In the 25 years after 1945 Britain's worldwide empire fell to piece and Britain ceased to be a great power. Britain abandoned her Indian Empire, gave up her rule over the African and Asian Colonies, surrendered her premier position in the Middle East and withdrew from almost all the bases - like Aden and Singapore - which had once been the 'tollgates and barbicans of empire'. At the same time, she gave up the long tradition of aloofness from Europe and entered the EEC. How did these vast changes in Britain's world position come about? Was Britain driven into imperial retreat by the main force of Afro-Asian nationalism and superpower pressure? Were the colonial transfers of power a noble and timely recognition or the political maturity of the colonial peoples, as Harold Macmillan once claimed? Or had Britain weighed the costs and benefits of empire in an age of rapid economic and international change, and decided that the colonial game was not worth the financial candle? If so, how are the apparent contradictions in British policy to be explained - the dangerous adventure at Suez, the extensive commitments East of Suez not terminated until 1971 and the Falklands war? How far indeed were the British able to control events in their colonial territories? And why did some colonies become independent so much earlier than others? This book describes the aims and policies which the British tried to pursue in their last imperial age and examines the conflicting explanations put forward for Britain's part in decolonisation - that great reordering of world politics that has taken place since 1945.
The Retreat from Empire in the Post-War World
Author: John Darwin
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Category: Great Britain
Within twenty years of victory in the Second World War Britain had ceased to be a world power and her global empire has dissolved into fragments. With what now seems astonishing rapidity, and empire three centuries old, which had reached its greatest extent as late as 1921, was transformed into more than fifty sovereign states. Why did this great transformation come about? Had Britain simply become too weak in a world of superpowers? Had the pressure of colonial nationalism suddenly become overwhelming? Or had the British themselves decided that they no longer needed an empire, and that interests were better served by joining the rich man's club of Europe? In this short book, these and other theories are examined critically. The aim is not to present a detailed narrative of Britain's imperial retreat but to introduce the reader to the current state of debate in a rapidly expanding subject.
The Historical Debate
Author: John Darwin
The decline of British power in Asia, from a high point in 1905, when Britain’s ally Japan vanquished the Russian Empire, apparently reducing the perceived threat that Russia posed to its influence in India and China, to the end of the twentieth century, when British power had dwindled to virtually nothing, is one of the most important themes in understanding the modern history of East and Southeast Asia. This book considers a range of issues that illustrate the significance and influence of the British Empire in Asia and the nature of Britain’s imperial decline. Subjects covered include the challenges posed by Germany and Japan during the First World War, British efforts at international co-operation in the interwar period, the British relationship with Korea and Japan in the wake of the Second World War, and the complicated path of decolonisation in Southeast Asia and Hong Kong.
Author: Antony Best
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Social Science
Enoch Powell's explosive rhetoric against black immigration and anti-discrimination law transformed the terrain of British race politics and cast a long shadow over British society. Using extensive archival research, Camilla Schofield offers a radical reappraisal of Powell's political career and insists that his historical significance is inseparable from the political generation he sought to represent. Enoch Powell and the Making of Postcolonial Britain follows Powell's trajectory from an officer in the British Raj to the centre of British politics and, finally, to his turn to Ulster Unionism. She argues that Powell and the mass movement against 'New Commonwealth' immigration that he inspired shed light on Britain's war generation, popular understandings of the welfare state and the significance of memories of war and empire in the making of postcolonial Britain. Through Powell, Schofield illuminates the complex relationship between British social democracy, racism and the politics of imperial decline in Britain.
Author: Camilla Schofield
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Scientific and Cultural Development
Author: Sarvepalli Gopal
Britain's Struggle for Power and Influence in South Asia 1942-1950.
Author: Rolf Tanner
Category: Southeast Asia
The story of the British Empire in the twentieth century is one of decline, disarray, and despondency. Or so we have been told. In this fresh and controversial account of Britain's end of empire, Benjamin Grob-Fitzgibbon rejects this consensus, showing instead that in the years 1945-1960 the British government developed a successful imperial strategy based on devolving power to indigenous peoples within the Commonwealth. This strategy was calculated to allow decolonization to occur on British terms rather than those of the indigenous populations, and to thus keep these soon-to-be former colonies within the British and Western spheres of influence during the Cold War. To achieve this new form of informal liberal imperialism, however, the government had to rely upon the use of illiberal dirty wars. Spanning the globe from Palestine to Malaya, Kenya to Cyprus, these dirty wars represented Britain's true imperial endgame.
Britain's Dirty Wars and the End of Empire
Author: Benjamin Grob-Fitzgibbon
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Frantz Fanon was one of the twentieth century’s most important theorists of revolution, colonialism, and racial difference, and this, his masterwork, is a classic alongside Orientalism and The Autobiography of Malcolm X. The Wretched of the Earth is a brilliant analysis of the psychology of the colonized and their path to liberation. Bearing singular insight into the rage of colonized peoples and the role of violence in historical change, the book also incisively attacks postindependence disenfranchisement of the masses by the elite on one hand, and intertribal and interfaith animosities on the other. A veritable handbook of social reorganization for leaders of emerging nations, The Wretched of the Earth has had a major impact on civil rights, anticolonialism, and black-consciousness movements around the world. This new translation updates its language for a new generation of readers and its lessons are more vital now than ever.
Author: Frantz Fanon
Publisher: Grove/Atlantic, Inc.
Category: Political Science
This updated Seminar Study provides an overview of the process of British decolonisation. The eclipse of the British Empire has been one of the central features of post-war international history. At the end of the Second World War the empire still spanned the globe and yet by the mid-1960s most of Britain’s major dependencies had achieved independence. Concisely and accessibly, the book introduces students to this often dramatic story of colonial wars and emergencies, and fraught international relations. Although a relatively recent phenomenon, the end of the British Empire continues to spawn a lively and voluminous historical debate. Dr. White provides a synthesis of recent approaches, specially updated and expanded for this edition, by looking at the demise of British imperial power from three main perspectives the shifting emphases of British overseas policy the rise of populist, anti-colonial nationalism the international political, strategic, and economic environment dominated by the USA and the USSR. The book also examines the British experience within the context of European decolonisation as a whole. Supporting the text are a range of useful tools, including maps, a chronology of independence, a guide to the main characters involved, and an extensive bibliography (specially expanded for the new edition. Decolonisation: the British Experience since 1945 is ideal for students and interested readers at all levels, providing a diverse range of primary sources and the tools to unlock them.
The British Experience since 1945
Author: Nicholas White
The British Empire, wrote Adam Smith, 'has hitherto been not an empire, but the project of an empire' and John Darwin offers a magisterial global history of the rise and fall of that great imperial project. The British Empire, he argues, was much more than a group of colonies ruled over by a scattering of British expatriates until eventual independence. It was, above all, a global phenomenon. Its power derived rather less from the assertion of imperial authority than from the fusing together of three different kinds of empire: the settler empire of the 'white dominions'; the commercial empire of the City of London; and 'Greater India' which contributed markets, manpower and military muscle. This unprecedented history charts how this intricate imperial web was first strengthened, then weakened and finally severed on the rollercoaster of global economic, political and geostrategic upheaval on which it rode from beginning to end.
The Rise and Fall of the British World-System, 1830–1970
Author: John Darwin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Spencer Mawby offers a fresh perspective on the current literature and historiographical debates surrounding the end of the British Empire. Adopting a thematic approach, Mawby analyses the nature of anti-colonialism, domestic arguments regarding the empire, security and intelligence, relations between capital and labour and the movement of people.
Decolonisation After the First World War
Author: Spencer Mawby
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
A comprehensive introduction to the history of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Topics covered include the spread of literacy, the development of transport and the evolution of country houses. Illustrated throughout, this volume includes a range of colour maps. Previous ed.: published as The Penguin atlas of British & Irish history. 2001.
Author: Barry W. Cunliffe
Publisher: Penguin Global
The Afterlife of Empire is an award-winning investigation on how decolonization transformed British society in the 1950s and 1960s. Although usually charted through its diplomatic details, the collapse of the British empire was also a deeply personal process that altered everyday life, restructuring routines, individual relationships, and social interactions. The book traces a set of diverse yet interrelated and richly compelling stories: West Indian migrants repatriated for mental illness, young Britons volunteering in the former colonies, overseas students seeking higher education, polygamous husbands and wives facing invalidation of their marriages, West African children raised by white, working-class British families, and Irish deportees suspected of terrorism. Postwar welfare–from mental health to child care–was never simply a British story, but was shaped by global forces, from the experiences and expectations of individual migrants to the emergence of new legal regimes in Africa and Asia. The book thus recasts the genealogy and geography of welfare by charting its unseen dependence on the end of empire. Using a wealth of recently declassified files from the National Archives, oral histories, court cases, press reports, social science writings, and photographs, Jordanna Bailkin illuminates the relationship between the postwar and the postimperial. The Afterlife of Empire is the winner of several notable prizes including The Morris D. Forkosch Prize from the American Historical Association, the Stansky Book Prize from the North American Conference on British Studies, and the 2013 Biennial Book Prize from the Pacific Conference on British Studies.
Author: Jordanna Bailkin
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Almost fifty years after Britain and France left the Middle East, the toxic legacies of their rule continue to fester. To make sense of today’s conflicts and crises, we need to grasp how Western imperialism shaped the region and its destiny in the half-century between 1917 and 1967. Roger Hardy unearths an imperial history stretching from North Africa to southern Arabia that sowed the seeds of future conflict and poisoned relations between the Middle East and the West. Drawing on a rich cast of eye-witnesses — ranging from nationalists and colonial administrators to soldiers, spies, and courtesans — The Poisoned Well brings to life the making of the modern Middle East, highlighting the great dramas of decolonisation such as the end of the Palestine mandate, the Suez crisis, the Algerian war of independence, and the retreat from Aden. Concise and beautifully written, The Poisoned Well offers a thought-provoking and insightful story of the colonial legacy in the Middle East.
Empire and its Legacy in the Middle East
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Looking at decolonization in the conditional tense, this volume teases out the complex and uncertain ends of British and French empire in Africa during the period of ‘late colonial shift’ after 1945. Rather than view decolonization as an inevitable process, the contributors together explore the crucial historical moments in which change was negotiated, compromises were made, and debates were staged. Three core themes guide the analysis: development, contingency and entanglement. The chapters consider the ways in which decolonization was governed and moderated by concerns about development and profit. A complementary focus on contingency allows deeper consideration of how colonial powers planned for ‘colonial futures’, and how divergent voices greeted the end of empire. Thinking about entanglements likewise stresses both the connections that existed between the British and French empires in Africa, and those that endured beyond the formal transfer of power. Praise for Britain, France and the Decolonization of Africa '…this ambitious volume represents a significant step forward for the field. As is often the case with rich and stimulating work, the volume gestures towards more themes than I have space to properly address in this review. These include shifting terrains of temporality, spatial Scales, and state sovereignty, which together raise important questions about the relationship between decolonization and globalization. By bringing all of these crucial issues into the same frame,Britain, France and the Decolonization of Africa is sure to inspire new thought-provoking research.' - H-France vol. 17, issue 205
Author: Andrew W.M. Smith,Chris Jeppesen
Publisher: UCL Press
DIVHistory of the relationship between government regulation of the film industry in the UK and the the developing film industry in India between the 1920s and 1940s./div
A Politics of Transition in Britain and India
Author: Priya Jaikumar
Publisher: Duke University Press