The fall of dictatorial regimes and the eruption of destructive civil conflicts around the world have led to calls for holding individuals accountable for human rights atrocities. International law had little to say on this subject from the time of the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials fifty years ago until very recently. In this well-researched book, Steven Ratner and Jason Abrams offer a comprehensive study of the promise and limitations of international criminal law as a means of enforcing international human rights and humanitarian law. They provide a searching analysis of the principal crimes under the law of nations, such as genocide and crimes against humanity. They go on to appraise the most important prosecutorial and other mechanisms developed to bring individuals to justice. After applying their conclusions in a detailed case study, the authors offer a series of compelling conclusions on the prospects for accountability. In this new edition the authors also cover recent developments such as the jurisprudence of the UN's Yugoslavia and Rwanda tribunals, new domestic attempts at accountability, and the International Criminal Court. This new edition has been revised and updated to include developments since 1997, including domestic prosecutions and truth commission, the work of the UN's Yugoslavia and Rwand Tribunals, and the International Criminal Court.
Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy
Author: Steven R. Ratner,Jason S. Abrams
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Dominik Pfeiffer entwickelt ein neues Theoriewerkzeug zur Analyse der Globalisierung von Transitional Justice, die ein vor einigen Jahrzehnten entstandener soziopolitischer Prozess ist, der sich durch und über eine Einbettung in Weltkultur (die „World Polity“) vollzogen hat. Es kam nicht nur zu einer weitgehenden Normalisierung, sondern auch zu einer Rationalisierung des Umgangs mit massiver Gewalt und Gräueltaten. Die Globalisierung von Transitional Justice ist als eine ambivalente Entwicklung zu begreifen, die zugleich für zu wenig und zu viel globale Gerechtigkeit sorgt: So entziehen sich trotz allem immer wieder mächtige Staaten der Ahndung von Makrogewalt, während gleichzeitig an anderen Orten Aufarbeitungsprozesse maßgeblich durch globale Normen und Mechanismen beeinflusst werden.
Eine makrosoziologische Analyse von Transitional Justice
Author: Dominik Pfeiffer
Category: Political Science
In a world full of armed conflict and human misery, global justice remains one of the most compelling missions of our time. Understanding the promises and limitations of global justice demands a careful appreciation of international law, the web of binding norms and institutions that help govern the behaviour of states and other global actors. This book provides a new interdisciplinary approach to global justice, one that integrates the work and insights of international law and contemporary ethics. It asks whether the core norms of international law are just, appraising them according to a standard of global justice derived from the fundamental values of peace and the protection of human rights. Through a combination of a careful explanation of the legal norms and philosophical argument, Ratner concludes that many international law norms meet such a standard of justice, even as distinct areas of injustice remain within the law and the verdict is still out on others. Among the subjects covered in the book are the rules on the use of force, self-determination, sovereign equality, the decision making procedures of key international organizations, the territorial scope of human rights obligations (including humanitarian intervention), and key areas of international economic law. Ultimately, the book shows how an understanding of international law's moral foundations will enrich the global justice debate, while exposing the ethical consequences of different rules.
A Moral Reckoning of the Law of Nations
Author: Steven R. Ratner
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Author: William A. Schabas
Category: Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
Despite the growth in international criminal courts and tribunals, the majority of cases concerning international criminal law are prosecuted at the domestic level. This means that both international and domestic courts have to contend with a plethora of relevant, but often contradictory, judgments by international institutions and by other domestic courts. This book provides a detailed investigation into the impact this pluralism has had on international criminal law and procedure, and examines the key problems which arise from it. The work identifies the various interpretations of the concept of pluralism and discusses how it manifests in a broad range of aspects of international criminal law and practice. These include substantive jurisdiction, the definition of crimes, modes of individual criminal responsibility for international crimes, sentencing, fair trial rights, law of evidence, truth-finding, and challenges faced by both international and domestic courts in gathering, testing and evaluating evidence. Authored by leading practitioners and academics in the field, the book employs pluralism as a methodological tool to advance the debate beyond the classic view of 'legal pluralism' leading to a problematic fragmentation of the international legal order. It argues instead that pluralism is a fundamental and indispensable feature of international criminal law which permeates it on several levels: through multiple legal regimes and enforcement fora, diversified sources and interpretations of concepts, and numerous identities underpinning the law and practice. The book addresses the virtues and dangers of pluralism, reflecting on the need for, and prospects of, harmonization of international criminal law around a common grammar. It ultimately brings together the theories of legal pluralism, the comparative law discourse on legal transplants, harmonization, and convergence, and the international legal debate on fragmentation to show where pluralism and divergence will need to be accepted as regular, and even beneficial, features of international criminal justice.
Author: Elies van Sliedregt,Sergey Vasiliev
Publisher: OUP Oxford
This new edition of International Law confirms the text's status as the definitive book on the subject. Combining both his expertise as academic and practitioner, Malcolm Shaw's survey of the subject motivates and challenges both student and professional. By offering an unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour, he ensures both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. The text has been updated throughout to reflect recent case law and treaty developments. It retains the detailed references which encourage and assist further reading and study.
Author: Malcolm N. Shaw
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The authors of this volume have been inspired by the scholar to which this "Liber Amicorum" is dedicated - Professor Ove Bring - to look into both the past and the future of international law. Like Ove Bring, they have dealt with many aspects of the law governing the use of force, from arms control to human rights, international criminal law, the UN Charter, and, of course, international humanitarian law. Like Professor Bring, they have allowed themselves to draw trajectories from history and into the future, and have shunned away from neither the controversial nor the speculative, be it on the Middle East, the invasion of Iraq or the independence of Kosovo. This collection brings together insights from a former UN Legal Counsel, a former Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC, present and former judges of the European Court of Justice, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, one present and one former member of the International Law Commission, as well as law professors and practitioners, from all Nordic countries, Germany and Australia. Together they form a highly challenging mosaic of perspectives on topical issues like cluster munitions, targeting, human rights in peace operations and the purposes of sentencing in international tribunals. The volume also contains a bibliography and a presentation of Professor Bring's work.
The Law as it was and the Law as it Should be
Author: Ola Engdahl,Pål Wrange
For a full list of entries and contributors, sample entries, and more, visit the Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women website. Featuring comprehensive global coverage of women's issues and concerns, from violence and sexuality to feminist theory, the Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women brings the field into the new millennium. In over 900 signed A-Z entries from US and Europe, Asia, the Americas, Oceania, and the Middle East, the women who pioneered the field from its inception collaborate with the new scholars who are shaping the future of women's studies to create the new standard work for anyone who needs information on women-related subjects.
Global Women's Issues and Knowledge
Author: Cheris Kramarae,Dale Spender
Now in its Third Edition, this bestselling reference text has established itself as the authoritative source covering the key concepts, theories, and methods in criminology and criminal justice. Edited by Eugene McLaughlin and John Muncie, two of the leading figures in the discipline, the book is: Comprehensive: with over 300 entries, the new edition contains multiple revisions, new entries and an expanded editorial introduction Definitive: concepts are precisely defined so students have a clear understanding of the history and development of each topic Student-focused: each entry maps connections across various fields and issues and includes further reading to extend students’ knowledge International: over 90 contributions from internationally renowned academics and practitioners ensure this book is global and comparative throughout
Author: Eugene McLaughlin,John Muncie
Category: Social Science
This study is based on the following questions: Which jurisdiction can and should be exercised for the prosecution of individuals responsible for gross and serious violations of human rights? And especially, in this regard, what is the role of universal jurisdiction?
Expansion of National Jurisdiction for Prosecuting Serious Crimes Under International Law
Author: Mitsue Inazumi
Publisher: Intersentia nv
Der ehemalige SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann gilt als einer der Hauptverantwortlichen für die »Endlösung« der Juden in Europa. Der Prozess gegen ihn fand 1961 in Jerusalem statt. Hannah Arendts Prozessbericht wurde von ihr 1964 als Buch publiziert und brachte eine Lawine ins Rollen: Es stieß bei seinem Erscheinen auf heftige Ablehnung in Israel, Deutschland und in den USA– und wurde zu einem Klassiker wie kaum ein anderes vergleichbares Werk zur Zeitgeschichte und ihrer Deutung.
Ein Bericht von der Banalität des Bösen
Author: Hannah Arendt
Publisher: Piper Verlag
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
In 1991 Australia instigated a national reconciliation project between indigenous and non-indigenous people. Despite being the longest-running reconciliation process, there has been no authoritative study of Australian reconciliation to date. Reconciliation and Colonial Power is the first book to analyze Australian reconciliation as a process, filling a significant gap in theoretical and empirical understanding. Damien Short offers a sociological interpretation of this process which suggests that, rather than being a genuine attempt at atonement, Australian reconciliation is perhaps better understood as the latest stage in the colonial project. He considers the relevance of acknowledgement and apology, restitution and rights, nation building and state legitimacy to the reconciliation project. This work compliments the burgeoning literature on reconciliation theory and practice and provides fertile material for comparisons with reconciliation processes in other countries such as Chile and South Africa.
Indigenous Rights in Australia
Author: Damien Short
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Category: Social Science
How does the globalization of law, the emergence of multiple and shifting venues of legal accountability, enhance or evade the fulfillment of international human rights? Alison Brysk’s edited volume aims to assess the institutional and political factors that determine the influence of the globalization of law on the realization of human rights. The globalization of law has the potential to move the international human rights regime from the generation of norms to the fulfillment of rights, through direct enforcement, reshaping state policy, granting access to civil society, and global governance of transnational forces. In this volume, an international and interdisciplinary team of scholars explores the development of new norms, mechanisms, and practices of international legal accountability for human rights abuse, and tests their power in a series of "hard cases." The studies find that new norms and mechanisms have been surprisingly effective globally, in terms of treaty adherence, international courts, regime change, and even the diffusion of citizenship rights, but this effect is conditioned by regional and domestic structures of influence and access. However, law has a more mixed impact on abuses in Mexico, Israel-Palestine and India. Brysk concludes that the globalization of law is transforming sovereignty and fostering the shift from norms to fulfillment, but that peripheral states and domains often remain beyond the reach of this transformation. Theoretically framed, but comprised of empirical case material, this edited volume will be useful for both graduate students and academics in law, political science, human rights, international relations, global and international studies, and law and society.
Getting from Rights to Justice
Author: Alison Brysk
Category: Political Science
In recent years a number of criminal tribunals have been established to investigate, prosecute and try individuals accused of serious violations of international humanitarian law and international human rights law. These tribunals have been described as 'hybrid' or 'internationalised' tribunals as their structure and applicable law consist of both international and national elements. Six such tribunals are currently in operation: the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, the International Judges and Prosecutors Programme in Kosovo, the War Crimes Chamber for Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Iraqi High Tribunal and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon. The Special Panels for Serious Crimes in East Timor suspended operation in May 2005, although there continues to be some international involvement in investigation and prosecution of serious crimes. Suggestions have also been made that this model of tribunal would be appropriate for the prosecution of atrocities committed in, among others, Burundi, the Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Liberia, as well as for a wider range of international crimes, most recently piracy. The key aims of this book are: to place the model of hybrid and internationalised tribunals in the context of other mechanisms to try international crimes; to examine the increasing demand for the establishment of hybrid and internationalised judicial institutions and the factors driving such demand; to define the category of 'hybrid and internationalised tribunals' by examining the key features of the existing and proposed hybrid or internationalised tribunals, as well as the features of those institutions with international elements that are generally excluded from this category; to determine the legal and jurisdictional bases of existing hybrid and internationalised tribunals; to analyse how the legal and jurisdictional basis of a tribunal affects other issues, such as the applicable law, the application of amnesties and immunities and the relationship of the tribunal with the host state, third states, national courts and other international criminal tribunals. The book concentrates on the definitional, legal and jurisdictional aspects of hybrid and internationalised criminal tribunals as this has been the subject of some confusion in arguments before the tribunals and in the judgments of the tribunals. In its concluding section, the book examines the future role of internationalised and hybrid criminal tribunals, particularly in light of the establishment of the ICC, and the potential use of such tribunals in other contexts. It also assesses how hybrid and internationalised tribunals fit into a 'multi-layered framework' of international criminal law and transitional justice.
Selected Jurisdictional Issues
Author: Sarah Williams
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Grundthese des Buches ist, dass ein Paradigmenwechsel stattgefunden hat, der den Menschen zum primaren Volkerrechtssubjekt macht. Diese These wird vor dem Hintergrund der Ideengeschichte und Dogmatik der Volkerrechtspersonlichkeit des Menschen entfaltet und auf die Rechtspraxis in zahlreichen Teilrechtsgebieten, angefangen vom Recht der internationalen Verantwortung uber das Recht des bewaffneten Konflikts, das Recht der Katastrophenhilfe, das internationale Strafrecht, das internationale Umweltrecht, das Konsularrecht und das Recht des diplomatischen Schutzes, das internationale Arbeitsrecht, das Fluchtlingsrecht bis hin zum internationalen Investitionsschutzrecht gestutzt. Der neue Volkerrechtsstatus des Menschen wird mit dem Begriff des subjektiven internationalen Rechts auf den Punkt gebracht.
Die Rechtsstellung des Individuums im Völkerrecht
Author: Anne Peters
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
Beiträge zur Genozidforschung
Author: Dominik J. Schaller
Category: Armenian massacres, 1915-1923
Der Hereroaufstand in Sudwestafrika im Jahre 1904, in dessen Folge deutsche Soldaten Angehorige des Hererovolkes massenhaft in den Tod trieben, bildet seit der Unabhangigkeit Namibias 1990 die Grundlage fur Versuche von Hererovertretern, von Deutschland Entschadigungszahlungen auf politischem Wege, daneben aber auch vor internationalen und US-amerikanischen Gerichten einzufordern. Aus diesem Anlass befasst sich vorliegendes Werk sowohl mit der volkerrechtlichen Haftung Deutschlands als auch mit den Erfolgsaussichten einer Entschadigungsklage vor einem US-amerikanischen Gericht. Beispielhaft wird dabei untersucht, inwieweit das Volkerrecht uberhaupt zur Aufarbeitung von historischem Unrecht geeignet ist."
die völkerrechtliche Haftung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland für das Vorgehen des Deutschen Reiches gegen die Herero in Deutsch-Südwestafrika im Jahre 1904 und ihre Durchsetzung vor einem nationalen Gericht
Author: Steffen Eicker
Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated
Author: Leon Friedman,Susan W. Tiefenbrun,Hofstra University. School of Law
Category: War crime trials