In the 25 years after 1945 Britain's worldwide empire fell to piece and Britain ceased to be a great power. Britain abandoned her Indian Empire, gave up her rule over the African and Asian Colonies, surrendered her premier position in the Middle East and withdrew from almost all the bases - like Aden and Singapore - which had once been the 'tollgates and barbicans of empire'. At the same time, she gave up the long tradition of aloofness from Europe and entered the EEC. How did these vast changes in Britain's world position come about? Was Britain driven into imperial retreat by the main force of Afro-Asian nationalism and superpower pressure? Were the colonial transfers of power a noble and timely recognition or the political maturity of the colonial peoples, as Harold Macmillan once claimed? Or had Britain weighed the costs and benefits of empire in an age of rapid economic and international change, and decided that the colonial game was not worth the financial candle? If so, how are the apparent contradictions in British policy to be explained - the dangerous adventure at Suez, the extensive commitments East of Suez not terminated until 1971 and the Falklands war? How far indeed were the British able to control events in their colonial territories? And why did some colonies become independent so much earlier than others? This book describes the aims and policies which the British tried to pursue in their last imperial age and examines the conflicting explanations put forward for Britain's part in decolonisation - that great reordering of world politics that has taken place since 1945.
The Retreat from Empire in the Post-War World
Author: John Darwin
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Category: Great Britain
The story of the British Empire in the twentieth century is one of decline, disarray, and despondency. Or so we have been told. In this fresh and controversial account of Britain's end of empire, Benjamin Grob-Fitzgibbon rejects this consensus, showing instead that in the years 1945-1960 the British government developed a successful imperial strategy based on devolving power to indigenous peoples within the Commonwealth. This strategy was calculated to allow decolonization to occur on British terms rather than those of the indigenous populations, and to thus keep these soon-to-be former colonies within the British and Western spheres of influence during the Cold War. To achieve this new form of informal liberal imperialism, however, the government had to rely upon the use of illiberal dirty wars. Spanning the globe from Palestine to Malaya, Kenya to Cyprus, these dirty wars represented Britain's true imperial endgame.
Britain's Dirty Wars and the End of Empire
Author: Benjamin Grob-Fitzgibbon
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Britain's Struggle for Power and Influence in South Asia 1942-1950.
Author: Rolf Tanner
Category: Southeast Asia
This book provides an important study of a short-lived government making foreign policy in the shadow of an impending general election. It considers Britain's relations with the United States, Africa, Asia and the Middle East.
Britain, the United States and the End of Empire
Author: A. Holt
This updated Seminar Study provides an overview of the process of British decolonisation. The eclipse of the British Empire has been one of the central features of post-war international history. At the end of the Second World War the empire still spanned the globe and yet by the mid-1960s most of Britain’s major dependencies had achieved independence. Concisely and accessibly, the book introduces students to this often dramatic story of colonial wars and emergencies, and fraught international relations. Although a relatively recent phenomenon, the end of the British Empire continues to spawn a lively and voluminous historical debate. Dr. White provides a synthesis of recent approaches, specially updated and expanded for this edition, by looking at the demise of British imperial power from three main perspectives the shifting emphases of British overseas policy the rise of populist, anti-colonial nationalism the international political, strategic, and economic environment dominated by the USA and the USSR. The book also examines the British experience within the context of European decolonisation as a whole. Supporting the text are a range of useful tools, including maps, a chronology of independence, a guide to the main characters involved, and an extensive bibliography (specially expanded for the new edition. Decolonisation: the British Experience since 1945 is ideal for students and interested readers at all levels, providing a diverse range of primary sources and the tools to unlock them.
The British Experience since 1945
Author: Nicholas White
The twentieth century in Europe witnessed some of the most brutish episodes in history. Yet it also saw incontestable improvements in the conditions of existence for most inhabitants of the continent - from rising living standards and dramatically increased life expectancy, to the virtual elimination of illiteracy, and the advance of women, ethnic minorities, and homosexuals to greater equality of respect and opportunity. It was a century of barbarism and civilization, of cruelty and tenderness, of technological achievement and environmental spoliation, of imperial expansion and withdrawal, of authoritarian repression - and of individualism resurgent. Covering everything from war and politics to social, cultural, and economic change, Barbarism and Civilization is by turns grim, humorous, surprising, and enlightening: a window on the century we have left behind and the earliest years of its troubled successor.
A History of Europe in our Time
Author: Bernard Wasserstein
Publisher: OUP Oxford
In Migrant Modernism, J. Dillon Brown examines the intersection between British literary modernism and the foundational West Indian novels that emerged in London after World War II. By emphasizing the location in which anglophone Caribbean writers such as George Lamming, V. S. Naipaul, and Samuel Selvon produced and published their work, Brown reveals a dynamic convergence between modernism and postcolonial literature that has often been ignored. Modernist techniques not only provided a way for these writers to mark their difference from the aggressively English, literalist aesthetic that dominated postwar literature in London but also served as a self-critical medium through which to treat themes of nationalism, cultural inheritance, and identity.
Postwar London and the West Indian Novel
Author: J. Dillon Brown
Publisher: University of Virginia Press
Category: Literary Criticism
The decline of British power in Asia, from a high point in 1905, when Britain’s ally Japan vanquished the Russian Empire, apparently reducing the perceived threat that Russia posed to its influence in India and China, to the end of the twentieth century, when British power had dwindled to virtually nothing, is one of the most important themes in understanding the modern history of East and Southeast Asia. This book considers a range of issues that illustrate the significance and influence of the British Empire in Asia and the nature of Britain’s imperial decline. Subjects covered include the challenges posed by Germany and Japan during the First World War, British efforts at international co-operation in the interwar period, the British relationship with Korea and Japan in the wake of the Second World War, and the complicated path of decolonisation in Southeast Asia and Hong Kong.
Author: Antony Best
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Social Science
A comprehensive introduction to the history of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Topics covered include the spread of literacy, the development of transport and the evolution of country houses. Illustrated throughout, this volume includes a range of colour maps. Previous ed.: published as The Penguin atlas of British & Irish history. 2001.
Author: Barry W. Cunliffe
Publisher: Penguin Global
The British Empire, wrote Adam Smith, 'has hitherto been not an empire, but the project of an empire' and John Darwin offers a magisterial global history of the rise and fall of that great imperial project. The British Empire, he argues, was much more than a group of colonies ruled over by a scattering of British expatriates until eventual independence. It was, above all, a global phenomenon. Its power derived rather less from the assertion of imperial authority than from the fusing together of three different kinds of empire: the settler empire of the 'white dominions'; the commercial empire of the City of London; and 'Greater India' which contributed markets, manpower and military muscle. This unprecedented history charts how this intricate imperial web was first strengthened, then weakened and finally severed on the rollercoaster of global economic, political and geostrategic upheaval on which it rode from beginning to end.
The Rise and Fall of the British World-System, 1830–1970
Author: John Darwin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Within twenty years of victory in the Second World War Britain had ceased to be a world power and her global empire has dissolved into fragments. With what now seems astonishing rapidity, and empire three centuries old, which had reached its greatest extent as late as 1921, was transformed into more than fifty sovereign states. Why did this great transformation come about? Had Britain simply become too weak in a world of superpowers? Had the pressure of colonial nationalism suddenly become overwhelming? Or had the British themselves decided that they no longer needed an empire, and that interests were better served by joining the rich man's club of Europe? In this short book, these and other theories are examined critically. The aim is not to present a detailed narrative of Britain's imperial retreat but to introduce the reader to the current state of debate in a rapidly expanding subject.
The Historical Debate
Author: John Darwin
citizenship and national identity in Britain, 1930-1960
Author: Richard Weight,Abigail Beach
Author: Robert Roswell Palmer,Joel Colton
Publisher: Knopf Publishing Group
Category: History, Modern
A comprehensive analysis of Britain's changing position in the world during the twentieth century, perfect for undergraduates.
Author: Michael J. Turner
Publisher: Continuum Intl Pub Group
Category: Social movements
Author: Tony Judt
Category: Europa - Geschichte 1945-2005
Britische Aussenpolitik zwischen "Grösse" und "Selbstbehauptung", 1850-1990
Author: Ursula Lehmkuhl
Category: Great Britain
How has the world changed in the last century?As we look bacl across a hundred years of turbulence, Clive Ponting provides a major reassessment of what the twentieth century has meant to people throughout the world. Progress and Barbarism analyses the fundamental forces of population, industry and their consequences for the enviro-ment. It traces the rise and fall of empires, the impact of nationalism examines domestic politics from all political perspectives, and con-siders the darker side of history in the growing repressive power of states across the world and the most terrible of twentieth-century crimes-genocide. Progress and Barbarism is a provocative and challenging interpretation of twentieth-century history, combining a global sweep and an eye for detail and individual experiences.
The World in the Twentieth Century
Author: Clive Ponting
Category: History, Modern