Biogeochemistry

An Analysis of Global Change

Author: William H. Schlesinger

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323138705

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 2562

Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change deals with changes in the biogeochemistry of the Earth's surface. The book covers the basics about the effect of life on the chemistry of the Earth, with emphasis on the microbial and chemical reactions that occur on land, in the sea, and in the atmosphere. Computer models are used to help understand elemental cycling and ecosystem function. This book is divided into two sections and comprised of 14 chapters. The discussion begins with an overview of the chemical processes controlling the environment in which we live. A simple model for the biogeochemistry of the Earth's surface is described. The chapters that follow examine models that astrophysicists suggest for the origin of chemical elements, as well as models for the formation of the solar system and the planets. The biogeochemical reactions in the atmosphere, lithosphere, and terrestrial biosphere are also described, along with rock weathering on land and the processes that drive the weathering reactions. The reader is introduced to biogeochemical cycling on land; biogeochemistry in freshwater wetlands and lakes, rivers and estuaries, and the sea; and the global water, carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles. The book concludes with the argument that human population growth is the basis of every major environmental issue facing the world today. This book is intended as a textbook for college-level and graduate students who are interested in global change.

Biogeochemistry

An Analysis of Global Change

Author: William H. Schlesinger,Emily S. Bernhardt

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123858747

Category: Nature

Page: 672

View: 9881

"Biogeochemistry considers how the basic chemical conditions of the Earth-from atmosphere to soil to seawater-have been and are being affected by the existence of life. Human activities in particular, from the rapid consumption of resources to the destruction of the rainforests and the expansion of smog-covered cities, are leading to rapid changes in the basic chemistry of the Earth. This expansive text pulls together the numerous fields of study encompassed by biogeochemistry to analyze the increasing demands of the growing human population on limited resources and the resulting changes in the planet's chemical makeup. The book helps students extrapolate small-scale examples to the global level, and also discusses the instrumentation being used by NASA and its role in studies of global change. With extensive cross-referencing of chapters, figures and tables, and an interdisciplinary coverage of the topic at hand, this updated edition provides an excellent framework for courses examining global change and environmental chemistry, and is also a useful self-study guide."--Publisher's website.

Biogeochemistry, An Analysis of Global Change

Earth sciences, Earth sciences

Author: CTI Reviews

Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews

ISBN: 1478448954

Category: Education

Page: 194

View: 8387

Facts101 is your complete guide to Biogeochemistry, An Analysis of Global Change. In this book, you will learn topics such as The Atmosphere, The Lithosphere, The Biosphere: The Carbon Cycle of Terrestrial Ecosystems, and The Biosphere: Biogeochemical Cycling on Land plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science

Author: Kathleen C. Weathers,David L. Strayer,Gene E. Likens

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080916805

Category: Nature

Page: 326

View: 4944

Ecosystem science has developed into a major part of contemporary ecology, and it is now applied to diagnose and solve a wide range of important environmental problems. Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science provides a compact and comprehensive introduction to modern ecosystem science. Written by a group of experts, this book covers major concepts of ecosystem science, biogeochemistry, and energetics. Addresses, contrasts, and compares both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems Combines general lessons, concepts, frameworks, and challenges in highly accessible synthesis chapters Presents firsthand case studies, written by leaders in the field, offering personal insights into how adopting an ecosystem approach led to innovations, new understanding, management changes, and policy solutions

Fundamentals of Geobiology

Author: Andrew H. Knoll,Professor Don E. Canfield,Kurt O. Konhauser

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118280881

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 1933

2012 PROSE Award, Earth Science: Honorable Mention For more than fifty years scientists have been concerned with the interrelationships of Earth and life. Over the past decade, however, geobiology, the name given to this interdisciplinary endeavour, has emerged as an exciting and rapidly expanding field, fuelled by advances in molecular phylogeny, a new microbial ecology made possible by the molecular revolution, increasingly sophisticated new techniques for imaging and determining chemical compositions of solids on nanometer scales, the development of non-traditional stable isotope analyses, Earth systems science and Earth system history, and accelerating exploration of other planets within and beyond our solar system. Geobiology has many faces: there is the microbial weathering of minerals, bacterial and skeletal biomineralization, the roles of autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms in elemental cycling, the redox history in the oceans and its relationship to evolution and the origin of life itself.. This book is the first to set out a coherent set of principles that underpin geobiology, and will act as a foundational text that will speed the dissemination of those principles. The chapters have been carefully chosen to provide intellectually rich but concise summaries of key topics, and each has been written by one or more of the leading scientists in that field.. Fundamentals of Geobiology is aimed at advanced undergraduates and graduates in the Earth and biological sciences, and to the growing number of scientists worldwide who have an interest in this burgeoning new discipline. Additional resources for this book can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/knoll/geobiology.

Ecological Stoichiometry

The Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Biosphere

Author: Robert W. Sterner,James J. Elser

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400885698

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 3263

All life is chemical. That fact underpins the developing field of ecological stoichiometry, the study of the balance of chemical elements in ecological interactions. This long-awaited book brings this field into its own as a unifying force in ecology and evolution. Synthesizing a wide range of knowledge, Robert Sterner and Jim Elser show how an understanding of the biochemical deployment of elements in organisms from microbes to metazoa provides the key to making sense of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. After summarizing the chemistry of elements and their relative abundance in Earth's environment, the authors proceed along a line of increasing complexity and scale from molecules to cells, individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. The book examines fundamental chemical constraints on ecological phenomena such as competition, herbivory, symbiosis, energy flow in food webs, and organic matter sequestration. In accessible prose and with clear mathematical models, the authors show how ecological stoichiometry can illuminate diverse fields of study, from metabolism to global change. Set to be a classic in the field, Ecological Stoichiometry is an indispensable resource for researchers, instructors, and students of ecology, evolution, physiology, and biogeochemistry. From the foreword by Peter Vitousek: "[T]his book represents a significant milestone in the history of ecology. . . . Love it or argue with it--and I do both--most ecologists will be influenced by the framework developed in this book. . . . There are points to question here, and many more to test . . . And if we are both lucky and good, this questioning and testing will advance our field beyond the level achieved in this book. I can't wait to get on with it."

Forest Ecosystems

Analysis at Multiple Scales

Author: Richard H. Waring,Steven W. Running

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080546087

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 440

View: 6806

This revision maintains the position of Forest Ecosystems as the one source for the latest information on the advanced methods that have enhanced our understating of forest ecosystems. Further understanding is given to techniques to explore the changes in climatic cycles, the implications of wide-scale pollution, fire and other ecological disturbances that have a global effect. The inclusion of models, equations, graphs, and tabular examples provides readers with a full understanding of the methods and techniques. Includes a revised section on important advances in regional scale analyses Features an update to global scale analyses including revised color images Provides a detailed comparison of predicted vs. observed tree diversity across 65 eco-regions

Bacterial Biogeochemistry

The Ecophysiology of Mineral Cycling

Author: Tom Fenchel,Henry Blackburn,Thomas Henry Blackburn,Gary M. King

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124158366

Category: Science

Page: 303

View: 3144

Bacterial Biogeochemistry, Third Edition focuses on bacterial metabolism and its relevance to the environment, including the decomposition of soil, food chains, nitrogen fixation, assimilation and reduction of carbon nitrogen and sulfur, and microbial symbiosis. The scope of the new edition has broadened to provide a historical perspective and covers in greater depth topics such as bioenergetic processes, characteristics of microbial communities, spatial heterogeneity, transport mechanisms, microbial biofilms, extreme environments and evolution of biogeochemical cycles. Covers interactions between microbial processes, atmospheric composition and the earth's greenhouse properties. Completely rewritten to incorporate all the advances and discoveries of the last 20 years such as applications in the exploration for ore deposits and oil and in remediation of environmental pollution.

Coastal Wetlands

An Integrated Ecosystem Approach

Author: Gerardo M.E. Perillo,Eric Wolanski,Donald R. Cahoon,Mark M. Brinson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080932132

Category: Science

Page: 974

View: 5110

Coastal wetlands are under a great deal of pressure from the dual forces of rising sea level and the intervention of human populations both along the estuary and in the river catchment. Direct impacts include the destruction or degradation of wetlands from land reclamation and infrastructures. Indirect impacts derive from the discharge of pollutants, changes in river flows and sediment supplies, land clearing, and dam operations. As sea level rises, coastal wetlands in most areas of the world migrate landward to occupy former uplands. The competition of these lands from human development is intensifying, making the landward migration impossible in many cases. This book provides an understanding of the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the ecological services that they provide, and suggestions for their management. In this book a CD is included containing color figures of wetlands and estuaries in different parts of the world. * Includes a CD containing color figures of wetlands and estuaries in different parts of the world.

Microbial Ecology of the Oceans

Author: Josep M. Gasol,David L. Kirchman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119107202

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 4123

The newly revised and updated third edition of the bestselling book on microbial ecology in the oceans The third edition of Microbial Ecology of the Oceans features new topics, as well as different approaches to subjects dealt with in previous editions. The book starts out with a general introduction to the changes in the field, as well as looking at the prospects for the coming years. Chapters cover ecology, diversity, and function of microbes, and of microbial genes in the ocean. The biology and ecology of some model organisms, and how we can model the whole of the marine microbes, are dealt with, and some of the trophic roles that have changed in the last years are discussed. Finally, the role of microbes in the oceanic P cycle are presented. Microbial Ecology of the Oceans, Third Edition offers chapters on The Evolution of Microbial Ecology of the Ocean; Marine Microbial Diversity as Seen by High Throughput Sequencing; Ecological Significance of Microbial Trophic Mixing in the Oligotrophic Ocean; Metatranscritomics and Metaproteomics; Advances in Microbial Ecology from Model Marine Bacteria; Marine Microbes and Nonliving Organic Matter; Microbial Ecology and Biogeochemistry of Oxygen-Deficient Water Columns; The Ocean’s Microscale; Ecological Genomics of Marine Viruses; Microbial Physiological Ecology of The Marine Phosphorus Cycle; Phytoplankton Functional Types; and more. A new and updated edition of a key book in aquatic microbial ecology Includes widely used methodological approaches Fully describes the structure of the microbial ecosystem, discussing in particular the sources of carbon for microbial growth Offers theoretical interpretations of subtropical plankton biogeography Microbial Ecology of the Oceans is an ideal text for advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and colleagues from other fields wishing to learn about microbes and the processes they mediate in marine systems.

Fungal Biology

Author: J. W. Deacon

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118685075

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 5712

Visit the accompanying website from the author at www.blackwellpublishing.com/deacon. Fungal Biology is the fully updated new edition of this undergraduate text, covering all major areas of fungal biology and providing insights into many topical areas. Provides insights into many topical areas such as fungal ultrastructure and the mechanisms of fungal growth, important fungal metabolites and the molecular techniques used to study fungal populations. Focuses on the interactions of fungi that form the basis for developing biological control agents, with several commercial examples of the control of insect pests and plant diseases. Emphasises the functional biology of fungi, with examples from recent research. Includes a clear illustrative account of the features and significance of the main fungal groups.

Methods in Stream Ecology

Volume 1: Ecosystem Structure

Author: F. Richard Hauer,Gary A. Lamberti

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124165788

Category: Science

Page: 506

View: 1068

Methods in Stream Ecology provides a complete series of field and laboratory protocols in stream ecology that are ideal for teaching or conducting research. This two part new edition is updated to reflect recent advances in the technology associated with ecological assessment of streams, including remote sensing. Volume focusses on ecosystem structure with in-depth sections on Physical Processes, Material Storage and Transport and Stream Biota. With a student-friendly price, this Third Edition is key for all students and researchers in stream and freshwater ecology, freshwater biology, marine ecology, and river ecology. This text is also supportive as a supplementary text for courses in watershed ecology/science, hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and landscape ecology. Provides a variety of exercises in each chapter Includes detailed instructions, illustrations, formulae, and data sheets for in-field research for students Presents taxonomic keys to common stream invertebrates and algae Includes website with tables and a link from Chapter 22: FISH COMMUNITY COMPOSITION to an interactive program for assessing and modeling fish numbers Written by leading experts in stream ecology

Geochemistry

Author: William M. White

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118485270

Category: Science

Page: 672

View: 1970

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of geochemistry. The book first lays out the ‘geochemical toolbox’: the basic principles and techniques of modern geochemistry, beginning with a review of thermodynamics and kinetics as they apply to the Earth and its environs. These basic concepts are then applied to understanding processes in aqueous systems and the behavior of trace elements in magmatic systems. Subsequent chapters introduce radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry and illustrate their application to such diverse topics as determining geologic time, ancient climates, and the diets of prehistoric peoples. The focus then broadens to the formation of the solar system, the Earth, and the elements themselves. Then the composition of the Earth itself becomes the topic, examining the composition of the core, the mantle, and the crust and exploring how this structure originated. A final chapter covers organic chemistry, including the origin of fossil fuels and the carbon cycle’s role in controlling Earth’s climate, both in the geologic past and the rapidly changing present. Geochemistry is essential reading for all earth science students, as well as for researchers and applied scientists who require an introduction to the essential theory of geochemistry, and a survey of its applications in the earth and environmental sciences. Additional resources can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/white/geochemistry

Environmental Microbiology

Author: Ian L. Pepper,Charles P. Gerba,Terry J. Gentry

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0123948177

Category: Science

Page: 728

View: 933

Designed for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and environmental professionals, this book builds upon the tremendous success of the previous editions with a comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of environmental microbiology as a discipline that has greatly expanded in scope and interest over the past several decades. From terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to urban and indoor environments, this edition relates environmental microbiology to a variety of life science, ecology, and environmental science topics including biogeochemical cycling, bioremediation, environmental transmission of pathogens, microbial risk assessment, and drinking water treatment and reuse. The final chapter highlights several emerging issues including microbial remediation of marine oil spills, microbial contributions to global warming, impact of climate change on microbial infectious disease, and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. New chapters on: Microbial Diversity and Interactions in Natural Ecosystems (previous chapter on bacterial diversity expanded to include microbial ecology and interactions) Bioinformation and ‘Omic’ Approaches for Characterization of Environmental Microorganisms Microbial Source Tracking Land Application of Organic Residuals: Municipal Biosolids and Animal Manures Recycled Water Treatment and Reuse Global Emerging Microbial Issues in the Anthropocene Era Updates to Other Chapters: Cultural Methods: new cutting-edge approaches for isolating difficult-to-culture microorganisms Nucleic Acid-Based Methods: new text and graphics for a variety of methods including microarrays, quantitative PCR, and metagenomics Aquatic Environments: completely revised chapter Microorganisms and Metal Pollutants: new material on metal speciation and bioremediation Microorganisms and Organic Pollutants: updated discussion on anaerobic degradation of halogenated compounds and bioaugmentation-based remediation of contaminated groundwater Microbial Communication: new sections on bacterial communication with eukaryotic hosts New graphics, case studies, and information boxes throughout More Features: Introductory chapters provide foundational background in microbiology, microbial environments, and methodologies Presents state-of-the-art research results with key, recent references to document information Emphasizes critical information using "Information Boxes" throughout Includes real-world case studies to illustrate concepts, along with frequent use of graphics, cartoons and photographs Offers questions at the end of each chapter designed to test key concepts Lecture slides available for instructors online

Manual of Environmental Microbiology

Author: Christon J. Hurst,Ronald L. Crawford,Jay L. Garland,David A. Lipson

Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Press

ISBN: 1555813798

Category: Science

Page: 1293

View: 5543

The most definitive manual of microbes in air, water, and soil and their impact on human health and welfare. • Incorporates a summary of the latest methodology used to study the activity and fate of microorganisms in various environments. • Synthesizes the latest information on the assessment of microbial presence and microbial activity in natural and artificial environments. • Features a section on biotransformation and biodegradation. • Serves as an indispensable reference for environmental microbiologists, microbial ecologists, and environmental engineers, as well as those interested in human diseases, water and wastewater treatment, and biotechnology.

Soil and Water Chemistry

An Integrative Approach, Second Edition

Author: Michael E. Essington

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466573236

Category: Science

Page: 656

View: 2779

The second edition of a bestseller, Soil and Water Chemistry: An Integrative Approach maintains the balanced perspective that made the first edition a hugely popular textbook. The second edition includes new figures and tables, new chapters, and expanded exercises in each chapter. It covers topics including soil chemical environment, soil minerals, soil organic matter, cation exchange, oxidation-reduction, mineral weathering and solubility, surface chemistry and adsorption reactions, acidity and salinity in soil materials, and chemical thermodynamics applied to soil systems. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Extensive section that details the sources, speciation, and the general behavior of elements in soils Expanded section on crystal structure, updated phyllosillcates classifications scheme, inclusion of sepiolite-palygorskite group, and expanded x-ray diffraction section Discussion of surface runoff losses of phosphorus from soil and description of the inductivity coupled argon plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analytical technique for determining elemental concentrations in soil solution Coverage of the influence of redox processes on the soil chemistry of nonelectroactive elements Description of the electrokinetic phenomenon and investigation of the influence of temperature on adsorption Expanded discussion on the application of chemical thermodynamics to soil systems A solutions manual is available upon qualifying course adoption. Still one of the only texts on this subject, this book provides a comprehensive, modern, and balanced coverage of the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of soils and their chemical processes. It contains more information and topic coverage than required for an average, single-semester course. This extensive coverage is by design, giving you the latitude to pick your own essential topics while providing additional information or a more advanced treatment when needed. Figures and tables make the information accessible and each problem has been tested and is relevant and doable, but asks more of students than to simply generate a number. This format allows students to understand the concepts and recognize that their computations have physical meaning.

Ocean Acidification:

A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean

Author: Committee on the Development of an Integrated Science Strategy for Ocean Acidification Monitoring, Research, and Impacts Assessment,Ocean Studies Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030915359X

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 9738

The ocean has absorbed a significant portion of all human-made carbon dioxide emissions. This benefits human society by moderating the rate of climate change, but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry. Carbon dioxide taken up by the ocean decreases the pH of the water and leads to a suite of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification. The long term consequences of ocean acidification are not known, but are expected to result in changes to many ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean reviews the current state of knowledge, explores gaps in understanding, and identifies several key findings. Like climate change, ocean acidification is a growing global problem that will intensify with continued CO2 emissions and has the potential to change marine ecosystems and affect benefits to society. The federal government has taken positive initial steps by developing a national ocean acidification program, but more information is needed to fully understand and address the threat that ocean acidification may pose to marine ecosystems and the services they provide. In addition, a global observation network of chemical and biological sensors is needed to monitor changes in ocean conditions attributable to acidification.

Soil Microbiology, Ecology and Biochemistry

Author: Eldor A. Paul

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080475140

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 9281

Now in its third edition, this classic textbook includes basic concepts and applications in agriculture, forestry, environmental science, and a new section entirely devoted to ecology. This revised and updated edition guides students through biochemical and microbial processes in soils and introduces them to microbial processes in water and sediments. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry serves as an invaluable resource for students in biogeochemistry, soil microbiology, soil ecology, sustainable agriculture, and environmental amelioration. NEW TO THIS EDITION: * New section on Ecology integrated with biochemistry and microbiology * Sections on exciting new methodology such as tracers, molecular analysis and computers that will allow great advances in this field * Six new chapters: bioremediation, soil molecular biology, biodiversity, global climate change, basic physiology and ecological interpretations * Expanded with contributions from leading soil microbiologists and agronomists on both fundamental and applied aspects of the science * Full-color figures * Includes a website with figures for classroom presentation use

Encyclopedia of Toxicology

Author: Bruce Anderson,Ann de Peyster,Shayne C. Gad,P.J. Bert Hakkinen,Michael Kamrin,Betty Locey,Harihara M. Mehendale,Carey Pope,Lee Shugart

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080548008

Category: Medical

Page: 2000

View: 872

The second edition of the Encyclopedia of Toxicology continues its comprehensive survey of toxicology. This new edition continues to present entries devoted to key concepts and specific chemicals. There has been an increase in entries devoted to international organizations and well-known toxic-related incidents such as Love Canal and Chernobyl. Along with the traditional scientifically based entries, new articles focus on the societal implications of toxicological knowledge including environmental crimes, chemical and biological warfare in ancient times, and a history of the U.S. environmental movement. With more than 1150 entries, this second edition has been expanded in length, breadth and depth, and provides an extensive overview of the many facets of toxicology. Also available online via ScienceDirect – featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com. *Second edition has been expanded to 4 volumes *Encyclopedic A-Z arrangement of chemicals and all core areas of the science of toxicology *Covers related areas such as organizations, toxic accidents, historical and social issues, and laws *New topics covered include computational toxicology, cancer potency factors, chemical accidents, non-lethal chemical weapons, drugs of abuse, and consumer products and many more!