Chemistry and Biology of Water, Air and Soil

Environmental Aspects

Author: J. Tölgyessy

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080875125

Category: Science

Page: 857

View: 7059

Environmental pollution is a universal problem which threatens the continued existence of mankind, rendering it one of the primary concerns of society. This book provides a comprehensive view of the chemistry and biology of water, air and soil, particularly those aspects connected with the protection of the environment. The first part of the book presents fundamental information on the chemistry and biology of water in its natural state, and the effects of water pollution from industry, traffic, agriculture and urbanization. It covers the composition of natural, service and wastewaters as well as methods of chemical and biological water analysis and water treatment. The second part deals with atmospheric problems, particularly the basic composition of atmosphere and the different sources of its pollution, methods of restriction, and air analysis. The final part of the volume focuses on the characteristics of soil and soil components, natural and anthropogenous soil processes, the chemistry, biology and microbiology of soil, and soil analysis. This book will be of great value to chemists, biologists, physicians, pharmacists, farmers, veterinarians and university students, as well as to those engaged in the sphere of environmental protection.

Environmental Deterioration of Materials

Author: A. Moncmanová

Publisher: WIT Press

ISBN: 1845640322

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 5746

The increasing level of pollution in the environment not only harms the natural world, but also accelerates the deterioration and corrosion of materials used in technical work, as well as objects with historical or artistic value. It is impossible to eliminate the numerous sources of this negative effect, so there are currently increased efforts towards improved preservation, which require a thorough knowledge of the causes of the degradation of individual materials.This book deals with the fundamental principles underlying environmental degradation of widely-used and economically important construction materials such as metals, stone, brick, concrete, timber, cast iron, steel, copper alloys and aluminium. It features information on the methods of deterioration, as well as general information on the economic impact of the damaging processes, and offers some suggested fundamental protection techniques for buildings, industrial and agricultural facilities, monuments and culturally important structures.This book will be of interest to materials and corrosion engineering experts, civil and environmental engineers, students and practicing professionals, designers, architects and restoration engineers. It will also be a useful tool for managers from various sectors of industry, for auditors of environmental management systems, and it can be used as a complementary course book for university students.

Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry, Third Edition

Author: Stanley E. Manahan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420052691

Category: Science

Page: 1264

View: 2338

Written by an expert, using the same approach that made the previous two editions so successful, Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry, Third Edition expands the scope of book to include the strongly emerging areas broadly described as sustainability science and technology, including green chemistry and industrial ecology. The new edition includes: Increased emphasis on the applied aspects of environmental chemistry Hot topics such as global warming and biomass energy Integration of green chemistry and sustainability concepts throughout the text More and updated questions and answers, including some that require Internet research Lecturers Pack on CD-ROM with solutions manual, PowerPoint presentations, and chapter figures available upon qualifying course adoptions The book provides a basic course in chemical science, including the fundamentals of organic chemistry and biochemistry. The author uses real-life examples from environmetnal chemistry, green chemistry, and related areas while maintaining brevity and simplicity in his explanation of concepts. Building on this foundation, the book covers environmental chemistry, broadly defined to include sustainability aspects, green chemistry, industrial ecology, and related areas. These chapters are organized around the five environmental spheres, the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and the anthrosphere. The last two chapters discuss analytical chemistry and its relevance to environmental chemistry. Manahan’s clear, concise, and readable style makes the information accessible, regardless of the readers’ level of chemistry knowledge. He demystifies the material for those who need the basics of chemical science for their trade, profession, or study curriculum, as well as for readers who want to have an understanding of the fundamentals of sustainable chemistry in its crucial role in maintaining a livable planet.

Environmental Chemical Analysis

Author: S. Mitra,B.B. Kebbekus

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780751404562

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 4316

The study of the environment requires the reliable and accurate measurement of extremely small quantities of chemicals and the ability to determine if they are pollutants or naturally occurring species. Historically, a "dilute and disperse" method of waste disposal has been accepted; yet as we learn the long-term consequences of such an approach, it is clear that more rigorous waste management techniques are necessary to understand the sources and fates of contaminants and to regulate their discharge. This volume presents the details of the basic analytical science involved in making these measurements. It concentrates on the basic principles of sampling and sample preparation, followed by the chemical principles of the major instrumental methods used in chemical analysis, and detailed discussions of the major environmental matrices. This book also provides coverage of topics usually only partially discussed in textbooks, such as quality assurance plans and statistical data handling. Students majoring in environmental sciences need a foundation in measurement techniques used in the field. Environmental Chemical Analysis gives students a thorough grounding in this field and enough information to judge the quality and interpret the information produced in the analytical laboratory.

Environmental Chemistry, Ninth Edition

Author: Stanley Manahan,Stanley E. Manahan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439882479

Category: Science

Page: 783

View: 4970

The field of environmental chemistry has evolved significantly since the publication of the first edition of Environmental Chemistry. Throughout the book’s long life, it has chronicled emerging issues such as organochloride pesticides, detergent phosphates, stratospheric ozone depletion, the banning of chlorofluorocarbons, and greenhouse warming. During this time the first Nobel Prize for environmental chemistry was awarded. Written by environmental chemist Stanley Manahan, each edition has reflected the field’s shift of emphasis from pollution and its effects to its current emphasis on sustainability. What makes this book so enduring? Completely revised, this ninth edition retains the organizational structure that has made past editions so popular with students and professors while updating coverage of principles, tools, and techniques to provide fundamental understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. It includes end-of chapter questions and problems, and a solutions manual is available upon qualifying course adoptions. Rather than immediately discussing specific environmental problems, Manahan systematically develops the concept of environmental chemistry so that when he covers specific pollutions problems the background necessary to understand the problem has already been developed. New in the Ninth Edition: revised discussion of sustainability and environmental science updates information on chemical fate and transport, cycles of matter examination of the connection between environmental chemistry and green chemistry coverage of transgenic crops the role of energy in sustainability potential use of toxic substances in terrorist attacks Manahan emphasizes the importance of the anthrosphere – that part of the environment made and operated by humans and their technologies. Acknowledging technology will be used to support humankind on the planet, it is important that the anthrosphere be designed and operated in a manner that is compatible with sustainability and that it interacts constructively with the other environmental spheres. With clear explanations, real-world examples, and updated questions and answers, the book emphases the concepts essential to the practice of environmental science, technology, and chemistry while introducing the newest innovations in the field. Readily adapted for classroom use, a solutions manual is available with qualifying course adoption.

Principles of Soil Conservation and Management

Author: Humberto Blanco-Canqui,Rattan Lal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402087098

Category: Nature

Page: 617

View: 1143

“Principles of Soil Management and Conservation” comprehensively reviews the state-of-knowledge on soil erosion and management. It discusses in detail soil conservation topics in relation to soil productivity, environment quality, and agronomic production. It addresses the implications of soil erosion with emphasis on global hotspots and synthesizes available from developed and developing countries. It also critically reviews information on no-till management, organic farming, crop residue management for industrial uses, conservation buffers (e.g., grass buffers, agroforestry systems), and the problem of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and in other regions. This book uniquely addresses the global issues including carbon sequestration, net emissions of CO2, and erosion as a sink or source of C under different scenarios of soil management. It also deliberates the implications of the projected global warming on soil erosion and vice versa. The concern about global food security in relation to soil erosion and strategies for confronting the remaining problems in soil management and conservation are specifically addressed. This volume is suitable for both undergraduate and graduate students interested in understanding the principles of soil conservation and management. The book is also useful for practitioners, extension agents, soil conservationists, and policymakers as an important reference material.

The Role of Organic Matter in Modern Agriculture

Author: Yona Chen,Y. Avnimelech

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789024733606

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 306

View: 9705

The use of organic residues as a means of maintaining and increasing soil fertility is of long-standing. This tradition has been somewhat neglected since the introduc tion of mineral fertilizers at low cost. More and more farmers and scientists are now showing renewed interest in the proper and effective use of org~tnic residues, composts and other recycled organic additives. The role and function of organic amendments in modern agricultural systems have become topics of major interest in the scientific and agricultural communities. Research work on residue disposal has provided new concepts on the interaction between organic components and soils as well as new handling technologies (e. g. pelletizing of organic residues). The trend to conserve energy has led scientists to study the minimal tillage system, to find ways of replacing conventional inorganic fertilizers with natural organic prod ucts or microbial preparations, and to develop new composting methods. The drive to achieve higher yields in commercial greenhouse farming has led to a search for optimum substrates as growth media and for improved management techniques. This has led to the introduction of organic substitutes for peat, nota bly those originating from agricultural wastes. Another important aspect is the current interest in organic farming, where use of synthetic chemicals is avoided or prohibited. An increasing percentage of the population in highly developed countries is willing to pay premium prices for food produced on soils where inorganic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals have not been used.

The Architecture and Biology of Soils

Life in Inner Space

Author: Karl Ritz

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 9781845935337

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 1618

Soil is a fundamental and critical, yet often overlooked, component of terrestrial ecosystems. It is an extremely complex environment, supporting levels of diversity far greater than any ecosystem above ground. This book explores how soil structure develops and the consequences this has for life underground. The effects of spatial arrangement, of soil's physical and biological components on their interaction and function are used to demonstrate their roles in ecosystem dynamics.

Function of Soils for Human Societies and the Environment

Author: Emmanuel Frossard,Winfried E. H. Blum,Benno P. Warkentin

Publisher: Geological Society of London

ISBN: 9781862392076

Category: Science

Page: 196

View: 352

The papers in this volume address issues of soil formation, soil management, soil protection and the role of biodiversity that must be considered for a sustainable soil use. The papers are aimed at geoscientists in the broadest sense, and others concerned with soil use who will also find chapters relevant to their interests. Soils knowledge used within other Earth sciences is essential for maintaining healthy ecosystems, for the solutions of problems in environmental quality and for sustainable use of soils by humans.

Water in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

Experimental Overviews and Computational Methodologies

Author: G. Wilse Robinson

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810224516

Category: Science

Page: 509

View: 5603

The central theme, which threads through the entire book, concerns computational modeling methods for water. Modeling results for pure liquid water, water near ions, water at interfaces, water in biological microsystems, and water under other types of perturbations such as laser fields are described. Connections are made throughout the book with statistical mechanical theoretical methods on the one hand and with experimental data on the other. The book is expected to be useful not only for theorists and computer analysts interested in the physical, chemical, biological and geophysical aspects of water, but also for experimentalists in these fields.

The Biology of Peatlands, 2e

Author: Håkan Rydin,John K. Jeglum

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191508292

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 8127

Peatlands form important landscape elements in many parts of the world and play significant roles for biodiversity and global carbon balance. This new edition has been fully revised and updated, documenting the latest advances in areas such as microbial processes and relations between biological processes and hydrology. As well as thoroughly referencing the latest research, the authors expose a rich older literature where an immense repository of natural history has accumulated. The Biology of Peatlands starts with an overview of the main peatland types (marsh, swamp, fen, and bog), before examining the entire range of biota present (microbes, invertebrates, plants, and vertebrates), together with their specific adaptations to peatland habitats. Detailed coverage is devoted to the genus Sphagnum, the most important functional plant group in northern peatlands, although tropical and southern hemisphere peatlands are also covered. Throughout the book the interactions between organisms and environmental conditions (especially wetness, availability of oxygen, and pH) are emphasized, with chapters on the physical and chemical characteristics of peat, the role of peat as an archive of past vegetation and climate, and peatland succession and development. Several other key factors and processes are then examined, including hydrology and nutrient cycling. The fascinating peatland landforms in different parts of the world are described, together with theories on how they have developed. Human interactions with peatlands are considered in terms of management, conservation, and restoration. A final chapter, new to this edition, focuses on the role of peatlands as sources or sinks for the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, and the influences of climate change on peatlands. This timely and accessible text is suitable for students and researchers of peatland ecology, as well as providing an authoritative overview for professional ecologists and conservation biologists.

Biogeochemical Investigations of Terrestrial, Freshwater, and Wetland Ecosystems across the Globe

Author: R. Kelman Wieder,Martin Novák,Melanie A. Vile

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400709528

Category: Science

Page: 748

View: 6646

Here is a collection of papers from BIOGEOMON, The Fourth International Symposium on Ecosystem Behavior. The contributions address a wider-than-ever range of concerns: aspects of catchment monitoring and modeling; nitrogen transformations and processes; stable and radiogenic isotopes; biogeochemistry of restored ecosystems; and the dynamics of such chemicals as mercury and phosphorous, among many other topics.

Environmental Toxicology

Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Third Edition

Author: Ming-Ho Yu,Humio Tsunoda,Masashi Tsunoda

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439840393

Category: Science

Page: 397

View: 3300

Human survival depends on the availability of clean air, water, and food and on the welfare of plants and animals. However, anthropogenic and naturally occurring chemicals can cause adverse effects on living organisms and ecological processes. Environmental Toxicology: Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Third Edition presents fundamental information on the effects of environmental toxicants on living systems. It focuses on the chemical and biological characteristics of major pollutants found in the air, water, and soil and relates them to the health and well being of humans, animals, and plants. An Indispensable Reference on Air, Soil, & Water Pollutants and Their Impact on Living Systems Surveying the environmental and health changes that have occurred in recent decades, the book discusses the sources, metabolism, and damage process of toxicants, and the environmental, biological, and nutritional factors that may influence toxicity. It looks at natural defense systems, including the mechanisms for detoxification—such as endogenous antioxidants and free radical scavenging enzymes—on a cellular level. The text examines the major toxicants: EPA criteria air pollutants, environmental fluoride, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), environmental metals and metalloids involved in soil and water pollution, and pesticides and related material such as PCBs and dioxins. It then addresses their relationship with endocrine disruption and environmental cancer. This comprehensive approach offers insight into the interaction of various chemical agents with DNA. Fully revised and expanded, the third edition of this popular book includes new and updated material as well as a new chapter on occupational toxicology. Appendices cover the process of ecological risk assessment, carcinogens, and PCB nomenclature. Based on research from more than 35 years of teaching environmental toxicology and related courses, this textbook is a useful resource for students, professionals, and researchers interested in the effects of pollutants on living systems. What’s New in This Edition A new chapter on occupational toxicology, covering indoor air quality, chemicals in the workplace, nanoparticle exposure, and more An updated chapter on environmental changes and health, including significant environmental changes that have occurred since the last edition An updated chapter on environmental cancer, including changes in death rates of respiratory cancers New material on the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O) in stratospheric ozone layer depletion An expanded discussion of environmental disasters

Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils

Biological, Physical, and Chemical Processes

Author: Eve Riser-Roberts

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420050578

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 9581

This book combines the results of current research with essential background material to provide complete, in-depth coverage of every aspect of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, as well as an extensive overview of the physical and chemical processes currently available for treating petroleum-contaminated soils. Critical information has been collected and assembled under one cover to provide a convenient reference for anyone who must contend with this worldwide problem. Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils: Biological, Physical, and Chemical Processes describes how to optimize the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil-water systems. It reports on the susceptibility of various petroleum components to biodegradation by microorganisms, and considers all groups of microorganisms for their potential contributions. The book also deals with problem areas such as the transport of organisms, oxygen, or nutrients throughout the subsurface, as well as biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). In addition, the book presents a variety of methods for monitoring bioremediation. This reference discusses current soil remediation processes and includes many innovative approaches. It also investigates means of controlling volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and leachate, and addresses methods for collecting and treating these secondary waste streams. The expansive coverage of this book will furnish readers with a wide range of options for developing treatment strategies and for customizing procedures for specific requirements.

Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment

Author: R. Nieder,D.K. Benbi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402084331

Category: Science

Page: 430

View: 6570

Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary description of C and N fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere; issues related to C and N management in different ecosystems and their implications for the environment and global climate change; and the approaches to mitigate emission of greenhouse gases. Drawing upon the most up-to-date books, journals, bulletins, reports, symposia proceedings and internet sources documenting interrelationships between different aspects of C and N cycling in the terrestrial environment, Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment fills the gap left by most of the currently available books on C and N cycling. They either deal with a single element of an ecosystem, or are related to one or a few selected aspects like soil organic matter (SOM) and agricultural or forest management, emission of greenhouse gases, global climate change or modeling of SOM dynamics.

Handbook of Industrial Chemistry and Biotechnology

Author: James A. Kent

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461442591

Category: Science

Page: 1562

View: 7277

Substantially revising and updating the classic reference in the field, this handbook offers a valuable overview and myriad details on current chemical processes, products, and practices. No other source offers as much data on the chemistry, engineering, economics, and infrastructure of the industry. The Handbook serves a spectrum of individuals, from those who are directly involved in the chemical industry to others in related industries and activities. It provides not only the underlying science and technology for important industry sectors, but also broad coverage of critical supporting topics. Industrial processes and products can be much enhanced through observing the tenets and applying the methodologies found in chapters on Green Engineering and Chemistry (specifically, biomass conversion), Practical Catalysis, and Environmental Measurements; as well as expanded treatment of Safety, chemistry plant security, and Emergency Preparedness. Understanding these factors allows them to be part of the total process and helps achieve optimum results in, for example, process development, review, and modification. Important topics in the energy field, namely nuclear, coal, natural gas, and petroleum, are covered in individual chapters. Other new chapters include energy conversion, energy storage, emerging nanoscience and technology. Updated sections include more material on biomass conversion, as well as three chapters covering biotechnology topics, namely, Industrial Biotechnology, Industrial Enzymes, and Industrial Production of Therapeutic Proteins.

Fundamentals of Soils

Author: John Gerrard

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134688385

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 6333

Fundamentals of Soil provides a comprehensive and engaging introduction to soils and the workings of soil systems. This text is the only one of its kind to provide an attractive, lively and accessible introduction to this topic. Featuring learning tools within each chapter, such as summaries, essay questions and guides for further reading, the text is also highly illustrated with useful tables, boxes and figures. Covering all key areas of study at an introductory level, subjects covered include: · Soil properties · Soil processes · Controls on soil formation · Soil classification · World soils · Soil patterns · Soil degradation.