Atmospheric Processes and Systems presents a concise introduction to the atmosphere and the fundamentals of weather. Examining different aspects of the mass, energy and circulation systems in the atmosphere, this text provides detailed accounts of specific phenomena, including * the composition and structure of the atmosphere * energy transfers * the cycle of atmospheric water in terms of evaporation, condensation and precipitation * pressure and winds at the primary or global scale * secondary air masses and fronts * thermal differences and weather disturbances. The text includes sixteen boxed case studies, annotated further reading lists and a glossary of key terms.
Author: Russell D. Thompson
Fundamentals of the Physical Environment has established itself as a well-respected core introductory book for students of physical geography and the environmental sciences. Taking a systems approach, it demonstrates how the various factors operating at Earth’s surface can and do interact, and how landscape can be used to decipher them. The nature of the earth, its atmosphere and its oceans, the main processes of geomorphology and key elements of ecosystems are also all explained. The final section on specific environments usefully sets in context the physical processes and human impacts. This fourth edition has been extensively revised to incorporate current thinking and knowledge and includes: a new section on the history and study of physical geography an updated and strengthened chapter on climate change (9) and a strengthened section on the work of the wind a revised chapter (15) on crysosphere systems - glaciers, ice and permafrost a new chapter (23) on the principles of environmental reconstruction a new joint chapter (24) on polar and alpine environments a key new joint chapter (28) on current environmental change and future environments new material on the Earth System and cycling of carbon and nutrients themed boxes highlighting processes, systems, applications, new developments and human impacts a support website at www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415395168 with discussion and essay questions, chapter summaries and extended case studies. Clearly written, well-structured and with over 450 informative colour diagrams and 150 colour photographs, this text provides students with the necessary grounding in fundamental processes whilst linking these to their impact on human society and their application to the science of the environment.
Author: Peter Smithson,Ken Addison,Ken Atkinson
From clear explanations of basic physical and chemical principles of the atmosphere to descriptions of regional climates and their changes, this popular text presents a comprehensive coverage of global climatology.
Author: Roger Graham Barry,Richard J. Chorley
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Democracy and Climate Change explores the various ways in which democratic principles can lead governments to respond differently to climate change. The election cycle can lead to short-termism, which often appears to be at odds with the long-term nature of climate change, with its latency between cause and effect. However, it is clear that some democracies deal with climate change better than others, and this book demonstrates that overall stronger democratic qualities tend to correlate with improved climate performance. Beginning by outlining a general concept of democratic efficacy, the book provides an empirical analysis of the influence of the quality of democracy on climate change performance across dozens of countries. The specific case study of Canada’s Kyoto Protocol process is then used to explain the mechanisms of democratic influence in depth. The wide-ranging research presented in the book opens up several new and exciting avenues of enquiry and will be of considerable interest to researchers with an interest in comparative politics, democracy studies and environmental policies.
Author: Frederic Hanusch
Category: Political Science
This text examines how businesses and the environment interact. It is ideal for students with no previous knowledge of business studies. It examines in depth the ways in which business, industry, the physical environment, environmentalism and social change have evolved alongside each other. The authors use boxed case-studies to highlight how business practice and the environment interact at levels from local to global, with examples from multinational companies, government bodies, national charities and local enterprise. The book also contains a large number of informative diagrams. The case studies include: * Shell Oil's environmental policy * railways and the industrial revolution * the British National Trust's business enterprises * Sainsbury's approach to organic foods * Australia's landcare scheme * changing trends in retailing * Brent Spar * big game hunting and conservation.
Author: Alasdair Blair,David Hitchcock
Category: Business & Economics
For the first time at the beginning of the twenty-first century, urban dwellers outnumber rural residents and this trend is set to continue. Consequently one of the most pressing issues of our time is how to square the social and economic development of cities with their environmental limits and those of the wider environment. The theme of the environment and city is topical at every level, from the politics of global trade to local community networks. Environment and the City looks at the evolution of cities in the developed and the developing world and the implications for resource consumption and environmental impacts. It takes a cross-cutting approach with new thinking on multiple geographies – the configuration of networks, exclusion, consumption, risk and ecological footprint. Urban environmental themes and their related social, economic and political agendas are outlined. In turn the environmental impacts and environmental agendas relating to key sectors of the urban economy are discussed. The global context to such issues is then explored before the practical tools and methods of urban environmental management are investigated. The theme of the sustainable city emerges from this – not so much as a standard menu, but as a learning process between all sections of society. This book, a valuable resource, provides a concise, accessible route map for all students interested in the environmental issues emanating from our urban society. Written to aid student understanding, the easily navigable text features boxed practical examples, discussion points, signposts to reading and websites, and a glossary.
Author: Joe Ravetz,Clive George,Joe Howe,Peter W. Roberts
Category: Political Science
The term Anthropocene denotes a new geological epoch characterized by the unprecedented impact of human activities on the Earth’s ecosystems. While the natural sciences have advanced their understanding of the drivers and processes of global change considerably over the last two decades, the social sciences lag behind in addressing the fundamental challenge of governance and politics in the Anthropocene. This book attempts to close this crucial research gap, in particular with regards to the following three overarching research themes: (i) the meaning, sense-making and contestations emerging around the concept of the Anthropocene related to the social sciences; (ii) the role and relevance of institutions, both formal and informal as well as international and transnational, for governing in the Anthropocene; and (iii) the role and relevance of accountability and other democratic principles for governing in the Anthropocene. Drawing together a range of key thinkers in the field, this volume provides one of the first authoritative assessments of global environmental politics and governance in the Anthropocene, reflecting on how the planetary scale crisis changes the ways in which humans respond to the challenge. This volume will be of great interest to students and scholars of global environmental politics and governance, and sustainable development.
Institutions and legitimacy in a complex world
Author: Philipp Pattberg,Fariborz Zelli
Category: Business & Economics
Biochar is the carbon-rich product which occurs when biomass (such as wood, manure or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its persistence in soil and nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with potentially major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process. The first edition of this book, published in 2009, was the definitive work reviewing the expanding research literature on this topic. Since then, the rate of research activity has increased at least ten-fold, and biochar products are now commercially available as soil amendments. This second edition includes not only substantially updated chapters, but also additional chapters: on environmental risk assessment; on new uses of biochar in composting and potting mixes; a new and controversial field of studying the effects of biochar on soil carbon cycles; on traditional use with very recent discoveries that biochar was used not only in the Amazon but also in Africa and Asia; on changes in water availability and soil water dynamics; and on sustainability and certification. The book therefore continues to represent the most comprehensive compilation of current knowledge on all aspects of biochar.
Science, Technology and Implementation
Author: Johannes Lehmann,Stephen Joseph
Category: Business & Economics
Natural Hazards: Earth Processes as Hazards, Disasters and Catastrophes, Fourth Edition, is an introductory-level survey intended for university and college courses that are concerned with earth processes that have direct, and often sudden and violent, impacts on human society. The text integrates principles of geology, hydrology, meteorology, climatology, oceanography, soil science, ecology and solar system astronomy. The book is designed for a course in natural hazards for non-science majors, and a primary goal of the text is to assist instructors in guiding students who may have little background in science to understand physical earth processes as natural hazards and their consequences to society. Natural Hazards uses historical to recent examples of hazards and disasters to explore how and why they happen and what we can do to limit their effects. The text's up-to-date coverage of recent disasters brings a fresh perspective to the material. The Fourth Edition continues our new active learning approach that includes reinforcement of learning objective with a fully updated visual program and pedagogical tools that highlight fundamental concepts of the text. This program will provide an interactive and engaging learning experience for your students. Here's how: Provide a balanced approach to the study of natural hazards: Focus on the basic earth science of hazards as well as roles of human processes and effects on our planet in a broader, more balanced approach to the study of natural hazards. Enhance understanding and comprehension of natural hazards: Newly revised stories and case studies give students a behind the scenes glimpse into how hazards are evaluated from a scientific and human perspective; the stories of real people who survive natural hazards, and the lives and research of professionals who have contributed significantly to the research of hazardous events. Strong pedagogical tools reinforce the text's core features: Chapter structure and design organizes the material into three major sections to help students learn, digest, and review learning objectives.
Earth's Processes as Hazards, Disasters, and Catastrophes
Author: Edward A. Keller,Duane E. DeVecchio
Global energy problems will remain a challenge in the coming decades. The impact of climate change and the melting of polar sea ice opening up access to offshore hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic Ocean, raises questions for both civil society and the scientific community over drilling opportunities in Arctic marine areas. Disparities in approach to the governance of oil and gas extraction in the Arctic arise from fundamental differences in histories, cultures, domestic constraints and substantive values and attitudes in the Arctic coastal states and sub-states. Differing political systems, legal traditions and societal beliefs with regard to energy security and economic development, environmental protection, legitimacy of decision making, and the ownership and respect of the rights of indigenous people, all affect how governance systems of oil and gas extraction are designed. Using a multidisciplinary approach and case studies from the USA, Norway, Russia, Canada, Greenland/Denmark and the EU, this book both examines the current governance of extraction and its effects and considers ways to enhance the efficiency of environmental management and public participation in this system.
Author: Cécile Pelaudeix,Ellen Margrethe Basse
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Political Science
Addressing the persistent environmental threat of organic chemicals with a fresh approach to degradation and transformation processes, Organic Chemicals in the Environment: Mechanisms of Degradation and Transformation, Second Edition examines a wide range of compounds as well as abiotic and microbiological reactions mediated by microorganisms. The book emphasizes the pathways used and the broad classes of enzymes involved. It provides an overview of experimental procedures with detailed coverage of the organic compounds that are considered to be xenobiotics. The book begins by providing a broad perspective on abiotic and biotic reactions, including the significance of a range of environmental determinants. The following chapters briefly introduce experimental procedures and emphasize those procedures for establishing the structure of metabolites using isotopes and physical methods. Next, the authors outline details of biochemical reactions involved in the biodegradation of the major groups of aliphatic, carbocyclic aromatic, and heterocyclic compounds. They end with coverage of bioremediation that has attracted increasing concern because of the hazard presented by the disposal of unwanted chemicals or by-products from their manufacture. Broad and comprehensive, this book provides a cohesive treatment of the subject. It contains an extensive set of literature references and numerous illustrative figures. The authors use a mechanistic approach with emphasis on the pathways, and the principles that emerge provide a guide not only for specific compounds but also for those having a more remote structural resemblance.
Mechanisms of Degradation and Transformation, Second Edition
Author: Alasdair H. Neilson,Ann-Sofie Allard
Publisher: CRC Press
The green economy is widely seen as a potential solution to current global economic and environmental crises, and a potential mechanism by which sustainable development might be achieved in practice. Considerable investments are now being made into the development of green technology, renewable energy, biodiversity conservation, resource efficiency, recycling of materials and green infrastructure. This textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the green economy, using a strongly interdisciplinary approach based on environmental science, rather than treating it as a sub-set of economics. The scientific principles of sustainability are presented, which provide the foundations of the green economy, with a particular focus on systems-based approaches. Examples of real-world case studies are used to illustrate how the green economy can be achieved in practice. In this way, the authors provide a thorough overview of both the principles and practice of the green economy, drawing from a wide range of disciplines including ecology, geography, social science, psychology, sustainability science, environmental science, law and economics. The emphasis is on presenting results of the latest research, derived from leading scientific journals. Rather than focusing on a single definition of what constitutes a ‘green economy’, the book introduces readers to the diversity of opinion that exists, and engages them in what is an active, on-going debate. This reflects the fact that many aspects of the green economy, and sustainable development more generally, are currently contested. In particular, the book will help readers to strengthen their ability to critically evaluate the evidence for and against the views presented, and to actively contribute to the future development of the green economy.
Science, Systems and Sustainability
Author: Adrian C. Newton,Elena Cantarello
Internal auditing is an essential tool for managing compliance, and for initiating and driving continual improvement in any organization’s systematic HSEQ performance. Health and Safety, Environment and Quality Audits includes the latest health and safety, environmental and quality management system standards – ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 45001. It delivers a powerful and proven approach to risk-based auditing of business-critical risk areas using ISO, or your own management systems. It connects the ‘PDCA’ approach to implementing management systems with auditing by focusing on the organization’s context and the needs and expectations of interested parties. The novel approach leads HSEQ practitioners and senior and line managers alike to concentrate on the most significant risks to their objectives, and provides a step-by-step route through The Audit AdventureTM to provide a high-level, future-focused audit opinion. The whole approach is aligned to the international standard guidance for auditing management systems (ISO 19011). This unique guide to HSEQ and operations integrity auditing has become the standard work in the field over three editions whilst securing bestseller status in Australasia, Europe, North America and South Africa. It is essential reading for senior managers and auditors alike – it remains the ‘go to’ title for those who aspire to drive a prosperous and thriving business based on world-class HSEQ management and performance.
A Risk-based Approach
Author: Stephen Asbury
Category: Technology & Engineering
China has achieved rapid economic growth since the market-oriented reform in 1978 and became the second largest economy in the world in 2010. However, the growth model in China is still extensive in nature and may be characterized with high energy consumption and heavy environmental pollutions etc. In fact, China has successively become the largest carbon emitter since 2007 and the largest energy consumer since 2009 in the world. This book endeavors to analyze whether such energy driven and environment restricted economic growth can be sustainable in China in the long run. The book describes the basic situations of energy consumption and environmental pollution in China from the dimensions of industries, regions and energy-types. It also introduces the evolution of energy and environmental policies implemented in China. In particular, this book makes use of the environmental activity analysis model to assess the sustainable transformation of economic model in Chinese industries and regions. This model captures the negative externalities of pollutants and estimates the environmental total factor productivity accurately. The possibilities of win-win development and double dividend are also forecasted. This book proposes new methods to measure the environmental total factor productivity, evaluate the process of low carbon transformation, quantify the structural bonus, estimate the abating cost and forecast the win-win development and so on. Researchers may find these methodologies useful for measuring other pollutants and for analysis in other countries.
Author: Shiyi Chen
Category: Business & Economics
Originally published in 1986 as Basic meteorology: a physical outline.
Author: Robin McIlveen
Publisher: Oxford University Press