Atmospheric Processes and Systems

Author: Russell D. Thompson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134695071

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 532

Atmospheric Processes and Systems presents a concise introduction to the atmosphere and the fundamentals of weather. Examining different aspects of the mass, energy and circulation systems in the atmosphere, this text provides detailed accounts of specific phenomena, including * the composition and structure of the atmosphere * energy transfers * the cycle of atmospheric water in terms of evaporation, condensation and precipitation * pressure and winds at the primary or global scale * secondary air masses and fronts * thermal differences and weather disturbances. The text includes sixteen boxed case studies, annotated further reading lists and a glossary of key terms.

Fundamentals of the Physical Environment

Fourth Edition

Author: Peter Smithson,Ken Addison,Ken Atkinson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135090106

Category: Science

Page: 776

View: 684

Fundamentals of the Physical Environment has established itself as a well-respected core introductory book for students of physical geography and the environmental sciences. Taking a systems approach, it demonstrates how the various factors operating at Earth’s surface can and do interact, and how landscape can be used to decipher them. The nature of the earth, its atmosphere and its oceans, the main processes of geomorphology and key elements of ecosystems are also all explained. The final section on specific environments usefully sets in context the physical processes and human impacts. This fourth edition has been extensively revised to incorporate current thinking and knowledge and includes: a new section on the history and study of physical geography an updated and strengthened chapter on climate change (9) and a strengthened section on the work of the wind a revised chapter (15) on crysosphere systems - glaciers, ice and permafrost a new chapter (23) on the principles of environmental reconstruction a new joint chapter (24) on polar and alpine environments a key new joint chapter (28) on current environmental change and future environments new material on the Earth System and cycling of carbon and nutrients themed boxes highlighting processes, systems, applications, new developments and human impacts a support website at www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415395168 with discussion and essay questions, chapter summaries and extended case studies. Clearly written, well-structured and with over 450 informative colour diagrams and 150 colour photographs, this text provides students with the necessary grounding in fundamental processes whilst linking these to their impact on human society and their application to the science of the environment.

Coastal Systems

Author: Simon Haslett

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134069332

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 1208

The coast represents the crossroads between the oceans, land and atmosphere, and all three contribute to the physical and ecological evolution of coastlines. Coasts are dynamic systems, with identifiable inputs and outputs of energy and material. Changes to input force coasts to respond, often in dramatic ways as attested by the impacts of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, the landfall of Hurricane Katrina along the Gulf Coast of the USA in 2005, and the steady rise of global warming driven sea-level. More than half the world’s human population lives at the coast, and here people often come into conflict with natural coastal processes. Research continues to unravel the relationship between coastal processes and society, so that we may better appreciate, understand, manage and live safely within this unique global environment. Coastal Systems offers a concise introduction to the processes, landforms, ecosystems and management of this important global environment. New to the second edition is a greater emphasis on the role of high-energy events, such as storms and tsunamis, which have manifested themselves with catastrophic effects in recent years. There is also a new concluding chapter, and updated guides to the ever-growing coastal literature. Each chapter is illustrated and furnished with topical case studies from around the world. Introductory chapters establish the importance of coasts, and explain how they are studied within a systems framework. Subsequent chapters explore the role of waves, tides, rivers and sea-level change in coastal evolution. Students will benefit from summary points, themed boxes, engaging discussion questions and new graded annotated guides to further reading at the end of each chapter. Additionally, a comprehensive glossary of technical terms and an extensive bibliography are provided. The book is highly illustrated with diagrams and original plates. The comprehensive balance of illustrations and academic thought provides a well balanced view between the role of coastal catastrophes and gradual processes, also examining the impact humans and society have and continue to have on the coastal environment.

Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate

Author: Roger Graham Barry,Richard J. Chorley

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 0415465699

Category: Science

Page: 516

View: 8409

From clear explanations of basic physical and chemical principles of the atmosphere to descriptions of regional climates and their changes, this popular text presents a comprehensive coverage of global climatology.

Democracy and Climate Change

Author: Frederic Hanusch

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135185772X

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 4591

Democracy and Climate Change explores the various ways in which democratic principles can lead governments to respond differently to climate change. The election cycle can lead to short-termism, which often appears to be at odds with the long-term nature of climate change, with its latency between cause and effect. However, it is clear that some democracies deal with climate change better than others, and this book demonstrates that overall stronger democratic qualities tend to correlate with improved climate performance. Beginning by outlining a general concept of democratic efficacy, the book provides an empirical analysis of the influence of the quality of democracy on climate change performance across dozens of countries. The specific case study of Canada’s Kyoto Protocol process is then used to explain the mechanisms of democratic influence in depth. The wide-ranging research presented in the book opens up several new and exciting avenues of enquiry and will be of considerable interest to researchers with an interest in comparative politics, democracy studies and environmental policies.

Environment and Business

Author: Alasdair Blair,David Hitchcock

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134619464

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 6197

This text examines how businesses and the environment interact. It is ideal for students with no previous knowledge of business studies. It examines in depth the ways in which business, industry, the physical environment, environmentalism and social change have evolved alongside each other. The authors use boxed case-studies to highlight how business practice and the environment interact at levels from local to global, with examples from multinational companies, government bodies, national charities and local enterprise. The book also contains a large number of informative diagrams. The case studies include: * Shell Oil's environmental policy * railways and the industrial revolution * the British National Trust's business enterprises * Sainsbury's approach to organic foods * Australia's landcare scheme * changing trends in retailing * Brent Spar * big game hunting and conservation.

Environment and the City

Author: Joe Ravetz,Clive George,Joe Howe,Peter W. Roberts

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136978607

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 9048

For the first time at the beginning of the twenty-first century, urban dwellers outnumber rural residents and this trend is set to continue. Consequently one of the most pressing issues of our time is how to square the social and economic development of cities with their environmental limits and those of the wider environment. The theme of the environment and city is topical at every level, from the politics of global trade to local community networks. Environment and the City looks at the evolution of cities in the developed and the developing world and the implications for resource consumption and environmental impacts. It takes a cross-cutting approach with new thinking on multiple geographies – the configuration of networks, exclusion, consumption, risk and ecological footprint. Urban environmental themes and their related social, economic and political agendas are outlined. In turn the environmental impacts and environmental agendas relating to key sectors of the urban economy are discussed. The global context to such issues is then explored before the practical tools and methods of urban environmental management are investigated. The theme of the sustainable city emerges from this – not so much as a standard menu, but as a learning process between all sections of society. This book, a valuable resource, provides a concise, accessible route map for all students interested in the environmental issues emanating from our urban society. Written to aid student understanding, the easily navigable text features boxed practical examples, discussion points, signposts to reading and websites, and a glossary.

Environmental Politics and Governance in the Anthropocene

Institutions and legitimacy in a complex world

Author: Philipp Pattberg,Fariborz Zelli

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317449924

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 268

View: 1596

The term Anthropocene denotes a new geological epoch characterized by the unprecedented impact of human activities on the Earth’s ecosystems. While the natural sciences have advanced their understanding of the drivers and processes of global change considerably over the last two decades, the social sciences lag behind in addressing the fundamental challenge of governance and politics in the Anthropocene. This book attempts to close this crucial research gap, in particular with regards to the following three overarching research themes: (i) the meaning, sense-making and contestations emerging around the concept of the Anthropocene related to the social sciences; (ii) the role and relevance of institutions, both formal and informal as well as international and transnational, for governing in the Anthropocene; and (iii) the role and relevance of accountability and other democratic principles for governing in the Anthropocene. Drawing together a range of key thinkers in the field, this volume provides one of the first authoritative assessments of global environmental politics and governance in the Anthropocene, reflecting on how the planetary scale crisis changes the ways in which humans respond to the challenge. This volume will be of great interest to students and scholars of global environmental politics and governance, and sustainable development.

Biochar for Environmental Management

Science, Technology and Implementation

Author: Johannes Lehmann,Stephen Joseph

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134489536

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 944

View: 9630

Biochar is the carbon-rich product which occurs when biomass (such as wood, manure or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its persistence in soil and nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with potentially major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process. The first edition of this book, published in 2009, was the definitive work reviewing the expanding research literature on this topic. Since then, the rate of research activity has increased at least ten-fold, and biochar products are now commercially available as soil amendments. This second edition includes not only substantially updated chapters, but also additional chapters: on environmental risk assessment; on new uses of biochar in composting and potting mixes; a new and controversial field of studying the effects of biochar on soil carbon cycles; on traditional use with very recent discoveries that biochar was used not only in the Amazon but also in Africa and Asia; on changes in water availability and soil water dynamics; and on sustainability and certification. The book therefore continues to represent the most comprehensive compilation of current knowledge on all aspects of biochar.

Natural Hazards

Earth's Processes as Hazards, Disasters, and Catastrophes

Author: Edward A. Keller,Duane E. DeVecchio

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315508672

Category: Nature

Page: 574

View: 9360

Natural Hazards: Earth Processes as Hazards, Disasters and Catastrophes, Fourth Edition, is an introductory-level survey intended for university and college courses that are concerned with earth processes that have direct, and often sudden and violent, impacts on human society. The text integrates principles of geology, hydrology, meteorology, climatology, oceanography, soil science, ecology and solar system astronomy. The book is designed for a course in natural hazards for non-science majors, and a primary goal of the text is to assist instructors in guiding students who may have little background in science to understand physical earth processes as natural hazards and their consequences to society. Natural Hazards uses historical to recent examples of hazards and disasters to explore how and why they happen and what we can do to limit their effects. The text's up-to-date coverage of recent disasters brings a fresh perspective to the material. The Fourth Edition continues our new active learning approach that includes reinforcement of learning objective with a fully updated visual program and pedagogical tools that highlight fundamental concepts of the text. This program will provide an interactive and engaging learning experience for your students. Here's how: Provide a balanced approach to the study of natural hazards: Focus on the basic earth science of hazards as well as roles of human processes and effects on our planet in a broader, more balanced approach to the study of natural hazards. Enhance understanding and comprehension of natural hazards: Newly revised stories and case studies give students a behind the scenes glimpse into how hazards are evaluated from a scientific and human perspective; the stories of real people who survive natural hazards, and the lives and research of professionals who have contributed significantly to the research of hazardous events. Strong pedagogical tools reinforce the text's core features: Chapter structure and design organizes the material into three major sections to help students learn, digest, and review learning objectives.

Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas

Author: Cécile Pelaudeix,Ellen Margrethe Basse

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317125924

Category: Political Science

Page: 300

View: 3778

Global energy problems will remain a challenge in the coming decades. The impact of climate change and the melting of polar sea ice opening up access to offshore hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic Ocean, raises questions for both civil society and the scientific community over drilling opportunities in Arctic marine areas. Disparities in approach to the governance of oil and gas extraction in the Arctic arise from fundamental differences in histories, cultures, domestic constraints and substantive values and attitudes in the Arctic coastal states and sub-states. Differing political systems, legal traditions and societal beliefs with regard to energy security and economic development, environmental protection, legitimacy of decision making, and the ownership and respect of the rights of indigenous people, all affect how governance systems of oil and gas extraction are designed. Using a multidisciplinary approach and case studies from the USA, Norway, Russia, Canada, Greenland/Denmark and the EU, this book both examines the current governance of extraction and its effects and considers ways to enhance the efficiency of environmental management and public participation in this system.

Basics of Environmental Science

Author: Michael Allaby

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134616805

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 8341

The new edition of this popular student text offers an engaging introduction to environmental study. It covers the entire breadth of the environmental sciences, providing concise, non-technical explanations of physical processes and systems and the effects of human activities. In this second edition the scientific background to major environmental issues is clearly explained. These include: * global warming * genetically modified foods * desertification * acid rain * deforestation * human population growth * depleting resources * nuclear power generation * descriptions of the 10 major biomes. Special student text features include illustrations and explanatory diagrams, boxed case studies, concepts and definitions.

Organic Chemicals in the Environment

Mechanisms of Degradation and Transformation, Second Edition

Author: Alasdair H. Neilson,Ann-Sofie Allard

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439826382

Category: Science

Page: 1047

View: 9209

Addressing the persistent environmental threat of organic chemicals with a fresh approach to degradation and transformation processes, Organic Chemicals in the Environment: Mechanisms of Degradation and Transformation, Second Edition examines a wide range of compounds as well as abiotic and microbiological reactions mediated by microorganisms. The book emphasizes the pathways used and the broad classes of enzymes involved. It provides an overview of experimental procedures with detailed coverage of the organic compounds that are considered to be xenobiotics. The book begins by providing a broad perspective on abiotic and biotic reactions, including the significance of a range of environmental determinants. The following chapters briefly introduce experimental procedures and emphasize those procedures for establishing the structure of metabolites using isotopes and physical methods. Next, the authors outline details of biochemical reactions involved in the biodegradation of the major groups of aliphatic, carbocyclic aromatic, and heterocyclic compounds. They end with coverage of bioremediation that has attracted increasing concern because of the hazard presented by the disposal of unwanted chemicals or by-products from their manufacture. Broad and comprehensive, this book provides a cohesive treatment of the subject. It contains an extensive set of literature references and numerous illustrative figures. The authors use a mechanistic approach with emphasis on the pathways, and the principles that emerge provide a guide not only for specific compounds but also for those having a more remote structural resemblance.

An Introduction to the Green Economy

Science, Systems and Sustainability

Author: Adrian C. Newton,Elena Cantarello

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134654456

Category: Nature

Page: 382

View: 7044

The green economy is widely seen as a potential solution to current global economic and environmental crises, and a potential mechanism by which sustainable development might be achieved in practice. Considerable investments are now being made into the development of green technology, renewable energy, biodiversity conservation, resource efficiency, recycling of materials and green infrastructure. This textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the green economy, using a strongly interdisciplinary approach based on environmental science, rather than treating it as a sub-set of economics. The scientific principles of sustainability are presented, which provide the foundations of the green economy, with a particular focus on systems-based approaches. Examples of real-world case studies are used to illustrate how the green economy can be achieved in practice. In this way, the authors provide a thorough overview of both the principles and practice of the green economy, drawing from a wide range of disciplines including ecology, geography, social science, psychology, sustainability science, environmental science, law and economics. The emphasis is on presenting results of the latest research, derived from leading scientific journals. Rather than focusing on a single definition of what constitutes a ‘green economy’, the book introduces readers to the diversity of opinion that exists, and engages them in what is an active, on-going debate. This reflects the fact that many aspects of the green economy, and sustainable development more generally, are currently contested. In particular, the book will help readers to strengthen their ability to critically evaluate the evidence for and against the views presented, and to actively contribute to the future development of the green economy.

Health and Safety, Environment and Quality Audits

A Risk-based Approach

Author: Stephen Asbury

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351239325

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 368

View: 4386

Internal auditing is an essential tool for managing compliance, and for initiating and driving continual improvement in any organization’s systematic HSEQ performance. Health and Safety, Environment and Quality Audits includes the latest health and safety, environmental and quality management system standards – ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 45001. It delivers a powerful and proven approach to risk-based auditing of business-critical risk areas using ISO, or your own management systems. It connects the ‘PDCA’ approach to implementing management systems with auditing by focusing on the organization’s context and the needs and expectations of interested parties. The novel approach leads HSEQ practitioners and senior and line managers alike to concentrate on the most significant risks to their objectives, and provides a step-by-step route through The Audit AdventureTM to provide a high-level, future-focused audit opinion. The whole approach is aligned to the international standard guidance for auditing management systems (ISO 19011). This unique guide to HSEQ and operations integrity auditing has become the standard work in the field over three editions whilst securing bestseller status in Australasia, Europe, North America and South Africa. It is essential reading for senior managers and auditors alike – it remains the ‘go to’ title for those who aspire to drive a prosperous and thriving business based on world-class HSEQ management and performance.

Environment and Food

Author: Colin Sage

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134229011

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 2231

This timely book provides a thorough introduction to the inter-relationship of food and the environment. Its primary purpose is to bring to our attention the multiplicity of linkages and interconnections between what we eat and how this impacts on the earth’s resources. Having a better idea of the consequences of our food choices might encourage us to develop more sustainable practices of production and consumption in the decades ahead. Although human societies have, over time, brought under control a large proportion of the earth’s resources for the purpose of food production, we remain subject to the effective functioning of global ecosystem services. The author highlights the vital importance of these services and explains why we should be concerned about the depletion of freshwater resources, soil fertility decline and loss of biological diversity. The book also tackles some of the enormous challenges of our era: climate change – to which the agri-food system is both a major contributor and a vulnerable sector – and the prospect of significantly higher energy prices, arising from the peaking of oil and gas supplies which will reveal how dependent the food system has become upon cheap fossil fuels. Such challenges are likely to have significant implications for the long-term functioning of global supply chains and raise profound questions regarding the nutritional security of the world’s population. Taken together the book argues that a re-examination of the assumptions and practices underpinning the contemporary food system is urgently required. Environment and Food is a highly original, inter-disciplinary and accessible text that will be of interest to students and the wider public genuinely interested in and concerned by the state of the world’s food provisioning system. It is richly illustrated with figures and makes extensive use of boxes to highlight relevant examples.

Environment and Social Theory

Author: John Barry

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113418462X

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 5057

Written in an engaging and accessible manner by one of the leading scholars in his field, Environment and Social Theory, completed revised and updated with two new chapters, is an indispensable guide to the way in which the environment and social theory relate to one another. This popular text outlines the complex interlinking of the environment, nature and social theory from ancient and pre-modern thinking to contemporary social theorizing. John Barry: examines the ways major religions such as Judaeo-Christianity have and continue to conceptualize the environment analyzes the way the non-human environment features in Western thinking from Marx and Darwin, to Freud and Horkheimer explores the relationship between gender and the environment, postmodernism and risk society schools of thought, and the contemporary ideology of orthodox economic thinking in social theorising about the environment. How humans value, use and think about the environment, is an increasingly central and important aspect of recent social theory. It has become clear that the present generation is faced with a series of unique environmental dilemmas, largely unprecedented in human history. With summary points, illustrative examples, glossary and further reading sections this invaluable resource will benefit anyone with an interest in environmentalism, politics, sociology, geography, development studies and environmental and ecological economics.

Energy, Environment and Economic Transformation in China

Author: Shiyi Chen

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780415509534

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 248

View: 3444

China has achieved rapid economic growth since the market-oriented reform in 1978 and became the second largest economy in the world in 2010. However, the growth model in China is still extensive in nature and may be characterized with high energy consumption and heavy environmental pollutions etc. In fact, China has successively become the largest carbon emitter since 2007 and the largest energy consumer since 2009 in the world. This book endeavors to analyze whether such energy driven and environment restricted economic growth can be sustainable in China in the long run. The book describes the basic situations of energy consumption and environmental pollution in China from the dimensions of industries, regions and energy-types. It also introduces the evolution of energy and environmental policies implemented in China. In particular, this book makes use of the environmental activity analysis model to assess the sustainable transformation of economic model in Chinese industries and regions. This model captures the negative externalities of pollutants and estimates the environmental total factor productivity accurately. The possibilities of win-win development and double dividend are also forecasted. This book proposes new methods to measure the environmental total factor productivity, evaluate the process of low carbon transformation, quantify the structural bonus, estimate the abating cost and forecast the win-win development and so on. Researchers may find these methodologies useful for measuring other pollutants and for analysis in other countries.

Environment and Tourism

Author: Andrew Holden

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317664086

Category: Social Science

Page: 302

View: 2592

The global demand for tourism continues to increase as economic growth creates opportunities for its consumption as a lifestyle option across cultures. The spatial reach of recreational tourism into remoter environments reflects a desire to reconnect to nature that is partially created by the global trend toward urbanisation. At the same time, anthropogenic created environmental problems have led us to re-evaluate our relationship to nature and the values that are held by the environment. This third edition of Environment and Tourism incorporates additional material on environmental philosophies and ontologies of nature and how these influence our understanding of tourism’s relationship with the natural environment. In an epoch representing a critical juncture for the future well-being of the planet based on our relationship to nature, the text has been updated to reflect the growth in significance of the interaction between tourism and the natural environment as a part of this discourse. It communicates a range of key conceptual debates on the ethics and economics of the consuming nature for tourism and relates these to real world examples whilst evaluating environmental planning, and management responses. The book seeks to highlight the relevance of the significance of tourism for nature within the framework of society, as a system of inter-connected places across space and time, exploring the relationship of the environments of where tourists come from with the ones that they travel to. The updated features include: new chapters on philosophies and constructs of the environment, environmental ethics, and tourist consumption an extensive range of international case studies used to illustrate the theoretical ideas presented boxes offering bite sized insights, and think points designed to encourage students to further engage with the topics discussed Environment and Tourism emphasises a holistic view of the tourism system and how it interacts with nature, illustrating the positive and negative effects of this relationship. It emphasises how ontologies of the environment influence the planning and management of tourism for natural resource conservation and human development. It is an invaluable tool for anyone studying Human Geography, Tourism and Environmental Studies, as well as for policy makers and consultants working in the field of tourism development.