Anti-Impunity and the Human Rights Agenda

Author: Karen Engle,Zinaida Miller,D. M. Davis

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108165818

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8829

In the twenty-first century, fighting impunity has become both the rallying cry and a metric of progress for human rights. The new emphasis on criminal prosecution represents a fundamental change in the positions and priorities of students and practitioners of human rights and transitional justice: it has become almost unquestionable common sense that criminal punishment is a legal, political, and pragmatic imperative for addressing human rights violations. This book challenges that common sense. It does so by documenting and critically analyzing the trend toward an anti-impunity norm in a variety of institutional and geographical contexts, with an eye toward the interaction between practices at the global and local levels. Together, the chapters demonstrate how this laser focus on anti-impunity has created blind spots in practice and in scholarship that result in a constricted response to human rights violations, a narrowed conception of justice, and an impoverished approach to peace.

Post-transitional Justice

Human Rights Trials in Chile and El Salvador

Author: Cath Collins

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271036877

Category: Political Science

Page: 277

View: 1696

"Analyzes how activists, legal strategies, and judicial receptivity to human rights claims are constructing new accountability outcomes for human rights violations in Chile and El Salvador"--Provided by publisher.

The Endtimes of Human Rights

Author: Stephen Hopgood

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801469309

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 3040

"We are living through the endtimes of the civilizing mission. The ineffectual International Criminal Court and its disastrous first prosecutor, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, along with the failure in Syria of the Responsibility to Protect are the latest pieces of evidence not of transient misfortunes but of fatal structural defects in international humanism. Whether it is the increase in deadly attacks on aid workers, the torture and 'disappearing' of al-Qaeda suspects by American officials, the flouting of international law by states such as Sri Lanka and Sudan, or the shambles of the Khmer Rouge tribunal in Phnom Penh, the prospect of one world under secular human rights law is receding. What seemed like a dawn is in fact a sunset. The foundations of universal liberal norms and global governance are crumbling."—from The Endtimes of Human Rights In a book that is at once passionate and provocative, Stephen Hopgood argues, against the conventional wisdom, that the idea of universal human rights has become not only ill adapted to current realities but also overambitious and unresponsive. A shift in the global balance of power away from the United States further undermines the foundations on which the global human rights regime is based. American decline exposes the contradictions, hypocrisies and weaknesses behind the attempt to enforce this regime around the world and opens the way for resurgent religious and sovereign actors to challenge human rights. Historically, Hopgood writes, universal humanist norms inspired a sense of secular religiosity among the new middle classes of a rapidly modernizing Europe. Human rights were the product of a particular worldview (Western European and Christian) and specific historical moments (humanitarianism in the nineteenth century, the aftermath of the Holocaust). They were an antidote to a troubling contradiction—the coexistence of a belief in progress with horrifying violence and growing inequality. The obsolescence of that founding purpose in the modern globalized world has, Hopgood asserts, transformed the institutions created to perform it, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross and recently the International Criminal Court, into self-perpetuating structures of intermittent power and authority that mask their lack of democratic legitimacy and systematic ineffectiveness. At their best, they provide relief in extraordinary situations of great distress; otherwise they are serving up a mixture of false hope and unaccountability sustained by “human rights” as a global brand. The Endtimes of Human Rights is sure to be controversial. Hopgood makes a plea for a new understanding of where hope lies for human rights, a plea that mourns the promise but rejects the reality of universalism in favor of a less predictable encounter with the diverse realities of today’s multipolar world.

All the Missing Souls

A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals

Author: David Scheffer

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691157847

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 533

View: 674

This title is Scheffer's account of the international gamble to prosecute those responsible for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity, and to redress some of the bloodiest human rights atrocities in our time.

Human Rights, Transitional Justice, and the Reconstruction of Political Order in Latin America

Author: Michelle Frances Carmody

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319783939

Category: History

Page: 244

View: 2732

In Argentina and elsewhere in Latin America, decades after the fall of authoritarian regimes in the 1970s, transitional justice has proven to be anything but transitional—it has become a cornerstone of state policy and a powerful tool of state formation. Contextualizing cultural and political shifts in Argentina after the 1976 military coup with comparisons to other countries in the Southern Cone, Michelle Frances Carmody argues that incorporating human rights practices into official policy became a way for state actors to both build the authority of the state and manage social conflict, a key aim of post-Cold War democracies. By examining the relationship between transitional justice and the Latin American political order, this book illuminates overlooked dimensions of state formation in the age of human rights.

Christian Human Rights

Author: Samuel Moyn

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812292774

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 1161

In Christian Human Rights, Samuel Moyn asserts that the rise of human rights after World War II was prefigured and inspired by a defense of the dignity of the human person that first arose in Christian churches and religious thought in the years just prior to the outbreak of the war. The Roman Catholic Church and transatlantic Protestant circles dominated the public discussion of the new principles in what became the last European golden age for the Christian faith. At the same time, West European governments after World War II, particularly in the ascendant Christian Democratic parties, became more tolerant of public expressions of religious piety. Human rights rose to public prominence in the space opened up by these dual developments of the early Cold War. Moyn argues that human dignity became central to Christian political discourse as early as 1937. Pius XII's wartime Christmas addresses announced the basic idea of universal human rights as a principle of world, and not merely state, order. By focusing on the 1930s and 1940s, Moyn demonstrates how the language of human rights was separated from the secular heritage of the French Revolution and put to use by postwar democracies governed by Christian parties, which reinvented them to impose moral constraints on individuals, support conservative family structures, and preserve existing social hierarchies. The book ends with a provocative chapter that traces contemporary European struggles to assimilate Muslim immigrants to the continent's legacy of Christian human rights.

Children and Transitional Justice

Truth-telling, Accountability and Reconciliation

Author: Sharanjeet Parmar,Mindy Jane Roseman,Saudamini Siegrist,Theo Sowa

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780979639548

Category: Law

Page: 417

View: 6053

Children are increasingly a focus of international and national courts and truth commissions. Their participation, including through testimony that bears witness to their experiences, demonstrates their critical role in truth, justice, and reconciliation processes. If children are to engage, however, their rights must be respected. This book includes analysis of the recent involvement of children in transitional justice processes in Liberia, Peru, Sierra Leone, and South Africa. It also explores key areas of current debates among legal scholars and child rights advocates, such as international criminal responsibility, traditional and restorative justice, reparations, psychosocial support for child witnesses, and links between education and reconciliation. The book emphasizes how children must be engaged during post-conflict transition. If children are excluded, they may become vulnerable to a continuing cycle of violence, affecting future generations. In contrast, through active involvement in transitions, children and adolescents can be the catalysts for justice, reconciliation, and peace-building within their own families and communities.

In Custody

Law, Impunity and Prisoner Abuse in South Asia

Author: Nitya Ramakrishnan

Publisher: SAGE Publications India

ISBN: 8132116321

Category: Social Science

Page: 504

View: 1575

In Custody examines the professed and actual commitment to custodial justice on the part of six South Asian countries. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan have all been affected by the geopolitics of colonialism. Nineteenth century Europe is often simplistically seen as the ideological source of the rights discourse in South Asia. But, like any ideological theme, the discourse on rights is also a negotiated space. Resistance created a need to justify imperialism by importing a purpose to it. Regulation of policing was the coloniser's superior norm, and also, his tool of control. The erstwhile colonies inherited the practice of affirming norms while systems enabled their breach. Which is not to say that the purpose of norms is merely hypocritical; political struggles and intellectual discourse have, over the years, ensured the recognition of human rights in international instruments, national charters and even in the very pretexts for their breach. Though human rights are inalienable, the modern state has been uniformly guarded in its response to their imperatives. This book traces the historical and contemporary nature of the conflict between the norm and its practice. Constitutions, statutes and mechanisms of justice are reviewed with case studies and interviews that illustrate the many layers of impunity.

Double Standards: International Criminal Law and the West

Author: Wolfgang Kaleck

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9788293081678

Category: Law

Page: 150

View: 7623

In this book, Wolfgang Kaleck, an internationally active human rights and criminal lawyer, assesses the practice of international criminal law to date and analyses one of its main weaknesses: International criminal justice purports to be universal, but in reality it often operates in a politically selective manner. Until now, hardly any of those most responsible for international crimes committed by Western states have faced trial. Against the backdrop of this criticism, the book advocates a truly universal practice of international criminal law which holds even the most powerful accountable for crimes they have committed. Kaleck also tells the stories of survivors of human rights violations and human rights organizations that struggle for universal accountability for international crimes. He argues that the proponents of universal criminal justice must actively address existing double standards, as "it will not be possible to speak of a universal criminal justice system with equal rights and access to justice for all until the instigators and organizers of Guantanamo and of the atrocities in Chechnya are held accountable for their actions.""

Violence against Women under International Human Rights Law

Author: Alice Edwards

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139494856

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 3067

Since the mid-1990s, increasing international attention has been paid to the issue of violence against women. However, there is still no explicit international human rights treaty prohibition on violence against women and the issue remains poorly defined and understood under international human rights law. Drawing on feminist theories of international law and human rights, this critical examination of the United Nations' legal approaches to violence against women analyses the merits of strategies which incorporate women's concerns of violence within existing human rights norms such as equality norms, the right to life, and the prohibition against torture. Although feminist strategies of inclusion have been necessary as well as symbolically powerful for women, the book argues that they also carry their own problems and limitations, prevent a more radical transformation of the human rights system, and ultimately reinforce the unequal position of women under international law.

After Identity

A Reader in Law and Culture

Author: Dan Danielsen,Karen Engle

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136654348

Category: Law

Page: 400

View: 9444

Authored by the leading voices in critical legal studies, feminist legal theory, critical race theory and queer legal theory, After Identity explores the importance of sexual, national and other identities in people's lived experiences while simultaneously challenging the limits of legal strategies focused on traditional identity groups. These new ways of thinking about cultural identity have implications for strategies for legal reform, as well as for progressive thinking generally about theory, culture and politics.

Law's Trials

The Performance of Legal Institutions in the US 'War on Terror'

Author: Richard L. Abel

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108429750

Category: Law

Page: 850

View: 4769

The US 'war on terror' has repeatedly violated fundamental rule of law values. When executive and legislature commit such egregious wrongs, courts represent the ultimate defense. Law's Trials: The Performance of Legal Institutions in the US 'War on Terror' offers the first comprehensive account of judicial performance during the 16 years of the Bush and Obama administrations. Abel examines criminal prosecutions of alleged terrorists, courts martial of military personnel accused of law of war violations, military commission trials of 'high value detainees', habeas corpus petitions by Guantnamo detainees, civil damage actions by victims of both the 'war on terror' and terrorism, and civil liberties violations by government officials and Islamophobic campaigners. Law's Trials identifies successful defenses of the rule of law through qualitative and quantitative analyses, comparing the behavior of judges within and between each category of cases and locating those actions in a comparative history of efforts to redress fundamental injustices.

Hiding in Plain Sight

The Pursuit of War Criminals from Nuremberg to the War on Terror

Author: Eric Stover,Victor Peskin,Alexa Koenig

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520962761

Category: Social Science

Page: 504

View: 8247

Hiding in Plain Sight tells the story of the global effort to apprehend the world’s most wanted fugitives. Beginning with the flight of tens of thousands of Nazi war criminals and their collaborators after World War II, then moving on to the question of justice following the recent Balkan wars and the Rwandan genocide, and ending with the establishment of the International Criminal Court and America’s pursuit of suspected terrorists in the aftermath of 9/11, the book explores the range of diplomatic and military strategies—both successful and unsuccessful—that states and international courts have adopted to pursue and capture war crimes suspects. It is a story fraught with broken promises, backroom politics, ethical dilemmas, and daring escapades—all in the name of international justice and human rights. Hiding in Plain Sight is a companion book to the public television documentary Dead Reckoning: Postwar Justice from World War II to The War on Terror. For more information about the documentary, visit www.saybrookproductions.com. For information about the Human Rights Center, visit hrc.berkeley.edu.

Transnational Legal Orders

Author: Terence C. Halliday

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107069920

Category: Law

Page: 536

View: 1493

"This book offers an empirically grounded theory that reframes the study of law and society from a predominantly national context, which dichotomizes the study of international law and national compliance into a dynamic perspective that places national, international, and transnational lawmaking and practice within a coherent single frame. By presenting and elaborating on a new concept, transnational legal orders it offers an original approach to the emergence of legal orders beyond nation-states. It shows how they originate, where they compete and cooperate, and how they settle on institutions that legally order fundamental economic and social behaviors that transcend national borders. This original theory is applied and developed by distinguished scholars from North America and Europe in business law, regulatory law and human rights"--

The Elusive Promise of Indigenous Development

Rights, Culture, Strategy

Author: Karen Engle

Publisher: Duke University Press Books

ISBN: 9780822347699

Category: History

Page: 418

View: 1627

Around the world, indigenous peoples use international law to make claims for heritage, territory, and economic development. Karen Engle traces the history of these claims, considering the prevalence of particular legal frameworks and their costs and benefits for indigenous groups. Her vivid account highlights the dilemmas that accompany each legal strategy, as well as the persistent elusiveness of economic development for indigenous peoples. Focusing primarily on the Americas, Engle describes how cultural rights emerged over self-determination as the dominant framework for indigenous advocacy in the late twentieth century, bringing unfortunate, if unintended, consequences. Conceiving indigenous rights as cultural rights, Engle argues, has largely displaced or deferred many of the economic and political issues that initially motivated much indigenous advocacy. She contends that by asserting static, essentialized notions of indigenous culture, indigenous rights advocates have often made concessions that threaten to exclude many claimants, force others into norms of cultural cohesion, and limit indigenous economic, political, and territorial autonomy. Engle explores one use of the right to culture outside the context of indigenous rights, through a discussion of a 1993 Colombian law granting collective land title to certain Afro-descendant communities. Following the aspirations for and disappointments in this law, Engle cautions advocates for marginalized communities against learning the wrong lessons from the recent struggles of indigenous peoples at the international level.

Human Rights Obligations of Business

Beyond the Corporate Responsibility to Respect?

Author: Surya Deva,David Bilchitz

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107036879

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 452

View: 2120

This book critically evaluates the Ruggie Framework and the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, and investigates the normative foundations as well as the nature, extent and enforcement of corporate obligations for the realisation of human rights.

Transitional Justice in Latin America

The Uneven Road from Impunity towards Accountability

Author: Elin Skaar,Jemima Garcia-Godos,Cath Collins

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317526201

Category: Law

Page: 318

View: 1795

This book addresses current developments in transitional justice in Latin America – effectively the first region to undergo concentrated transitional justice experiences in modern times. Using a comparative approach, it examines trajectories in truth, justice, reparations, and amnesties in countries emerging from periods of massive violations of human rights and humanitarian law. The book examines the cases of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, El Salvador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay, developing and applying a common analytical framework to provide a systematic, qualitative and comparative analysis of their transitional justice experiences. More specifically, the book investigates to what extent there has been a shift from impunity towards accountability for past human rights violations in Latin America. Using ‘thick’, but structured, narratives – which allow patterns to emerge, rather than being imposed – the book assesses how the quality, timing and sequencing of transitional justice mechanisms, along with the context in which they appear, have mattered for the nature and impact of transitional justice processes in the region. Offering a new approach to assessing transitional justice, and challenging many assumptions in the established literature, this book will be of enormous benefit to scholars and others working in this area.

The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy

Author: Andrew F. Cooper,Jorge Heine,Ramesh Thakur

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199588864

Category: Political Science

Page: 953

View: 2033

Including chapters from some of the leading experts in the field this Handbook provides a full overview of the nature and challenges of modern diplomacy and includes a tour d'horizon of the key ways in which the theory and practice of modern diplomacy are evolving in the 21st Century.

Peoples' Tribunals and International Law

Author: Andrew Byrnes,Gabrielle Simm

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108389767

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 7064

Peoples' Tribunals and International Law is the first book to analyse how civil society tribunals implement and develop international law. With contributions covering tribunals in Europe, Latin America and Asia, this edited collection provides cross-disciplinary academic and activist perspectives and unique insights into the phenomenon of peoples' tribunals. Written by academics in law, anthropology and international relations, it also incorporates the reflections of civil society activists and advocates on peoples' tribunals. The collection includes chapters ranging from the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal, successor to the Bertrand Russell Tribunal established to question the legality of the Vietnam War, to recent tribunals addressing atrocities in Soeharto's Indonesia and violations against migrants in Europe. Peoples' Tribunals and International Law offers the first sustained analysis of the different approaches to international law in tribunal proceedings. It will interest scholars of law, criminology, human rights, politics, sociology, anthropology and international relations.