Advanced Organic Chemistry

Part A: Structure and Mechanisms

Author: Francis A. Carey,Richard J. Sundberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461397952

Category: Science

Page: 832

View: 5670

The purpose of this edition, like that of the earlier ones, is to provide the basis for a deeper understanding of the structures of organic compounds and the mechanisms of organic reactions. The level is aimed at advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. Our goals are to solidify the student's understanding of basic concepts provided by an introduction to organic chemistry and to present more information and detail, including quantitative information, than can be presented in the first course in organic chemistry. The first three chapters consider the fundamental topi~s of bonding theory, stereochemistry, and conformation. Chapter 4 discusses the techniques that are used to study and characterize reaction mechanisms. Chapter 9 focuses on aromaticity and the structural basis of aromatic stabilization. The remaining chapters consider basic reaction types, including substituent effects and stereochemistry. As compared to the earlier editions, there has been a modest degree of reorganization. The emergence of free-radical reactions in synthesis has led to the inclusion of certain aspects of free-radical chemistry in Part B. The revised chapter, Chapter 12, empha sizes the distinctive mechanistic and kinetic aspects of free-radical reactions. The synthetic applications will be considered in Part B. We have also split the topics of aromaticity and the reactions of aromatic compounds into two separate chapters, Chapters 9 and 10. This may facilitate use of Chapter 9, which deals with the nature of aromaticity, at an earlier stage if an instructor so desires.

Advanced Organic Chemistry

Reaction Mechanisms

Author: Reinhard Bruckner

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780121381103

Category: Science

Page: 636

View: 6896

Contents - Radical Substitution Reactions at the Saturated C Atom. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions at the Saturated C Atom. Additions to the Olefinic C=C Double Bond. Eliminations Substitution Reactions on Aromatic Compounds. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions (Except Through Enolates) on the Carboxyl Carbon. Additions of Heteroatom Nucleophiles to Heterocumulenes. Additions of Heteroatom Nucleophiles to Carbonyl Compounds and Their Secondary Reactions. Addition of H Nucleophiles and Metal Organyls to Carbonyl Compounds. Reaction of Ylides with Saturated or Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds. Chemistry of the Alkaline Earth Metal Enolates. Rearrangements. Thermal Cycloadditions. Transition Metal-Mediated Alkenylations, Arylations and Alkynylations. Oxidations and Reductions.

Organic Mechanisms

Reactions, Stereochemistry and Synthesis

Author: Reinhard Bruckner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642036511

Category: Science

Page: 855

View: 4282

“Much of life can be understood in rational terms if expressed in the language of chemistry. It is an international language, a language without dialects, a language for all time, a language that explains where we came from, what we are, and where the physical world will allow us to go. Chemical Language has great esthetic beauty and links the physical sciences to the b- logical sciences. ” from The Two Cultures: Chemistry and Biology by Arthur Kornberg (Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine, 1959) Over the past two centuries, chemistry has evolved from a relatively pure disciplinary pursuit to a position of central importance in the physical and life sciences. More generally, it has p- vided the language and methodology that has unified, integrated and, indeed, molecularized the sciences, shaping our understanding of the molecular world and in so doing the direction, development and destiny of scientific research. The “language of chemistry” referred to by my former Stanford colleague is made up of atoms and bonds and their interactions. It is a s- tem of knowledge that allows us to understand structure and events at a molecular level and increasingly to use that understanding to create new knowledge and beneficial change. The words on this page, for example, are detected by the eye in a series of events, now generally understood at the molecular level.

Perspectives on Structure and Mechanism in Organic Chemistry

Author: Felix A. Carroll

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118210883

Category: Science

Page: 972

View: 7401

Helps to develop new perspectives and a deeper understanding of organic chemistry Instructors and students alike have praised Perspectives on Structure and Mechanism in Organic Chemistry because it motivates readers to think about organic chemistry in new and exciting ways. Based on the author's first hand classroom experience, the text uses complementary conceptual models to give new perspectives on the structures and reactions of organic compounds. The first five chapters of the text discuss the structure and bonding of stable molecules and reactive intermediates. These are followed by a chapter exploring the methods that organic chemists use to study reaction mechanisms. The remaining chapters examine different types of acid-base, substitution, addition, elimination, pericyclic, and photochemical reactions. This Second Edition has been thoroughly updated and revised to reflect the latest findings in physical organic chemistry. Moreover, this edition features: New references to the latest primary and review literature More study questions to help readers better understand and apply new concepts in organic chemistry Coverage of new topics, including density functional theory, quantum theory of atoms in molecules, Marcus theory, molecular simulations, effect of solvent on organic reactions, asymmetric induction in nucleophilic additions to carbonyl compounds, and dynamic effects on reaction pathways The nearly 400 problems in the text do more than allow students to test their understanding of the concepts presented in each chapter. They also encourage readers to actively review and evaluate the chemical literature and to develop and defend their own ideas. With its emphasis on complementary models and independent problem-solving, this text is ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in organic chemistry.

Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions

Reference Edition

Author: Ian Fleming

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119964679

Category: Science

Page: 526

View: 1173

Winner of the PROSE Award for Chemistry & Physics 2010 Acknowledging the very best in professional and scholarly publishing, the annual PROSE Awards recognise publishers' and authors' commitment to pioneering works of research and for contributing to the conception, production, and design of landmark works in their fields. Judged by peer publishers, librarians, and medical professionals, Wiley are pleased to congratulate Professor Ian Fleming, winner of the PROSE Award in Chemistry and Physics for Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions. Molecular orbital theory is used by chemists to describe the arrangement of electrons in chemical structures. It is also a theory capable of giving some insight into the forces involved in the making and breaking of chemical bonds—the chemical reactions that are often the focus of an organic chemist's interest. Organic chemists with a serious interest in understanding and explaining their work usually express their ideas in molecular orbital terms, so much so that it is now an essential component of every organic chemist's skills to have some acquaintance with molecular orbital theory. Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions is both a simplified account of molecular orbital theory and a review of its applications in organic chemistry; it provides a basic introduction to the subject and a wealth of illustrative examples. In this book molecular orbital theory is presented in a much simplified, and entirely non-mathematical language, accessible to every organic chemist, whether student or research worker, whether mathematically competent or not. Topics covered include: Molecular Orbital Theory Molecular Orbitals and the Structures of Organic Molecules Chemical Reactions — How Far and How Fast Ionic Reactions — Reactivity Ionic Reactions — Stereochemistry Pericyclic Reactions Radical Reactions Photochemical Reactions This expanded Reference Edition of Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions takes the content and the same non-mathematical approach of the Student Edition, and adds extensive extra subject coverage, detail and over 1500 references. The additional material adds a deeper understanding of the models used, and includes a broader range of applications and case studies. Providing a complete in-depth reference for a more advanced audience, this edition will find a place on the bookshelves of researchers and advanced students of organic, physical organic and computational chemistry. The student edition of Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions presents molecular orbital theory in a simplified form, and offers an invaluable first textbook on this important subject for students of organic, physical organic and computational chemistry. Further information can be viewed here. "These books are the result of years of work, which began as an attempt to write a second edition of my 1976 book Frontier Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions. I wanted to give a rather more thorough introduction to molecular orbitals, while maintaining my focus on the organic chemist who did not want a mathematical account, but still wanted to understand organic chemistry at a physical level. I'm delighted to win this prize, and hope a new generation of chemists will benefit from these books." -Professor Ian Fleming

Writing Reaction Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry

Author: Audrey Miller,Philippa H. Solomon

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780124967120

Category: Science

Page: 471

View: 7605

Writing Reaction Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry, Second Edition, is an invaluable guide to charting the movements of atoms and electrons in the reactions of organic molecules. Miller and Solomon illustrate that understanding organic reactions is based on applying general principles rather than the rote memorization of unrelated processes, and, in turn, emphasize that writing mechanisms is a practical method of applying knowledge of previously encountered reactions and reaction conditions to new reactions. Students and research chemists alike will find this book useful in providing a method of organizing and synthesizing an oftentimes overwhelming quantity of information into a set of general principles and guidelines for determining and describing organic reaction mechanisms. * Essential for those students who need to have mechanisms explained in greater detail than most organic chemistry textbooks provide. * Illustrated with hundreds of chemical structures * Extensively rewritten and reorganized to make the presentation and format even easier for students to use * Contains many problem sets and answers to all problems to help students work through general principles and applications * Appendixes have been added to this edition that contain easily referenced information on Lewis structures, symbols for chemical notation, and the relative acidities of common substances

Arrow-Pushing in Organic Chemistry

An Easy Approach to Understanding Reaction Mechanisms

Author: Daniel E. Levy

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118991346

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 6750

Organic chemistry is required coursework for degrees in life, food, and medical sciences. To help the students discouraged by the belief that this topic cannot be mastered without significant memorization, Arrow Pushing in Organic Chemistry serves as a handy supplement for understanding the subject. • Includes new chapters, an expanded index, and additional problem sets complete with detailed solutions • Focuses on understanding the mechanics and logic of organic reaction mechanisms • Introduces ionic and non-ionic reactive species and reaction mechanisms • Teaches strategies to predict reactive species, sites of reactions, and reaction products • Provides a solid foundation upon which organic chemistry students can advance with confidence

Intermediate Organic Chemistry

Author: Ann M. Fabirkiewicz,John C. Stowell

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118308816

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 5923

This book presents key aspects of organic synthesis stereochemistry, functional group transformations, bond formation, synthesis planning, mechanisms, and spectroscopy and a guide to literature searching in a reader–friendly manner. Helps students understand the skills and basics they need to move from introductory to graduate organic chemistry classes Balances synthetic and physical organic chemistry in a way accessible to students Features extensive end–of–chapter problems Updates include new examples and discussion of online resources now common for literature searches Adds sections on protecting groups and green chemistry along with a rewritten chapter surveying organic spectroscopy

Biological Inorganic Chemistry

Structure and Reactivity

Author: Ivano Bertini

Publisher: University Science Books

ISBN: 9781891389436

Category: Science

Page: 739

View: 7603

The long awaited text for 21st century courses in biological inorganic chemistry is now available. Organized and edited by Ivano Bertini, Harry Gray, Ed Stiefel, and Joan Valentine, with contributions from many other world leaders in the field, this all-new book is equally appropriate for graduate or senior undergraduate courses in bioinorganic chemistry. The book has been extensively class-tested at Princeton and UCLA, and it includes tutorials in biology and biochemistry and in inorganic chemistry to aid students of varying backgrounds. The main text is divided into two parts. Part A, 'Overviews of Biological Inorganic Chemistry', sets forth the unifying principles of the field. A full course in bioinorganic chemistry could be based entirely on this overview section, which is a really a book within a book! Part B, 'Metal-Ion Containing Biological Systems', describes specific classes of systems in detail. A special feature is the strong connection to the genomic revolution that has dramatically enhanced our ability to define the function of gene products in living organisms. Throughout the book, protein data bank codes are given for structures discussed in the text, and students are encouraged to learn to use the PDB in their courses and research.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Author: Bruce Alberts

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 1317563743

Category: Science

Page: 1464

View: 6563

As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. The Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated with the latest research in the field of cell biology, and it provides an exceptional framework for teaching and learning. The entire illustration program has been greatly enhanced.Protein structures better illustrate structure–function relationships, icons are simpler and more consistent within and between chapters, and micrographs have been refreshed and updated with newer, clearer, or better images. As a new feature, each chapter now contains intriguing openended questions highlighting “What We Don’t Know,” introducing students to challenging areas of future research. Updated end-of-chapter problems reflect new research discussed in the text, and these problems have been expanded to all chapters by adding questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, pathogens, and the immune system.

Organic Synthesis

The Disconnection Approach

Author: Stuart Warren,Paul Wyatt

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119965535

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 2489

One approach to organic synthesis is retrosynthetic analysis. With this approach a chemist will start with the structure of their target molecule and progressively cut bonds to create simpler molecules. Reversing this process gives a synthetic route to the target molecule from simpler starting materials. This “disconnection” approach to synthesis is now a fundamental part of every organic synthesis course. Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd Edition introduces this important technique, to help students to design their own organic syntheses. There are forty chapters: those on the synthesis of given types of molecules alternate with strategy chapters in which the methods just learnt are placed in a wider context. The synthesis chapters cover many ways of making each type of molecule starting with simple aromatic and aliphatic compounds with one functional group and progressing to molecules with many functional groups. The strategy chapters cover questions of selectivity, protection, stereochemistry, and develop more advanced thinking via reagents specifically designed for difficult problems. Examples are drawn from pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, natural products, pheromones, perfumery and flavouring compounds, dyestuffs, monomers, and intermediates used in more advanced synthetic work. Reasons for wishing to synthesise each compound are given. This second edition has been fully revised and updated with a modern look. Recent examples and techniques are included and illustrated additional material has been added to take the student to the level required by the sequel, “Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control”. Several chapters contain extensive new material based on courses that the authors give to chemists in the pharmaceutical industry. Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd edition provides a full course in retrosynthetic analysis for chemistry and biochemistry students and a refresher for organic chemists working in industry and academia.

Classics in Total Synthesis

Targets, Strategies, Methods

Author: K. C. Nicolaou,E. J. Sorensen

Publisher: Wiley-VCH

ISBN: 9783527292844

Category: Science

Page: 821

View: 2921

This book is a must for every synthetic chemist. With didactic skill and clarity, K. C. Nicolaou and E. Sorensen present the most remarkable and ingenious total syntheses from outstanding synthetic organic chemists. To make the complex strategies more accessible, especially to the novice, each total synthesis is analyzed retrosynthetically. The authors then carefully explain each synthetic step and give hints on alternative methods and potential pitfalls. Numerous references to useful reviews and the original literature make this book an indispensable source of further information. Special emphasis is placed on the skillful use of graphics and schemes: Retrosynthetic analyses, reaction sequences, and stereochemically crucial steps are presented in boxed sections within the text. For easy reference, key intermediates are also shown in the margins. Graduate students and researchers alike will find this book a gold mine of useful information essential for their daily work. Every synthetic organic chemist will want to have a copy on his or her desk.

March's Advanced Organic Chemistry

Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure

Author: Michael B. Smith

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 9780470462591

Category: Science

Page: 2080

View: 7721

The new, revised and updated 7th edition of March’s Advanced Organic Chemistry clearly explains the theories and examples of organic chemistry, providing the most comprehensive resource about organic chemistry available. Readers are guided on planning and execution of multi-step synthetic reactions, with detailed descriptions of all the reactions. The first five chapters deal with the structure of organic compounds and discuss important organic chemistry bonds, fundamental principles of conformation, and stereochemistry of organic molecules, and reactive intermediates in organic chemistry. Chapters 6 to 9 are concerned with general principles of mechanism in organic chemistry, including acids and bases, photochemistry, sonochemistry and microwave irradiation, and finally the relationship between structure and reactivity. The last 10 chapters cover the nature and the scope of organic reactions and their mechanisms. The 7th edition proves again it is a must-have desktop reference and textbook for every student and professional working in organic chemistry or related fields. Key features of the 7th edition: Every chapter has been updated with the most recent reaction information with references to both the primary and review literature New to the 7th edition: 5,500 references since the last edition, updates / rewrites of the retained sections, and an updated index in Appendix B Contains more than 1650 reactions and 20,000 valuable references to the primary literature Includes appendices on the literature of organic chemistry and the classification of reactions according to the compounds synthesized Guides the reader on planning and execution of multi-step synthetic reactions, with detailed descriptions of all the reactions. Reviews of the previous edition: "...a favorite general organic chemistry text and an easy-to-use one-volume reference. We are confident that this book will remain a dominant reference and that it will reside on many chemists' personal bookshelves." –Journal of Medicinal Chemistry "Who can hope to be seriously accepted as a member of the organic chemistry community without being in possession of at least one edition of 'March'?" –Chemistry and Industry

Principles of Organic Chemistry

Author: Robert J. Ouellette,J. David Rawn

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128026340

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 7302

Class-tested and thoughtfully designed for student engagement, Principles of Organic Chemistry provides the tools and foundations needed by students in a short course or one-semester class on the subject. This book does not dilute the material or rely on rote memorization. Rather, it focuses on the underlying principles in order to make accessible the science that underpins so much of our day-to-day lives, as well as present further study and practice in medical and scientific fields. This book provides context and structure for learning the fundamental principles of organic chemistry, enabling the reader to proceed from simple to complex examples in a systematic and logical way. Utilizing clear and consistently colored figures, Principles of Organic Chemistry begins by exploring the step-by-step processes (or mechanisms) by which reactions occur to create molecular structures. It then describes some of the many ways these reactions make new compounds, examined by functional groups and corresponding common reaction mechanisms. Throughout, this book includes biochemical and pharmaceutical examples with varying degrees of difficulty, with worked answers and without, as well as advanced topics in later chapters for optional coverage. Incorporates valuable and engaging applications of the content to biological and industrial uses Includes a wealth of useful figures and problems to support reader comprehension and study Provides a high quality chapter on stereochemistry as well as advanced topics such as synthetic polymers and spectroscopy for class customization

Comprehensive Membrane Science and Engineering

Author: Enrico Drioli,Lidietta Giorno,Enrica Fontananova

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444637966

Category: Science

Page: 1720

View: 2008

Comprehensive Membrane Science and Engineering, Second Edition is an interdisciplinary and innovative reference work on membrane science and technology. Written by leading researchers and industry professionals from a range of backgrounds, chapters elaborate on recent and future developments in the field of membrane science and explore how the field has advanced since the previous edition published in 2010. Chapters are written by academics and practitioners across a variety of fields, including chemistry, chemical engineering, material science, physics, biology and food science. Each volume covers a wide spectrum of applications and advanced technologies, such as new membrane materials (e.g. thermally rearranged polymers, polymers of intrinsic microporosity and new hydrophobic fluoropolymer) and processes (e.g. reverse electrodialysis, membrane contractors, membrane crystallization, membrane condenser, membrane dryers and membrane emulsifiers) that have only recently proved their full potential for industrial application. This work covers the latest advances in membrane science, linking fundamental research with real-life practical applications using specially selected case studies of medium and large-scale membrane operations to demonstrate successes and failures with a look to future developments in the field. Contains comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage, helping readers understand the latest theory Offers readers a variety of perspectives on how membrane science and engineering research can be best applied in practice across a range of industries Provides the theory behind the limits, advantages, future developments and failure expectations of local membrane operations in emerging countries

Writing Reaction Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry

Author: Kenneth A. Savin

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124105092

Category: Science

Page: 510

View: 6431

Writing Reaction Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry, Third Edition, is a guide to understanding the movements of atoms and electrons in the reactions of organic molecules. Expanding on the successful book by Miller and Solomon, this new edition further enhances your understanding of reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry and shows that writing mechanisms is a practical method of applying knowledge of previously encountered reactions and reaction conditions to new reactions. The book has been extensively revised with new material including a completely new chapter on oxidation and reduction reactions including stereochemical reactions. It is also now illustrated with hundreds of colorful chemical structures to help you understand reaction processes more easily. The book also features new and extended problem sets and answers to help you understand the general principles and how to apply these to real applications. In addition, there are new information boxes throughout the text to provide useful background to reactions and the people behind the discovery of a reaction. This new edition will be of interest to students and research chemists who want to learn how to organize what may seem an overwhelming quantity of information into a set of simple general principles and guidelines for determining and describing organic reaction mechanisms. Extensively rewritten and reorganized with a completely new chapter on oxidation and reduction reactions including stereochemical reactions Essential for those who need to have mechanisms explained in greater detail than most organic chemistry textbooks provide Now illustrated with hundreds of colorful chemical structures to help you understand reaction processes more easily New and extended problem sets and answers to help you understand the general principles and how to apply this to real applications New information boxes throughout the text to provide useful background to reactions and the people behind the discovery of a reaction

Comprehensive Organic Synthesis

Author: N.A

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 008097743X

Category: Science

Page: 9806

View: 5659

The second edition of Comprehensive Organic Synthesis—winner of the 2015 PROSE Award for Multivolume Reference/Science from the Association of American Publishers—builds upon the highly respected first edition in drawing together the new common themes that underlie the many disparate areas of organic chemistry. These themes support effective and efficient synthetic strategies, thus providing a comprehensive overview of this important discipline. Fully revised and updated, this new set forms an essential reference work for all those seeking information on the solution of synthetic problems, whether they are experienced practitioners or chemists whose major interests lie outside organic synthesis. In addition, synthetic chemists requiring the essential facts in new areas, as well as students completely new to the field, will find Comprehensive Organic Synthesis, Second Edition an invaluable source, providing an authoritative overview of core concepts. Winner of the 2015 PROSE Award for Multivolume Reference/Science from the Association of American Publishers Contains more than170 articles across nine volumes, including detailed analysis of core topics such as bonds, oxidation, and reduction Includes more than10,000 schemes and images Fully revised and updated; important growth areas—including combinatorial chemistry, new technological, industrial, and green chemistry developments—are covered extensively