Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine, new expanded edition, is a comprehensive survey of the technology of mapping and its relationship to the battle against disease. This look at medical mapping advances the argument that maps are not merely representations of spatial realities but a way of thinking about relationships between viral and bacterial communities, human hosts, and the environments in which diseases flourish. Cartographies of Disease traces the history of medical mapping from its growth in the 19th century during an era of trade and immigration to its renaissance in the 1990s during a new era of globalization. Referencing maps older than John Snow's famous cholera maps of London in the mid-19th century, this survey pulls from the plague maps of the 1600s, while addressing current issues concerning the ability of GIS technology to track diseases worldwide. The original chapters have some minor updating and two new chapters have been added. Chapter 13 attempts to understand how the hundreds of maps of Ebola revealed not simply disease incidence but the way in which the epidemic itself was perceived. Chapter 14, is about the spatiality of the disease and the means by which different cartographic approaches may affect the means by which infectious outbreaks like Ebola can be confronted and contained.
Maps, Mapping, and Medicine
Author: Tom Koch
Publisher: Esri Press
In the seventeenth century, a map of the plague suggested a radical idea—that the disease was carried and spread by humans. In the nineteenth century, maps of cholera cases were used to prove its waterborne nature. More recently, maps charting the swine flu pandemic caused worldwide panic and sent shockwaves through the medical community. In Disease Maps, Tom Koch contends that to understand epidemics and their history we need to think about maps of varying scale, from the individual body to shared symptoms evidenced across cities, nations, and the world. Disease Maps begins with a brief review of epidemic mapping today and a detailed example of its power. Koch then traces the early history of medical cartography, including pandemics such as European plague and yellow fever, and the advancements in anatomy, printing, and world atlases that paved the way for their mapping. Moving on to the scourge of the nineteenth century—cholera—Koch considers the many choleras argued into existence by the maps of the day, including a new perspective on John Snow’s science and legacy. Finally, Koch addresses contemporary outbreaks such as AIDS, cancer, and H1N1, and reaches into the future, toward the coming epidemics. Ultimately, Disease Maps redefines conventional medical history with new surgical precision, revealing that only in maps do patterns emerge that allow disease theories to be proposed, hypotheses tested, and treatments advanced.
Epidemics on the Ground
Author: Tom Koch
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
In the nineteenth century, Americans began to use maps in radically new ways. For the first time, medical men mapped diseases to understand and prevent epidemics, natural scientists mapped climate and rainfall to uncover weather patterns, educators mapped the past to foster national loyalty among students, and Northerners mapped slavery to assess the power of the South. After the Civil War, federal agencies embraced statistical and thematic mapping in order to profile the ethnic, racial, economic, moral, and physical attributes of a reunified nation. By the end of the century, Congress had authorized a national archive of maps, an explicit recognition that old maps were not relics to be discarded but unique records of the nation’s past. All of these experiments involved the realization that maps were not just illustrations of data, but visual tools that were uniquely equipped to convey complex ideas and information. In Mapping the Nation, Susan Schulten charts how maps of epidemic disease, slavery, census statistics, the environment, and the past demonstrated the analytical potential of cartography, and in the process transformed the very meaning of a map. Today, statistical and thematic maps are so ubiquitous that we take for granted that data will be arranged cartographically. Whether for urban planning, public health, marketing, or political strategy, maps have become everyday tools of social organization, governance, and economics. The world we inhabit—saturated with maps and graphic information—grew out of this sea change in spatial thought and representation in the nineteenth century, when Americans learned to see themselves and their nation in new dimensions.
History and Cartography in Nineteenth-Century America
Author: Susan Schulten
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Setting out the debates and reviewing the evidence that links health outcomes with social and physical environments, this new edition of the well-established text offers an accessible overview of the theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and research in the field of health geography Includes international examples, drawn from a broad range of countries, and extensive illustrations Unique in its approach to health geography, as opposed to medical geography New chapters focus on contemporary concerns including neighborhoods and health, ageing, and emerging infectious disease Offers five new case studies and an fresh emphasis on qualitative research approaches Written by two of the leading health geographers in the world, each with extensive experience in research and policy
Author: Anthony C. Gatrell,Susan J. Elliott
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Covers the multiple functions of the complex human brain, providing graphics and simple terminology and sidebars written by experts in the field of brain mapping.
Author: Rita Carter
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Why are rainfall, carcinogens, and primary care physicians distributed unevenly over space? The fourth edition of the leading text in the field has been updated and reorganized to cover the latest developments in disease ecology and health promotion across the globe. The book accessibly introduces the core questions and perspectives of health and medical geography and presents cutting-edge techniques of mapping and spatial analysis. It explores the intersecting genetic, ecological, behavioral, cultural, and socioeconomic processes that underlie patterns of health and disease in particular places, including how new diseases and epidemics emerge. Geographic dimensions of health care access and service provision are addressed. More than 100 figures include 16 color plates; most are available as PowerPoint slides at the companion website. New to This Edition: *Chapters on the political ecology of health; emerging infectious diseases and landscape genetics; food, diet, and nutrition; and urban health. *Coverage of Middle East respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika; impacts on health of global climate change; contaminated water crises in economically developed countries, including in Flint, Michigan; China's rapid industrial growth; and other timely topics. *Updated throughout with current data and concepts plus advances in GIS. Pedagogical Features: *End-of-chapter review questions and suggestions for further reading. *Section Introductions that describe each chapter. *"Quick Reviews"--within-chapter recaps of key concepts. *Bold-faced key terms and an end-of-book glossary.
Author: Michael Emch,Elisabeth Dowling Root,Margaret Carrel
Publisher: Guilford Publications
Category: Social Science
This book argues that the international refugee regime and its ‘temporary’ humanitarian interventions have failed. Most refugees across the global live in ‘protracted’ conditions that extend from years to decades, without legal status that allows them to work and establish a home. It is contended that they become largely invisible to people based in the global North, and cease to remain fully human subjects with access to their political lives. Shifting the conversation away from the salient discourse of ‘solutions’ and technical fixes within state-centric international relations, the authors recover the subjectivity lost for those stuck in extended exile. The book first argues that humanitarian assistance to refugees remains vital to people’s survival, even after the emergency phase is over. It then connects asylum politics in the global North with the intransigence of extended exile in the global South. By placing the urgent crises of protracted exile within a broader constellation of power relations, both historical and geographical, the authors present research and empirical findings gleaned from refugees in Iran, Kenya and Canada and from humanitarian and government workers. Each chapter reveals patterns of power circulating through the ‘colonial present’, Cold War legacies, and the global ‘war on terror". Seeking to render legible the more quotidian struggles and livelihoods of people who find themselves defined as refugees, this book will be of great interest to international humanitarian agencies, as well as migration and refugee researchers, including scholars in refugee studies and human displacement, human security, globalization, immigration, and human rights.
Living on the Edge
Author: Jennifer Hyndman,Wenona Giles
Category: Political Science
Authoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises with data that can be downloaded for individual or course use. New to This Edition *Incorporates major technological advances, such as Internet-based mapping systems and the rise of data from cell phones and other GPS-enabled devices. *Chapter on health disparities. *Expanded coverage of public participation GIS. *Companion Web page has all-new content. *Goes beyond the United States to encompass an international focus.
Author: Ellen K. Cromley,Sara McLafferty
Publisher: Guilford Press
A National Bestseller, a New York Times Notable Book, and an Entertainment Weekly Best Book of the Year From Steven Johnson, the dynamic thinker routinely compared to James Gleick, Dava Sobel, and Malcolm Gladwell, The Ghost Map is a riveting page-turner about a real-life historical hero, Dr. John Snow. It's the summer of 1854, and London is just emerging as one of the first modern cities in the world. But lacking the infrastructure -- garbage removal, clean water, sewers -- necessary to support its rapidly expanding population, the city has become the perfect breeding ground for a terrifying disease no one knows how to cure. As the cholera outbreak takes hold, a physician and a local curate are spurred to action-and ultimately solve the most pressing medical riddle of their time. In a triumph of multidisciplinary thinking, Johnson illuminates the intertwined histories and interconnectedness of the spread of disease, contagion theory, the rise of cities, and the nature of scientific inquiry, offering both a riveting history and a powerful explanation of how it has shaped the world we live in.
The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic--and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World
Author: Steven Johnson
Records the emotional struggles of an elderly father in geriatric decline and his aging son as the care-giver, exploring the issues of their changed relationship
Aging Children and Elderly Parents
Author: Tom Koch
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
Category: Social Science
This book is part of a series covering surgical specialties. The volumes are multi-authored, containing brief chapters, each of which are devoted to one or two specific questions or decisions within that specialty that are difficult or controversial. The volumes are intended as a current and timely reference source for practicing surgeons, surgeons in training, and educators that describe the recommended ideal approach, rather than customary care, in selected clinical situations.
An Evidence-Based Approach
Author: J. Michael Millis,Jeffrey B. Matthews
In October 2010, nine months after the massive earthquake that devastated Haiti, a second disaster began to unfold—soon to become the world's largest cholera epidemic in modern times. In a country that had never before reported cholera, the epidemic mysteriously and simultaneously appeared in river communities of central Haiti, eventually triggering nearly 800,000 cases and 9,000 deaths. What had caused the first cases of cholera in Haiti in recorded history? Who or what was the deadly agent of origin? Why did it explode in the agricultural-rich delta of the Artibonite River? When answers were few, rumors spread, causing social and political consequences of their own. Wanting insight, the Haitian government and French embassy requested epidemiological assistance from France. A few weeks into the epidemic, physician and infectious disease specialist Renaud Piarroux arrived in Haiti. In Deadly River, Ralph R. Frerichs tells the story of the epidemic—of a French disease detective determined to trace its origins so that he could help contain the spread and possibly eliminate the disease—and the political intrigue that has made that effort so difficult. The story involves political maneuvering by powerful organizations such as the United Nations and its peacekeeping troops in Haiti, as well as by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Frerichs explores a quest for scientific truth and dissects a scientific disagreement involving world-renowned cholera experts who find themselves embroiled in intellectual and political turmoil in a poverty-stricken country. Frerichs’s narrative highlights how the world’s wealthy nations, nongovernmental agencies, and international institutions respond when their interests clash with the needs of the world’s most vulnerable people. The story poses big social questions and offers insights not only on how to eliminate cholera in Haiti but also how nations, NGOs, and international organizations such as the UN and CDC deal with catastrophic infectious disease epidemics.
Cholera and Cover-Up in Post-Earthquake Haiti
Author: Ralph R. Frerichs
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Can capital be seen? Cartographies of the Absolute surveys the disparate answers to this question offered by artists, film-makers, writers and theorists over the past few decades. It zones in on the crises of representation that have accompanied the enduring crisis of capitalism, foregrounding the production of new visions and artefacts that wrestle with the vastness, invisibility and complexity of the abstractions that rule our lives.
Author: Alberto Toscano,Jeff Kinkle
Publisher: John Hunt Publishing
Examines the pivotal relationship between mapping and civilization, demonstrating the unique ways that maps relate and realign history, and shares engaging cartography stories and map lore.
A Mind-Expanding Exploration of the Way the World Looks
Author: Simon Garfield
Publisher: Gotham Books
"Using a wealth of illustrations--with 74 in full color--to elucidate each concisely presented point, the revised and updated third edition continues to emphasize how design choices relate to the reasons for making a map and its intended purpose. All components of map making are covered: titles, labels, legends, visual hierarchy, font selection, how to turn phenomena into visual data, data organization, symbolization, and more."--Back cover.
A Visual Guide to Map Design for GIS
Author: John Krygier,Denis Wood
Publisher: Guilford Publications
Category: Technology & Engineering
Paediatric speech and language therapists are challenged by diminished resources and increasingly complex caseloads. The new edition addresses their concerns. Norms for speech development are given, differentiating between the emergence of the ability to produce speech sounds (articulation) and typical developmental error patterns (phonology). The incidence of speech disorders is described for one UK service providing crucial information for service management. The efficacy of service provision is evaluated to show that differential diagnosis and treatment is effective for children with disordered speech. Exploration of that data provides implications for prioritising case loads. The relationship between speech and language disorders is examined in the context of clinical decisions about what to target in therapy. New chapters provide detailed intervention programmes for subgroups of speech disorder: delayed development, use of atypical error patterns, inconsistent errors and development verbal dyspraxia. The final section of the book deals with special populations: children with cognitive impairment, hearing and auditory processing difficulties. The needs of clinicians working with bilingual populations are discussed and ways of intervention described. The final chapter examines the relationship between spoken and written disorders of phonology.
Author: Barbara Dodd
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The final book in Koch's (gerontology, Simon Fraser University) trilogy on aging concerns the self-conscious attitude American society has toward mortality. Koch considers the relationship between our fear of morality and our view of the elderly, and the ways in which the elderly are represented and
Silent Voices of the Elderly
Author: Tom Koch
Publisher: Praeger Pub Text
Category: Family & Relationships
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with a history of thousands of years, is the crystallization of the ancient Chinese''s experiences in their struggle against diseases. It is also an integral part of the Chinese''s splendid culture. Under the influence and direction of classic Chinese philosophies, it has undergone long-term medical practice and infiltrated into, as well as absorbed from, other subjects in that point in time, thus gradually evolving into a unique medical theoretical system that contributed and is still contributing significantly to the healthcare of the Chinese and the prosperity of the Chinese nation.The basic theories of TCM are the theoretical foundations for guiding traditional Chinese preventive medicine and clinical medicine, and encompass aspects such as the philosophical foundation for TCM, understanding the effects of TCM on the physiology and pathology of the human body, and the principles in TCM for life cultivation, rehabilitation, diagnostics, and therapeutics. In this sense, the basic theories are regarded not only as an important part of TCM, but also as a compulsory course fundamental to the study and research of TCM.This book is compiled to allow the majority of readers to understand the theory of TCM and its methods of diagnosing and treating diseases in a relatively short period of time. It provides a brief introduction to the basic characteristics and theory of TCM, and a detailed schedule of learning commonly occurring diseases and patterns and their estimated 60 corresponding prescriptions. This is a great attempt in initiating more people to understand and apply the theory of TCM to diagnose and treat common diseases and provide corresponding formulas.
Author: Hong-Zhou Wu,Zhaoqin Fang
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Internal medicine
Argues that doctors are deliberately misinformed by profit-seeking pharmaceutical companies that casually withhold information about drug efficacy and side effects, explaining the process of pharmaceutical data manipulation and its global consequences. By the best-selling author of Bad Science.
How Drug Companies Mislead Doctors and Harm Patients
Author: Ben Goldacre
Category: Business & Economics