Artificial Structures and Shorelines

Author: H. Jesse Walker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400929994

Category: Science

Page: 716

View: 5268

This volume is the result of an initiative of the Commission on the Coastal Environment of the International Geographical Union. The initial concept from which the plan has proceeded was presented at the 24th International Geographical Congress in Japan in 1980. AUTHORSHIP AND COVERAGE All of the articles in this volume have been written by specialists familiar with the coastal segment discussed. Nearly all have been prepared by citizens of the country (and, for that matter, even each subregion) considered. In the case of exceptions (e.g. Suriname), the authors have conducted fieldwork on the coast of the country they treat. In order to preserve the "on-the-spot" integrity of the volume, it was decided not to fill in the blanks along the world's coastline with library researched chapters. Thus, coverage is variable. Nearly every coastal country in Europe is represented whereas for Africa and South America there are major gaps. In addition, there are 2 instances of overlap. In the case of England (with a shoreline of nearly 3,000 km) a complementary chapter on Lincolnshire (with a shoreline of only 155 km) is included. The other case is the general article on the Baltic Coast of the USSR which is supported by chapters on Estonia and Lithuania.

Engineered Coasts

Author: Jiyu Chen,Doeke Eisma,Kenji Hotta,H. Jesse Walker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401700990

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 827

Increasing population, expanding industry and commerce, and tourism are placing added pressures on an already highly-utilized coastal zone. This book, through a series of case studies, illustrates the variety of changes already made along the coastlines of the world. The examples used are mainly from China, Japan, The Netherlands, and the United States, all countries with extensively engineered shorelines. Modifications emphasized include those associated with protection against coastal erosion, building of artificial beaches and islands, reclamation for aquaculture and agriculture, and the construction of harbors. The information in this book should be useful for all planners and engineers involved in the construction of coastal engineering works and for students interested in coastal modification.

Warmwater Fisheries

Symposium I (1991)

Author: James L. Cooper,R. H. Hamre

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 9780788182440

Category:

Page: 407

View: 2185

Proceedings of a symposium on warmwater fisheries held by the U.S. Forest Service at Scottsdale, AZ on June 4-8, 1991. Panels include: management opportunities and challenges: keys to better service; warmwater fisheries: a resource to be managed; artificial structures -- where they work and how to build them; where the fish come from; water level management; warmwater streams -- a strong current for quality management; non-traditional fishing holes; fertilization and forage fish management; hooking mortality; harvest regulations; recreational fishing; and the role of education in fisheries management. Illustrated.

Climates and Societies - A Climatological Perspective

A Contribution on Global Change and Related Problems Prepared by the Commission on Climatology of the International Geographical Union

Author: M. Yoshino,Manfred Domrös,Annick Douguedroit,J. Paszynski,L.C. Nkemdirim

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401710554

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 6849

The impact of climate on human activities and the effect of humans on cli mate are two of the most important areas of inquiry in climatology. These interactions conducted through physical, chemical and biological process es were described as early as Roman and Greek times. Marcus Vitruvius (75-25 B. C. ), a famous Roman engineer and architect, made the following observation about the climatic conditions necessary for founding a city: Land ideal for the health is slightly elevated and there should be neither fog nor frost. The direction of the slope and the distance to the swamps, lakes, and beaches must also be considered. The prevailing wind directions, observed by a wind tower at the center of the city, like Horologium at Athens, should be taken into consideration in city planning. The main and narrow streets should be placed in the middle angle of the two prevailing wind directions. Then the location of the Pantheons and squares should be decided. The influence of humans on climate was a major subject for discussion in the 19th century, inspired in part, by the rapid industrial growth and expanding deforestation of the time. D. L. Howard wrote brilliant pieces on the climate of London in the 1830s, while G . P. Marsh discussed the effects of forests on precipitation in the U. S . A. in the second half of the 19th century.

Nationalising and Denationalising European Border Regions, 1800–2000

Views from Geography and History

Author: Hans Knippenberg,J. Markusse

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401142939

Category: Social Science

Page: 293

View: 8082

During the last two centuries, the political map of Europe has changed considerably. More recently, there are remarkably contrasting tendencies concerning the functions and densities of borders. The borders inside the European Union lost their importance, whereas Central and Eastern Europe saw the birth of a multitude of new state borders. The long-term study of border regions, therefore, is a fascinating subject for geographers, historians, social scientists, and political scientists. The main thesis of this book is that the rise of the modern nation-state reinforced the separating function of state borders by nationalising the people on both sides of it. This process gained strength in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and was challenged in the second half of this century by processes of supra-national integration, globalisation and the revolution in communication and transport, as the case studies from different parts of Europe of this book will show. Audience: This book will be of interest to academics, researchers and practitioners in geography, history, political sciences, European studies and East-European studies.

Geography: Discipline, Profession and Subject since 1870

An International Survey

Author: Gary S. Dunbar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401716838

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 6668

This book is a comprehensive treatment of the professionalization and institutionalization of the academic discipline of geography in Europe and North America, with emphasis on the 20th century and the last quarter of the 19th. No other book has ever attempted coverage of this sort. It is relevant to geographers, practitioners of the social and earth sciences, and historians of science and education.

Emerging Nodes in the Global Economy: Frankfurt and Tel Aviv Compared

Author: Daniel Felsenstein,Eike W. Schamp,Arie Shachar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401714088

Category: Science

Page: 282

View: 8130

This volume looks at the temporal and volatile ways in which Frankfurt and Tel Aviv engage the global economy and function as nodes within global networks. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and quantitative empirical studies of leading sectors, it systematically analyzes the process of network formation and highlights the role of national and regional policy. It will be of interest to academics, researchers, practitioners and policymakers working in urban and economic geography, public policy and economic development.

Time, Space, and Society

Geographical Societal Perspectives

Author: A. Kellerman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400922876

Category: Science

Page: 128

View: 2534

Time and space are two of the most basic dimensions of human life. They envelop all human beings from birth to death. As such, they provide the context for human existence. At the same time, however, time and space also serve as major influencing factors in mankind's actions. Hence, a vast literature has developed on time and space as separate dimensions, and recently on time-space as joint dimensions. Interestingly enough, the social connotations of time and space have mostly been studied with the individual human being in mind. The more societal significance of time and space, whether separately or jointly, have been relatively neglected. It is the purpose of this volume to help fill this lacuna through discussions on some of the many junctions of time, space, and society at large. The discussion will naturally involve concepts and findings from more than just one discipline -- notably, geography, sociology, social history and political science. It is, thus, obvious that the topic may be highlighted from several perspectives. Given my own education and work, the approach will lean more to the geographical perspective. Geography has a special merit as an integrating framework for the study of time, space, and society. It is a discipline that has space at the center of its raison d'etre and, as such, has always striven for integration, holism and comprehensiveness.

Land Use Changes in Europe

Processes of Change, Environmental Transformations and Future Patterns

Author: F.M. Brouwer,A.J. Thomas,M.J. Chadwick

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401132909

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 529

View: 5271

The patterns of land use that have evolved in Europe reflect the boundaries set by the natural environment and socio-economic responses to the needs of the population. Over the centuries man has been able to overcome increasingly the constraints placed on land use by the natural environment through the development of new technologies and innovations, driven by an increasing population and rising material expectations. However, activities are still ultimately constrained by natural limitations such as climatic characteristics and associated edaphic and vegetational features. A major problem for land management, in its broadest sense, can be a reluctance to foresee the consequent ecological changes. This means that mitigating strategies will not be implemented in time to prevent environmental degradation and social hardship, although in many parts of Europe, over some centuries, demands have been met in a sustainable way, by sound, prudent and temperate expectations that have dictated management regimes. The management of land in Europe has always been a complex challenge: land is the primary, though finite resource. DeciSions regarding the use of land and manipulation of ecosystem dynamics today may affect the long-term primary productivity of the resource. Decisions to change land use may be virtually irreversible; urbanization is an illustration of the influence of population density on the land resource.

Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

Author: Maurice Schwartz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402038801

Category: Science

Page: 1213

View: 1410

This new Encyclopedia of Coastal Science stands as the latest authoritative source in the field of coastal studies, making it the standard reference work for specialists and the interested lay person. Unique in its interdisciplinary approach. This Encyclopedia features contributions by 245 well-known international specialists in their respective fields and is abundantly illustrated with line-drawings and photographs. Not only does this volume offer an extensive number of entries, it also includes various appendices, an illustrated glossary of coastal morphology and extensive bibliographic listings.

Developing Frontier Cities

Global Perspectives — Regional Contexts

Author: Harvey Lithwick,Yehuda Gradus

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401712352

Category: Social Science

Page: 348

View: 526

The Unique Nature of Frontier Cities and their Development Challenge Harvey Lithwick and Yehuda Grad us The advent of government downsizing, and globalization has led to enormous com petitive pressures as well as the opening of new opportunities. How cities in remote frontier areas might cope with what for them might appear to be a devastating challenge is the subject of this book. Our concern is with frontier cities in particular. In our earlier study, Frontiers in Regional Development (Rowman and Littlefield, 1996), we examined the distinction between frontiers and peripheries. The terms are often used interchangeably, but we believe that in fact, both in scholarly works and in popular usage, very different connotations are conveyed by these concepts. Frontiers evoke a strong positive image, of sparsely settled territories, offering challenges, adventure, unspoiled natural land scapes, and a different, and for many an attractive life style. Frontiers are lands of opportunity. Peripheries conjure up negative images, of inaccessibility, inadequate services and political and economic marginality. They are places to escape from, rather than frontiers, which is were people escape to. Peripheries are places of and for losers.

The Golden Century of Oil 1950–2050

The Depletion of a Resource

Author: C.J. Campbell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401135002

Category: Science

Page: 347

View: 4640

oil is the lifeblood of the World's economy. It was a critical element in two World Wars and in the Cold War, and, as recent events in the Middle East confirm, people are willing to fight for it. The cheap energy it provides, especially for transport and agriculture, was one of the main factors that made possible the economic prosperity and growth that the World has enjoyed for the past fifty years and more. People rely on it everywhere, and in many forms, and they have become so accustomed to its ready availability that they take it for granted. To conceive of a world without traffic jams and airliners is unthinkable, and while not so obvious, oil lies behind every supermarket shelf, fuelling the tractor that ploughs the field and the delivery van that brings the consumer his food. Yet everyone knows that it is a finite and irreplaceable commodity, formed long ago in the geological past. What no one knows is just how finite it is. This book is an effort to try to answer that question : not in detail, but at least in orders of magnitude. More useful than the figures themselves is the discussion of the elements involved in addressing the subject. While it is impossible to predict the precise pattern of future production, which will be affected by many unforeseeable factors, one can at least begin to think in terms of resource constraint instead of an ever expanding supply of oil.

Towards Sustainable Building

Author: Nicola Maiellaro

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401735638

Category: Social Science

Page: 254

View: 9850

This volume contains the extended versions of selected papers presented at the first Mediterranean Conference "Sharing Knowledge on Sustainable Building" held at the Polytechnic ofBari in December 1999, supported by the National Research Council of Italy. The publication of this book was made possible through the efforts of the contributing Authors. Other people have provided invaluable support for the conference and for the preparation of this volume; in particular, I wish to thank Antonella Lerario for providing support in the final editing of the text and images. 1 As reported in Boonstra and Rovers (200 I) , people spend a great deal of time inside buildings; therefore, decisions about design, construction, use, maintenance, renovation, demolition, reuse and recycling of buildings have a huge impact on the sustainable development of our society. Technical aspects, however, should be supported by adequate policies, developed with appropriate tools and driven by meaningful challenges. For people involved in sustainable buildings, the conceptual frameworks, studies and experiences collected in this volume, organized into three parts - "Policies", "Tools" and "Challenges" - will help to advance knowledge allowing them to adopt and more efficiently implement such innovations sooner.

Recreational Uses of Coastal Areas

A Research Project of the Commission on the Coastal Environment, International Geographical Union

Author: P. Fabbri

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400923910

Category: Social Science

Page: 287

View: 1901

Human clustering in coastal areas The coastal zone has gained a solid reputation as a place vocated for recreational activities and this is generally related to the presence of the sea. The relationship, however, does not appear univocal or simple: the sea can be perceived as a hostile element by humans and the more general question of whether the presence of the shore is in itself a favourable, repulsive, or irrelevant factor to settlement is a debatable point, at least for pre-industrial societies. Back in the early part of the 19th century, Friedrich Hegel regarded oceans and rivers as unifying elements rather than dividing ones, thus implying a trend towards the concentration of human settlements along them. 'The sea', he wrote, 'stimulates 1 courage and conquest, as well as profit and plunder', although he realized that this did not equally apply to all maritime peoples. In Hegel's view, different approaches to the sea were mainly the results of cultural factors and, in fact, he recognized that some people living in coastal areas perceive the sea as a dangerous and alien place and the shore as aftnis terrae.

Region as a Socio-environmental System

An Introduction to a Systemic Regional Geography

Author: D. Nir

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400904835

Category: Science

Page: 182

View: 6955

2 society would be a free, anarchic society [an - without, archos - ruler], a society in which each individual is responsible for the relationship between himself and the society. By inner persuasion, we must live by making the maximum contri bution of our physical and mental assets combined with minimal charge against and exploitation of the society. We must contribute to society as much as possible because, directly and indirectly, we enjoy the contributions of the global society in which we live and of which we are a part.To achieve this goal, we must know not only ourselves but also the society in which we live. A society is not uniform. It is composed of mosaics of people of varying characteristics, structured in different patterns and groups, the qUalities of which we must know because upon them depends our own place in the society. Were the world uniform of feature and society, there would no place for regional geography. But because the world varies in form and its societies are different, study of the differentiation of the world's surface and the regional geography as the people who live on it is an important tool for understanding the society in which we live, particularly when our goal is to live with it in harmony.

Shore and Sea Boundaries, with Special Reference to the Interpretation and Use of Coast and Geodetic Survey Data: Boundary problems associated with the submerged lands cases and the submerged lands acts (including recent developments in the international law of the sea)

Author: Aaron Louis Shalowitz

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 5098


Hearings

Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 3015


Submerged Lands

Hearings Before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate, Eighty-third Congress, First Session, on S. J. Res. 13...S. 294... S. 107... S. 107 Amendment... S. J. Res. 18...

Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Boundaries, State

Page: 1426

View: 5792