Changes and Disturbance in Tropical Rainforest in South-East Asia

Author: D. M. Newbery,T. H. Clutton-Brock,Ghillean T. Prance,Royal Society (Great Britain)

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1860942431

Category: Nature

Page: 176

View: 5187

Views on the dynamics of tropical forests are changing rapidly with the recognition that their environment is variable on the decadal to century scale. Fluctuating climatic conditions partly determine tropical forest structure, species composition and dynamics. Tropical communities are also highly contingent in space and time with respect to site and historical factors. Tropical forests have experienced to some degree this disturbance regime in the past, but climatologists are now predicting increasingly frequent extreme events in the new century. The combination of increasing deforestation and land-use conversion by man plus an increasingly variable environment means a situation that could be very difficult to manage.

Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change

Author: Mark B. Bush,John Flenley,John R. Flenley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540239081

Category: Science

Page: 396

View: 3798

Presents an overview of the impacts of climate change on tropical forests. This book examines how tropical rain forest ecology is altered by climate change. It explores the long term occupation of tropical systems, the influence of fire and the future climatic effects of deforestation, coupled with anthropogenic emissions.

Land Use, Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margins in Southeast Asia

Author: Gerhard Gerold,Michael Fremerey,Edi Guhardja

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540006039

Category: Nature

Page: 533

View: 9035

Southeast Asia constitutes one of the world's most extended rainforest regions. It is characterized by a high degree of biodiversity and contains a large variety of endemic species. Moreover, these forests provide a number of important and sin gular ecosystem services, like erosion protection and provision of high quality wa ter, which cannot be replaced by alternative ecosystems. However, various forms of encroachment, mostly those made by human interventions, seriously threaten the continuance of rainforests in this area. There is ample evidence that the rainforest resources, apart from large scale commercial logging, are exposed to danger particularly from its margin areas. These areas, which are characterized by intensive man-nature interaction, have been identified as extremely fragile systems. The dynamic equilibrium that bal ances human needs and interventions on the one hand, and natural regeneration capacity on the other, is at stake. The decrease of rainforest resources is, to a sub stantial degree, connected with the destabilization of these systems. Accordingly, the search for measures and processes, which prevent destabilization and promote stability is regarded as imperative. This refers to both the human and the natural part of the forest margin ecosystem.

Timber Production and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Rain Forests

Author: Andrew Grieser Johns

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521572828

Category: Nature

Page: 225

View: 1304

Timber production is often the most economic form of land use in areas of tropical forest; forest preservation is rarely so. This book attempts to bridge the current gap between conservation requirements and commercial interests, indicating the possibilities for integrated management of tropical forests. The aim is to create a practical approach for the management of production forest as a supplement to totally-protected forest in the conservation of tropical biodiversity.

Arthropods of Tropical Forests

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics and Resource Use in the Canopy

Author: Yves Basset

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521820004

Category: Science

Page: 474

View: 4269

Arthropods are the most diverse group of organisms on our planet and the tropical rainforests represent the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems. This book, written by 79 authors contributing to 35 chapters, aims to provide an overview of data collected during recent studies in Australia, Africa, Asia, and South America. The book focuses on the distribution of arthropods and their use of resources in the rainforest canopies, providing a basis for comparison between the forest ecosystems of the main biogeographical regions. Topics covered include the distribution of arthropods along vertical gradients and the relationship between the soil/litter habitat and the forest canopy. The temporal dynamics of arthropod communities, habitats and food selection are examined within and among tropical tree crowns, as are the effects of forest disturbance. This important book is a valuable addition to the literature used by community ecologists, conservation biologists entomologists, botanists and forestry experts.

Biomass Burning and Global Change: Biomass burning in South America, Southeast Asia, and temperate and boreal ecosystems, and the oil fires of Kuwait

Author: Joel S. Levine

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262122023

Category: Nature

Page: 932

View: 4238

Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions."--pub. desc.

Land Use Intensification

Effects on Agriculture, Biodiversity and Ecological Processes

Author: David Lindenmayer,Saul Cunningham,Andrew Young

Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING

ISBN: 0643104070

Category: Agricultural landscape management

Page: 156

View: 8413

Can science suggest new and improved approaches to reducing the conflict between productive land use and biodiversity conservation? There are many different viewpoints about the best way to deal with the myriad issues associated with land use intensification and this book canvasses a number of these from different parts of the tropical and temperate world. Chapters focus on whether science can suggest new and improved approaches to reducing the conflict between productive land use and biodiversity conservation.

Ecology of Lianas

Author: Stefan Schnitzer,Frans Bongers,Robyn J. Burnham,Francis E. Putz

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118392485

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 9313

Lianas are woody vines that were the focus of intense study byearly ecologists, such as Darwin, who devoted an entire book to thenatural history of climbing plants. Over the past quartercentury, there has been a resurgence in the study of lianas, andliana are again recognized as important components of many forests,particularly in the tropics. The increasing amount ofresearch on lianas has resulted in a fundamentally deeperunderstanding of liana ecology, evolution, and life-history, aswell as the myriad roles lianas play in forest dynamics andfunctioning. This book provides insight into the ecology and evolution oflianas, their anatomy, physiology, and natural history, theirglobal abundance and distribution, and their wide-ranging effectson the myriad organisms that inhabit tropical and temperateforests.

Tropical Fire Ecology

Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics

Author: Mark Cochrane

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540773819

Category: Science

Page: 682

View: 8982

The tropics are home to most of the world’s biodiversity and are currently the frontier for human settlement. Tropical ecosystems are being converted to agricultural and other land uses at unprecedented rates. Land conversion and maintenance almost always rely on fire and, because of this, fire is now more prevalent in the tropics than anywhere else on Earth. Despite pervasive fire, human settlement and threatened biodiversity, there is little comprehensive information available on fire and its effects in tropical ecosystems. Tropical deforestation, especially in rainforests, has been widely documented for many years. Forests are cut down and allowed to dry before being burned to remove biomass and release nutrients to grow crops. However, fires do not always stop at the borders of cleared forests. Tremendously damaging fires are increasingly spreading into forests that were never evolutionarily prepared for wild fires. The largest fires on the planet in recent decades have occurred in tropical forests and burned millions of hectares in several countries. The numerous ecosystems of the tropics have differing levels of fire resistance, resilience or dependence. At present, there is little appreciation of the seriousness of the wild fire situation in tropical rainforests but there is even less understanding of the role that fire plays in the ecology of many fire adapted tropical ecosystems, such as savannas, grasslands and other forest types.

Sustainability and Diversity of Forest Ecosystems

An Interdisciplinary Approach

Author: Tohru Nakashizuka

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9784431732389

Category: Science

Page: 86

View: 1789

Biodiversity is decreasing at the fastest rate in the history of the earth. The sustainable use of ecosystems allowing maintenance of biological diversity is an urgent problem that must be solved. The work featured in this book presents the results achieved by the RIHN project, together with reports on other international activities and related efforts, as ecologists, forestry scientists, environmental economists, and sociologists share in discussions of the issues.

Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics

Past, Present and Future Hydrological Research for Integrated Land and Water Management

Author: M. Bonell,L. A. Bruijnzeel

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139443845

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2443

Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics is a comprehensive review of the hydrological and physiological functioning of tropical rain forests, the environmental impacts of their disturbance and conversion to other land uses, and optimum strategies for managing them. The book brings together leading specialists in such diverse fields as tropical anthropology and human geography, environmental economics, climatology and meteorology, hydrology, geomorphology, plant and aquatic ecology, forestry and conservation agronomy. The editors have supplemented the individual contributions with invaluable overviews of the main sections and provide key pointers for future research. Specialists will find authenticated detail in chapters written by experts on a whole range of people-water-land use issues, managers and practitioners will learn more about the implications of ongoing and planned forest conversion, while scientists and students will appreciate a unique review of the literature.

Birds as Monitors of Environmental Change

Author: R.W. Furness,J.J.D. Greenwood

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401513228

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 6364

Birds as Monitors of Environmental Change looks at how bird populations are affected by pollutants, water quality, and other physical changes and how this scientific knowledge can help in predicting the effects of pollutants and other physical changes in the environment.

Balkan Biodiversity

Pattern and Process in the European Hotspot

Author: Huw I. Griffiths,Boris Kryštufek,Jane M. Reed

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402028533

Category: Science

Page: 358

View: 4606

This is the first attempt to synthesize current understanding of biodiversity in the great European hot spot. A diverse group of international researchers offers perspective on biodiversity at the level of the gene, species and ecosystem, including contributions on temporal change. Biological groups include plants, mammals, spiders and humans, cave-dwelling organisms, fish, aquatic invertebrates and algae.

Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World

Author: Josep G. Canadell,Diane E. Pataki,Louis F. Pitelka

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540327304

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 1509

This book examines the impacts of global change on terrestrial ecosystems. Emphasis is placed on impacts of atmospheric, climate and land use change, and the book discusses the future challenges and the scientific frameworks to address them. Finally, the book explores fundamental new research developments and the need for stronger integration of natural and human dimensions in addressing the challenge of global change.

The Djief Hunters, 26,000 Years of Rainforest Exploitation on the Bird's Head of Papua, Indonesia

Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia

Author: Juliette M. Pasveer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482283948

Category: Nature

Page: 456

View: 5479

Two prehistoric cave sites on the Bird's Head of western New Guinea provide a detailed narrative of 26,000 years of human occupation of this area. During Late Pleistocene times, lower temperatures allowed a suite of montane animal species to descend onto the lowland Ayamaru Plateau. When the montane fauna receded during the subsequent climatic amelioration, people switched their hunting focus to a forest wallaby, known locally as Djief. Detailed analysis of this species' remains, including the reconstruction of their age profile, provides insights into why prolonged hunting of this species did not lead to its extinction. The wallaby population evidently thrived at its demographic maximum throughout the early and mid-Holocene, suggesting that human population densities, and therefore hunting pressure, were low until c. 5000 BP. This volume of Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia offers a unique perspective on sustainable hunting in prehistory and provides intriguing insights into hunter-gatherer subsistence, tool manufacturing and use, the changing intensity of occupation of the sites, and environmental exploitation from Late Pleistocene times onwards in a lowland tropical region. It forms an important contribution to the current debate on the possibilities of human occupation of tropical rainforest before the advent of agriculture.

Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change

Author: James S. Clark,Helene Cachier,Johann G. Goldammer,Brian J. Stocks

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364259171X

Category: Science

Page: 492

View: 5598

Biomass burning profoundly affects atmospheric chemistry, the carbon cycle, and climate and may have done so for millions of years. Bringing together renowned experts from paleoecology, fire ecology, atmospheric chemistry, and organic chemistry, the volume elucidates the role of fire during global changes of the past and future. Topics covered include: the characterization of combustion products that occur in sediments, including char, soot/fly ash, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; the calibration of these constituents against atmospheric measurements from wildland and prescribed fire emissions; spatial and temporal patterns in combustion emissions at scales of individual burns to the globe.

Effects of Land-Use Change on Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

South and Southeast Asia as a Case Study

Author: Virginia H. Dale

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461383633

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 386

View: 7571

Roger C. Dahlman Environmental Sciences Division U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. The potential for humans to alter Earth's atmosphere has been recognized since the end of the 19th century when Arrhenius estimated that a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide could alter the atmospheric radiation balance and raise average global temperature. Today, atmospheric CO concentrations play an important part in the 2 climate-change debate. Sources and sinks of CO associated with land use can be 2 significant determinants of the rate and magnitude of atmospheric CO change. 2 Combustion of fossil fuels and the deforestation associated with land-use change both contribute CO to the atmosphere; in contrast, biological processes on land create 2 potential sinks for the excess CO . Thus, land-use change and associated biological 2 processes become important elements in assessments of future atmospheric CO 2 increase; land-cover properties also affect the Earth's albedo, which is a climate feedback.

Soil Ecology

Author: P. Lavelle,A. Spain

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792371236

Category: Nature

Page: 654

View: 5134

This work synthesises the basic knowledge provided by the different disciplines of soil science. It then proposes integrative concepts and models that organise this knowledge, taking into account the multiple interactions that exist at a number of different scales among the living and inanimate components.

Conserving Biodiversity in East African Forests

A Study of the Eastern Arc Mountains

Author: W.D. Newmark,William Dubois Newmark

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540424291

Category: Nature

Page: 197

View: 3764

The Eastern Arc Mountains of East Africa are one of the 17 most threatened tropical ecosystems or hotspots worldwide. This is the first book to examine in detail current threats as well as approaches for conserving biological diversity in this global biodiversity hotspot. This volume synthesizes existing information on the biodiversity of the Eastern Arc Mountains, outlines processes that adversely affect this diversity, and suggests potential approaches for promoting its conservation. While the geographic focus of this book is the Eastern Arc forests, the problems, principles, and approaches discussed in relationship to conserving biodiversity have applicability to nearly all tropical forests worldwide.

Global Change in the Holocene

Author: John Birks,Rick Battarbee,Anson Mackay,Frank Oldfield

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1444119176

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 7249

The Holocene spans the 11,500 years since the end of the last Ice Age and has been a period of major global environmental change. However the rate of change has accelerated during the last hundred years, due largely to human impacts and this has led to a growing concern for the future of our environmental resources. Global Change in the Holocene demonstrates how reconstructing the record of past environmental change can provide us with essential knowledge about how our environment works and presents the reader with an informed viewpoint from which to project realistic future scenarios. The book brings together key techniques that are widely used in Holocene research, such as radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology and sediment analysis and offers a comprehensive analysis of various archives of environmental change including instrumental and documentary records, corals, lake sediments, glaciers and ice cores. This reference will be an informative and cutting-edge resource for all researchers in the fields of climate change, environmental science, geography, palaeoecology and archaeology.