Beyond Freedom and Dignity

Author: Burrhus Frederic Skinner

Publisher: Hackett Publishing Company Incorporated

ISBN: 9780872206274

Category: Philosophy

Page: 234

View: 9103

The classic work by behaviorist B.F. Skinner offers his analysis of how a "technology of behavior" can condition human responses to the environment.

Beyond Freedom and Dignity

Author: B. F. Skinner

Publisher: Hackett Publishing

ISBN: 1603840818

Category: Psychology

Page: 240

View: 717

In this profound and profoundly controversial work, a landmark of 20th-century thought originally published in 1971, B. F. Skinner makes his definitive statement about humankind and society. Insisting that the problems of the world today can be solved only by dealing much more effectively with human behavior, Skinner argues that our traditional concepts of freedom and dignity must be sharply revised. They have played an important historical role in our struggle against many kinds of tyranny, he acknowledges, but they are now responsible for the futile defense of a presumed free and autonomous individual; they are perpetuating our use of punishment and blocking the development of more effective cultural practices. Basing his arguments on the massive results of the experimental analysis of behavior he pioneered, Skinner rejects traditional explanations of behavior in terms of states of mind, feelings, and other mental attributes in favor of explanations to be sought in the interaction between genetic endowment and personal history. He argues that instead of promoting freedom and dignity as personal attributes, we should direct our attention to the physical and social environments in which people live. It is the environment rather than humankind itself that must be changed if the traditional goals of the struggle for freedom and dignity are to be reached. Beyond Freedom and Dignity urges us to reexamine the ideals we have taken for granted and to consider the possibility of a radically behaviorist approach to human problems--one that has appeared to some incompatible with those ideals, but which envisions the building of a world in which humankind can attain its greatest possible achievements.

Beyond Freedom and Dignity

Author: Burrhus Frederic Skinner

Publisher: Hackett Publishing

ISBN: 9781603844161

Category: Behaviorism (Psychology)

Page: 240

View: 3057

In this profound and profoundly controversial work, a landmark of 20th-century thought originally published in 1971, B. F. Skinner makes his definitive statement about humankind and society. Insisting that the problems of the world today can be solved only by dealing much more effectively with human behavior, Skinner argues that our traditional concepts of freedom and dignity must be sharply revised. They have played an important historical role in our struggle against many kinds of tyranny, he acknowledges, but they are now responsible for the futile defense of a presumed free and autonomous individual; they are perpetuating our use of punishment and blocking the development of more effective cultural practices. Basing his arguments on the massive results of the experimental analysis of behavior he pioneered, Skinner rejects traditional explanations of behavior in terms of states of mind, feelings, and other mental attributes in favor of explanations to be sought in the interaction between genetic endowment and personal history. He argues that instead of promoting freedom and dignity as personal attributes, we should direct our attention to the physical and social environments in which people live. It is the environment rather than humankind itself that must be changed if the traditional goals of the struggle for freedom and dignity are to be reached. Beyond Freedom and Dignity urges us to reexamine the ideals we have taken for granted and to consider the possibility of a radically behaviorist approach to human problems--one that has appeared to some incompatible with those ideals, but which envisions the building of a world in which humankind can attain its greatest possible achievements.

Walden Two

Author: Burrhus Frederic Skinner

Publisher: Hackett Publishing Company Incorporated

ISBN: 9780872207790

Category: Psychology

Page: 301

View: 8553

A reprint of the 1976 Macmillan edition. This fictional outline of a modern utopia has been a center of controversy ever since its publication in 1948. Set in the United States, it pictures a society in which human problems are solved by a scientific technology of human conduct.

The Science of Behavior and the Image of Man

Author: Carl von Clausewitz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135147460X

Category: Psychology

Page: 357

View: 2437

Does a proper respect for science require psychologists to view man as an impotent reactor whose responses are completely determined by his physical constitution and the forces impinging upon him? In this wise and well-argued book, Isidor Chein invites his readers to lift their eyes from experimental research for a time to consider the relationship between science and the image of man.Few psychologists, even the most gifted and dedicated among them, pause to consider the philosophical underpinnings of their work. It is almost as though the humanist secretly lurking in each of them is fearful of the bad news he might finally be forced to accept--that man is essentially an exquisitely complicated robot. This fear is misplaced and harmful. It is largely responsible for the disturbing fact that scientific psychology has produced, in Chein's estimate, so little that is relevant to the humanities, so little, as he puts it, "that has lived up to psychology's promise to itself."What must be more widely understood is that it does not follow that behavioral law is reducible to physiological law, or that physiological law is reducible to physical law. With an uncompromising commitment to scientific method, Chein shows that, when closely analyzed, there is actually no need to assume an unbridgeable gap between scientific psychology and psychoanalytic, humanistic psychology. This is a lucid and powerful theoretical work of importance for scholars in all fields sharing the belief that the proper study of mankind is man."The Science of Behavior and the Image of Man is written by the most intellectually stimulating and respected representative of scientific humanistic psychology."--Robert B. Holt, Professor of Psychology, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, New York University

About Behaviorism

Author: B.F. Skinner

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307797848

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

View: 9211

The basic book about the controversial philosophy known as behaviorism, written by its leading exponent. Bibliography, index.

Behavior Analysis and Learning

Sixth Edition

Author: W. David Pierce,Carl D. Cheney

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 135177980X

Category: Psychology

Page: 638

View: 8089

Using a consistent Skinnerian perspective, Behavior Analysis and Learning: A Biobehavioral Approach, Sixth Edition provides an advanced introduction to the principles of behavior analysis and learned behaviors, covering a full range of principles from basic respondent and operant conditioning through applied behavior analysis into cultural design. The textbook uses Darwinian, neurophysiological, and biological theories and research to inform B. F. Skinner’s philosophy of radical behaviorism. The sixth edition expands focus on neurophysiological mechanisms and their relation to the experimental analysis of behavior, providing updated studies and references to reflect current expansions and changes in the field of behavior analysis. By bringing together ideas from behavior analysis, neuroscience, and epigenetics under a selectionist framework, this textbook facilitates understanding of behavior at environmental, genetic, and neurophysiological levels. This "grand synthesis" of behavior, neuroscience, and neurobiology roots behavior firmly in biology. The book includes special sections, "New Directions," "Focus On," "Note On," "On the Applied Side," and "Advanced Section," which enhance student learning and provide greater insight on specific topics. This book is a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in psychology or other behavior-based disciplines, especially behavioral neuroscience. For additional resources to use alongside the textbook, consult the Companion Website at www.routledge.com/cw/pierce.

Verbal Behavior

Author: B. F. Skinner

Publisher: B. F. Skinner Foundation

ISBN: 0989983900

Category: Psychology

Page: 1025

View: 9700

In 1934, at the age of 30, B. F. Skinner found himself at a dinner sitting next to Professor Alfred North Whitehead. Never one to lose an opportunity to promote behaviorism, Skinner expounded its main tenets to the distinguished philosopher. Whitehead acknowledged that science might account for most of human behavior but he would not include verbal behavior. He ended the discussion with a challenge: "Let me see you," he said, "account for my behavior as I sit here saying, 'No black scorpion is falling upon this table.'" The next morning Skinner began this book. It took him over twenty years to complete. This book extends the laboratory-based principles of selection by consequences to account for what people say, write, gesture, and think. Skinner argues that verbal behavior requires a separate analysis because it does not operate on the environment directly, but rather through the behavior of other people in a verbal community. He illustrates his thesis with examples from literature, the arts, and sciences, as well as from his own verbal behavior and that of his colleagues and children. Perhaps it is because this theoretical work provides a way to approach that most human of human behavior that Skinner ofter called Verbal Behavior his most important work.

Upon further reflection

Author: Burhues F. Skinner

Publisher: Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 214

View: 9096

This book deals with global issues concerning ecology and world government. It moves from the very general to the very specific.

Beyond the Box

B.F. Skinner's Technology of Behaviour from Laboratory to Life, 1950s-1970s

Author: Alexandra Rutherford

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442692502

Category: Medical

Page: 224

View: 2853

B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) is one of the most famous and influential figures in twentieth century psychology. A best-selling author, inventor, and social commentator, Skinner was both a renowned scientist and a public intellectual known for his controversial theories of human behavior. Beyond the Box is the first full-length study of the ways in which Skinner's ideas left the laboratory to become part of the post-war public's everyday lives, and chronicles both the enthusiasm and caution with which this process was received. Using selected case studies, Alexandra Rutherford provides a fascinating account of Skinner and his acolytes' attempts to weave their technology of human behavior into the politically turbulent fabric of 1950s-70s American life. To detail their innovative methods, Rutherford uses extensive archival materials and interviews to study the Skinnerians' creation of human behavior laboratories, management programs for juvenile delinquents, psychiatric wards, and prisons, as well as their influence on the self-help industry with popular books on how to quit smoking, lose weight, and be more assertive. A remarkable look at a post-war scientific and technological revolution, Beyond the Box is a rewarding study of how behavioral theories met real-life problems, and the ways in which Skinner and his followers continue to influence the present.

Enjoy Old Age

A Practical Guide

Author: Burrhus Frederic Skinner,Margaret E. Vaughan

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393316513

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 157

View: 7952

An eminent psychologist and a gerontologist explain how to cope with the problems of aging and how to get the most out of one's later years

God, Freedom and Human Dignity

Embracing a God-Centered Identity in a Me-Centered Culture

Author: Ron Highfield

Publisher: InterVarsity Press

ISBN: 9780830864508

Category: Religion

Page: 227

View: 771

Does God's all-encompassing will restrict our freedom? Does God's ownership and mastery over us diminish our dignity? The fear that God is a threat to our freedom and dignity goes far back in Western thought. Such suspicion remains with us today in our so-called secular society. In such a context any talk of God tends to provoke responses that range from defiance to subservience to indifference. How did Western culture come to this place? What impact does this social and intellectual environment have on those who claim to believe in God or more specifically in the Christian God of the Bible? Professor of religion Ron Highfield traces out the development of Western thought that has led us our current frame of mind from Plato, Augustine and Descartes through Locke, Kant, Blake Bentham, Hegel, Nietzsche--all the way down to Charles Taylor's landmark work Sources of the Self. At the heart of the issue is the modern notion of the autonomous self and the inevitable crisis it provokes for a view of human identity, freedom and dignity found in God. Can the modern self really secure its own freedom, dignity and happiness? What alternative do we have? Highfield makes pertinent use of trinitarian theology to show how genuine Christian faith responds to this challenge by directing us to a God who is not in competition with his human creations, but rather who provides us with what we seek but could never give ourselves. God, Freedom and Human Dignity is essential reading for Christian students who are interested in the debates around secularism, modernity and identity formation.

Pleasure, Reward, Preference

Their Nature, Determinants, and Role in Behavior

Author: D. E. Berlyne,K. B. Madsen

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483273725

Category: Psychology

Page: 332

View: 826

Pleasure, Reward, Preference: Their Nature, Determinants, and Role in Behavior covers the proceedings of a symposium by the same title, held at the Klarskovgaard Training Institute, near Korsør, Denmark, on June 5-9 1972, organized under the auspices of the Advisory Group on Human Factors of the Scientific Affairs Division of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This book is composed of 11 chapters, and starts with a historical perspective and review of the principal problems related to understanding the principles of pleasure, reward, and preference. The next chapters explore neurophysiological research with animals and the human cognitive phenomena. These topics are followed by discussions of the concept of exploratory choice, verbal judgment, the law of effects and an adaptation-level model for affectivity and perception. The concluding chapters provide examples of behavioristic theories and describe a process model of motivation to understand the complexity of cognition and predictability of behavior. These chapters also tackle the role of pleasure and reward in human motivation and learning, as well as present a metascientific frame of motivation. This text will prove useful to psychologists, behaviorist, and researchers.

The Nurture Effect

How the Science of Human Behavior Can Improve Our Lives and Our World

Author: Anthony Biglan

Publisher: New Harbinger Publications

ISBN: 160882957X

Category: Psychology

Page: 248

View: 1876

A fascinating look at the evolution of behavioral science, the revolutionary way it’s changing the way we live, and how nurturing environments can increase people’s well-being in virtually every aspect of our society, from early childhood education to corporate practices. If you want to know how you can help create a better world, read this book. What if there were a way to prevent criminal behavior, mental illness, drug abuse, poverty, and violence? Written by behavioral scientist Tony Biglan, and based on his ongoing research at the Oregon Research Institute, The Nurture Effect offers evidence-based interventions that can prevent many of the psychological and behavioral problems that plague our society. For decades, behavioral scientists have investigated the role our environment plays in shaping who we are, and their research shows that we now have the power within our own hands to reduce violence, improve cognitive development in our children, increase levels of education and income, and even prevent future criminal behaviors. By cultivating a positive environment in all aspects of society—from the home, to the classroom, and beyond—we can ensure that young people arrive at adulthood with the skills, interests, assets, and habits needed to live healthy, happy, and productive lives. The Nurture Effect details over forty years of research in the behavioral sciences, as well as the author’s own research. Biglan illustrates how his findings lay the framework for a model of societal change that has the potential to reverberate through all environments within society.

The Technology of Teaching

Author: B. F. Skinner

Publisher: B. F. Skinner Foundation

ISBN: 099645392X

Category: Education

Page: 271

View: 7308

On Parent's Day, in 1952, B. F. Skinner visited his daughter's fourth grade math class. As he watched the lesson, he became increasingly uncomfortable. Almost every principle of effective teaching that he had studied for more than 20 years was being violated in that classroom. Yet it was a typical class. The teacher showed how to solve the day's problems, then gave the students a worksheet to do. Some children began to work readily while others shifted uncomfortably in their chairs, or raised their hands for help. The teacher went from desk to desk, giving help and feedback. Skinner knew what was needed. Each student should be given a problem tailored precisely to his or her skill level, not to the class average, and every answer needed to be assessed immediately to determine the next step. The task was clearly impossible for one teacher. That afternoon, Skinner set to work on a teaching machine. Today's computers have made the mechanical machine obsolete, but the principles of how to design instruction in steps that lead from a basic level to competent performance are as valid today as they were in the 20th century. This book brings together Skinner's writings on education during the years he was most involved in improving education.