers in academia, industrial organizations, government, and engineering and science consulting firms.

Physicochemical and Plant Physiology

Author: Park Nobel

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323143830

Category: Science

Page: 656

View: 5715

Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology provides an understanding of various areas of plant physiology in particular and physiology in general. Elementary chemistry, physics, and mathematics are used to explain and develop concepts. The first three chapters of the book describe water relations and ion transport for plant cells. The next three chapters cover the properties of light and its absorption; the features of chlorophyll and the accessory pigments for photosynthesis that allow plants to convert radiant energy from the sun into chemical energy; and how much energy is actually carried by the compounds ATP and NADPH. The last three chapters consider the various forms in which energy and matter enter and leave a plant as it interacts with its environment. These include the physical quantities involved in energy budget analysis; the resistances affecting the movement of both water vapor and carbon dioxide in leaves; and the movement of water from the soil through the plant to the atmosphere.

Principles of Soil Conservation and Management

Author: Humberto Blanco-Canqui,Rattan Lal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402087098

Category: Nature

Page: 617

View: 2226

“Principles of Soil Management and Conservation” comprehensively reviews the state-of-knowledge on soil erosion and management. It discusses in detail soil conservation topics in relation to soil productivity, environment quality, and agronomic production. It addresses the implications of soil erosion with emphasis on global hotspots and synthesizes available from developed and developing countries. It also critically reviews information on no-till management, organic farming, crop residue management for industrial uses, conservation buffers (e.g., grass buffers, agroforestry systems), and the problem of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and in other regions. This book uniquely addresses the global issues including carbon sequestration, net emissions of CO2, and erosion as a sink or source of C under different scenarios of soil management. It also deliberates the implications of the projected global warming on soil erosion and vice versa. The concern about global food security in relation to soil erosion and strategies for confronting the remaining problems in soil management and conservation are specifically addressed. This volume is suitable for both undergraduate and graduate students interested in understanding the principles of soil conservation and management. The book is also useful for practitioners, extension agents, soil conservationists, and policymakers as an important reference material.

The Chemistry and Biology of Benz[a]anthracenes

Author: M. S. Newman,B. Tierney,S. Veeraraghavan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521305440

Category: Medical

Page: 228

View: 8449

First published in 1988, this volume surveys the chemical synthesis and biological activity of the benz[a]anthracenes. These compounds occur in smoke and mineral oils and a few have been shown to be potent carcinogens. This volume was the first to review, systematically and in depth, the organic synthesis of these compounds as well as their metablolism, interactions with nucleic acids and protein, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Such studies have important implications in determining mechanism and specificity of chemically induced carcinogenesis.

Exposure and Risk Assessment of Chemical Pollution - Contemporary Methodology

Author: Mahmoud A. Hassanien

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048123356

Category: Science

Page: 526

View: 1245

The book contains the contributions at the NATO Study Institute on Exposure and Risk Assessment of Chemical Pollution – Contemporary Methodology, which took place in Sofia – Borovetz, Bulgaria, July 1–10, 2008. Rapid advances in mathematics, computer science and molecular biology and chemistry have lead to the development in of a new branch of toxicology called Computational Toxicology. This emerging field is addressing the estimation and prediction of exposure risk and effects of chemicals based on experimental data, measured concentration and biological mechanisms and computational models of biological systems. Mathematical models are also being used to predict the fate and transport of substances in the environment. Because this area is still in its infancy, there has been limited application from governmental agencies to regulating controllable processes, such as registration of new chemicals, determination of estimated exposure and risk based limits and maximum acceptable concentrations in different compartments of the environment – ambient air, waters, soil and food products. However, this is soon to change as the ability to collect, analyze and interpret the required information is becoming increasingly more efficient and cost effective. Full implementation of the new processes have to involve education on both part of the experimentalists who are generating the data and the models, and the risk assessors who will use them to better protect human health and the environment.

Environmental Chemical Analysis

Author: S. Mitra,B.B. Kebbekus

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780751404562

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 6552

The study of the environment requires the reliable and accurate measurement of extremely small quantities of chemicals and the ability to determine if they are pollutants or naturally occurring species. Historically, a "dilute and disperse" method of waste disposal has been accepted; yet as we learn the long-term consequences of such an approach, it is clear that more rigorous waste management techniques are necessary to understand the sources and fates of contaminants and to regulate their discharge. This volume presents the details of the basic analytical science involved in making these measurements. It concentrates on the basic principles of sampling and sample preparation, followed by the chemical principles of the major instrumental methods used in chemical analysis, and detailed discussions of the major environmental matrices. This book also provides coverage of topics usually only partially discussed in textbooks, such as quality assurance plans and statistical data handling. Students majoring in environmental sciences need a foundation in measurement techniques used in the field. Environmental Chemical Analysis gives students a thorough grounding in this field and enough information to judge the quality and interpret the information produced in the analytical laboratory.

Environmental Chemistry, Ninth Edition

Author: Stanley Manahan,Stanley E. Manahan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439882479

Category: Science

Page: 783

View: 1656

The field of environmental chemistry has evolved significantly since the publication of the first edition of Environmental Chemistry. Throughout the book’s long life, it has chronicled emerging issues such as organochloride pesticides, detergent phosphates, stratospheric ozone depletion, the banning of chlorofluorocarbons, and greenhouse warming. During this time the first Nobel Prize for environmental chemistry was awarded. Written by environmental chemist Stanley Manahan, each edition has reflected the field’s shift of emphasis from pollution and its effects to its current emphasis on sustainability. What makes this book so enduring? Completely revised, this ninth edition retains the organizational structure that has made past editions so popular with students and professors while updating coverage of principles, tools, and techniques to provide fundamental understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. It includes end-of chapter questions and problems, and a solutions manual is available upon qualifying course adoptions. Rather than immediately discussing specific environmental problems, Manahan systematically develops the concept of environmental chemistry so that when he covers specific pollutions problems the background necessary to understand the problem has already been developed. New in the Ninth Edition: revised discussion of sustainability and environmental science updates information on chemical fate and transport, cycles of matter examination of the connection between environmental chemistry and green chemistry coverage of transgenic crops the role of energy in sustainability potential use of toxic substances in terrorist attacks Manahan emphasizes the importance of the anthrosphere – that part of the environment made and operated by humans and their technologies. Acknowledging technology will be used to support humankind on the planet, it is important that the anthrosphere be designed and operated in a manner that is compatible with sustainability and that it interacts constructively with the other environmental spheres. With clear explanations, real-world examples, and updated questions and answers, the book emphases the concepts essential to the practice of environmental science, technology, and chemistry while introducing the newest innovations in the field. Readily adapted for classroom use, a solutions manual is available with qualifying course adoption.

Biological and Environmental Aspects of Chromium

Author: S. Langård

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483290182

Category: Medical

Page: 296

View: 3368

Biological and Environmental Aspects of Chromium focuses on the biological and environmental aspects of chromium and its compounds, with emphasis on the most important aspects of their toxicology and physiology. Topics covered range from the production and occupational exposure of chromium compounds to the presence of chromium in air, soil, and natural waters. The applications of chromium in cell biology and medicine are also discussed. Comprised of 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of chromium and chromium compounds, followed by a discussion on the production and occupational exposure of chromium compounds. The reader is then introduced to the more common analytical methods used in the determination of chromium in environmental and biological samples. Subsequent chapters explore the nutritional role of chromium; absorption, transport, and excretion of chromium in humans and animals; mutagenic and cytogenetic effects of chromium compounds; and organ toxicity of chromium in animals. The carcinogenic effects of chromium, including its effects on the skin, are also considered. This monograph will be of interest to students, practitioners, and researchers in the fields of biology, physiology, and chemistry, as well as those with an objective interest in the ways in which chromium and its compounds act in biological materials and in the human environment.

The Role of Organic Matter in Modern Agriculture

Author: Yona Chen,Y. Avnimelech

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789024733606

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 306

View: 8926

The use of organic residues as a means of maintaining and increasing soil fertility is of long-standing. This tradition has been somewhat neglected since the introduc tion of mineral fertilizers at low cost. More and more farmers and scientists are now showing renewed interest in the proper and effective use of org~tnic residues, composts and other recycled organic additives. The role and function of organic amendments in modern agricultural systems have become topics of major interest in the scientific and agricultural communities. Research work on residue disposal has provided new concepts on the interaction between organic components and soils as well as new handling technologies (e. g. pelletizing of organic residues). The trend to conserve energy has led scientists to study the minimal tillage system, to find ways of replacing conventional inorganic fertilizers with natural organic prod ucts or microbial preparations, and to develop new composting methods. The drive to achieve higher yields in commercial greenhouse farming has led to a search for optimum substrates as growth media and for improved management techniques. This has led to the introduction of organic substitutes for peat, nota bly those originating from agricultural wastes. Another important aspect is the current interest in organic farming, where use of synthetic chemicals is avoided or prohibited. An increasing percentage of the population in highly developed countries is willing to pay premium prices for food produced on soils where inorganic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals have not been used.

Function of Soils for Human Societies and the Environment

Author: Emmanuel Frossard,Winfried E. H. Blum,Benno P. Warkentin

Publisher: Geological Society of London

ISBN: 9781862392076

Category: Science

Page: 196

View: 8346

The papers in this volume address issues of soil formation, soil management, soil protection and the role of biodiversity that must be considered for a sustainable soil use. The papers are aimed at geoscientists in the broadest sense, and others concerned with soil use who will also find chapters relevant to their interests. Soils knowledge used within other Earth sciences is essential for maintaining healthy ecosystems, for the solutions of problems in environmental quality and for sustainable use of soils by humans.

The Architecture and Biology of Soils

Life in Inner Space

Author: Karl Ritz

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 9781845935337

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 6586

Soil is a fundamental and critical, yet often overlooked, component of terrestrial ecosystems. It is an extremely complex environment, supporting levels of diversity far greater than any ecosystem above ground. This book explores how soil structure develops and the consequences this has for life underground. The effects of spatial arrangement, of soil's physical and biological components on their interaction and function are used to demonstrate their roles in ecosystem dynamics.

Water in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

Experimental Overviews and Computational Methodologies

Author: G. Wilse Robinson

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810224516

Category: Science

Page: 509

View: 7965

The central theme, which threads through the entire book, concerns computational modeling methods for water. Modeling results for pure liquid water, water near ions, water at interfaces, water in biological microsystems, and water under other types of perturbations such as laser fields are described. Connections are made throughout the book with statistical mechanical theoretical methods on the one hand and with experimental data on the other. The book is expected to be useful not only for theorists and computer analysts interested in the physical, chemical, biological and geophysical aspects of water, but also for experimentalists in these fields.