A Farewell to Entropy

Statistical Thermodynamics Based on Information : S

Author: Arieh Ben-Naim

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812707069

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 6824

The principal message of this book is that thermodynamics and statistical mechanics will benefit from replacing the unfortunate, misleading and mysterious term ?entropy? with a more familiar, meaningful and appropriate term such as information, missing information or uncertainty. This replacement would facilitate the interpretation of the ?driving force? of many processes in terms of informational changes and dispel the mystery that has always enshrouded entropy.It has been 140 years since Clausius coined the term ?entropy?; almost 50 years since Shannon developed the mathematical theory of ?information? ? subsequently renamed ?entropy.? In this book, the author advocates replacing ?entropy? by ?information,? a term that has become widely used in many branches of science.The author also takes a new and bold approach to thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Information is used not only as a tool for predicting distributions but as the fundamental cornerstone concept of thermodynamics, held until now by the term ?entropy.? The topics covered include the fundamentals of probability and information theory; the general concept of information as well as the particular concept of information as applied in thermodynamics; the re-derivation of the Sackur?Tetrode equation for the entropy of an ideal gas from purely informational arguments; the fundamental formalism of statistical mechanics; and many examples of simple processes the ?driving force? for which is analyzed in terms of information.

Die egoistische Information

Eine Theorie des Lebens

Author: Peter Mersch

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3842343833

Category: Science

Page: 688

View: 6092

Prof. Dr. Dr. Gerhard Vollmer (Mitbegründer der Evolutionären Erkenntnistheorie): "Mir scheint, dass hier die bisher beste Verallgemeinerung des Evolutionsgedankens vorliegt." Kurzbeschreibung: Alles Leben ist absolute und komparative Kompetenzverlustvermeidung, oder anders gesagt: Lebewesen und sonstige Evolutionsakteure verhalten sich informationsegoistisch. Aus dieser mit dem Zweiten Hauptsatz der Thermodynamik begründbaren Verallgemeinerung der Theorie der egoistischen Gene wird im Laufe des Buches ein Großteil der uns umgebenden belebten Welt evolutionär rekonstruiert, von einfachsten Lebensformen bis hin zu aktuellen sozialen Phänomenen und Problemstellungen moderner menschlicher Gesellschaften. Mehr ist nicht erforderlich. So gesehen ist die Welt einfach. Als Verhaltensmodell stellt die Theorie der egoistischen Information eine Alternative zum Modell des Homo oeconomicus dar: Menschen und sonstige Lebewesen sind gemäß ihr keine einfachen Nutzenmaximierer, sondern primär darum bemüht, ihre Kompetenzen mit der Zeit und in Relation zu ihrer Umwelt und anderen nicht schwächer werden zu lassen. Zudem werden einige wesentliche Theorien und Theoreme auf sie zurückgeführt. Dazu zählen: 1) Charles Darwins biologische Selektionstheorie, 2) Ricardos Theorem in einer verallgemeinerten kompetenzbasierten Formulierung und 3) die Population Ecology of Organizations Theory. Für die Eusozialität im Tierreich, die sozialen Phänomene demografischer Wandel und demografisch-ökonomisches Paradoxon und die Begriffe Sozialdarwinismus und Zivilisation werden neue, sich unmittelbar auf die Theorie der egoistischen Information stützende Erklärungen und Definitionen vorgestellt. Das Paradigma der egoistischen Information ist Weltbild und Welterklärung zugleich.

Statistical Mechanics

A Concise Introduction for Chemists

Author: B. Widom

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521009669

Category: Science

Page: 170

View: 5238

This is a 2002 introduction to statistical mechanics, intended for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students.

An Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics

Author: Robert Paul Holland Gasser,William Graham Richards

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810223724

Category: Science

Page: 177

View: 6444

Statistical thermodynamics plays a vital linking role between quantum theory and chemical thermodynamics, yet students often find the subject unpalatable.In this updated version of a popular text, the authors overcome this by emphasising the concepts involved, in particular demystifying the partition function. They do not get bogged down in the mathematical niceties that are essential for a profound study of the subject but which can confuse the beginner. Strong emphasis is placed on the physical basis of statistical thermodynamics and the relations with experiment. After a clear exposition of the distribution laws, partition functions, heat capacities, chemical equilibria and kinetics, the subject is further illuminated by a discussion of low-temperature phenomena and spectroscopy. The coverage is brought right up to date with a chapter on computer simulation and a final section which ranges beyond the narrow limits usually associated with student texts to emphasise the common dependence of macroscopic behaviour on the properties of constituent atoms and molecules.Since first published in 1974 as ?Entropy and Energy Levels?, the book has been very popular with students. This revised and updated version will no doubt serve the same needs.

Entropy And Its Physical Meaning

Author: J. S. Dugdale

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780748405695

Category: Science

Page: 300

View: 377

This text gives students a clear and easily understood introduction to entropy - a central concept in thermodynamics, but one which is often regarded as the most difficult to grasp. Professor Dugdale first presents a classical and historical view of entropy, looking in detail at the scientists who developed the concept, and at how they arrived at their ideas. This is followed by a statistical treatment which provides a more physical portrait of entropy, relating it to disorder and showing how physical and chemical systems tend to states of order at low temperatures. Dugdale includes here a brief account of some of the more intriguing manifestations of order in properties such as superconductivity and superfluidity.Entropy and Its Physical Meaning also includes a number of exercises which can be used for both self- learning and class work. It is intended to provide a complete understanding of the concept of entropy, making it valuable reading for undergraduates in physics, physical sciences and engineering, and for students studying thermodynamics within other science courses such as meteorology, biology and medicine.

Jetzt

Die Physik der Zeit

Author: Richard A. Muller

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104038228

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 3833

Sie lesen jetzt das Wort »jetzt« – und schon ist es vergangen. Das flüchtige Dasein der Gegenwart hat Philosophen und Physiker vor die größten Rätsel gestellt: Was ist die Zeit? Und warum fließt sie? Generationen von Wissenschaftlern haben sich vergeblich um Antworten bemüht, einige haben es aufgegeben. Nicht so Richard A. Muller. Er hat eine Theorie der Zeit aufgestellt, die neu ist und experimentell überprüfbar. Um sie vorzustellen, erklärt er zunächst mit großem Geschick die physikalischen Grundkonzepte wie Relativität, Entropie, Verschränkung, Antimaterie und Urknall. Darauf aufbauend entfaltet er seine provozierend neue Sicht mit all ihren Folgen für die Philosophie oder die Frage nach der Willensfreiheit. Eine kraftvolle und überzeugende Vision für die Lösung des alten Rätsels der Zeit. »Muller hat einen bemerkenswert frischen und aufregenden Ansatz für die Erklärung der Zeit.« Saul Perlmutter, Physik-Nobelpreisträger »Ein provokatives und gut argumentiertes Buch über die Natur der Zeit.« Lee Smolin

Statistical Physics

An Introductory Course

Author: Daniel J. Amit,Yosef Verbin

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810234768

Category: Science

Page: 565

View: 6774

This invaluable textbook is an introduction to statistical physics that has been written primarily for self-study. It provides a comprehensive approach to the main ideas of statistical physics at the level of an introductory course, starting from the kinetic theory of gases and proceeding all the way to Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics. Each idea is brought out with ample motivation and clear, step-by-step, deductive exposition. The key points and methods are presented and discussed on the basis of concrete representative systems, such as the paramagnet, Einstein's solid, the diatomic gas, black body radiation, electric conductivity in metals and superfluidity. The book is written in a stimulating style and is accompanied by a large number of exercises appropriately placed within the text and by self-assessment problems at the end of each chapter. Detailed solutions of all the exercises are provided.

Statistical Mechanics

A Survival Guide

Author: A.M. Glazer,J.S. Wark

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780198508168

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 5433

This superb book provides the reader with a general perspective of an interdisciplinary field between statistical physics and information sciences/engineering. It is effectively the only book on the subject, aside from a collection of papers published fourteen years ago. The field is a rapidly expanding one and this self-contained presentation will be sure to acquire a wide audience in physics and engineering.

Molecular Theory of Water and Aqueous Solutions: Understanding water

Author: Arieh Ben-Naim

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 629

View: 2495

The aim of this book is to explain the unusual properties of both pure liquid water and simple aqueous solutions, in terms of the properties of single molecules and interactions among small numbers of water molecules. It is mostly the result of the author's own research spanning over 40 years in the field of aqueous solutions. An understanding of the properties of liquid water is a prelude to the understanding of the role of water in biological systems and for the evolvement of life. The book is targeted at anyone who is interested in the outstanding properties of water and its role in biological systems. It is addressed to both students and researchers in chemistry, physics and biology.

Reasoning about Luck

Probability and Its Uses in Physics

Author: Vinay Ambegaokar

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521447379

Category: Science

Page: 231

View: 9034

This book introduces the reader to statistical reasoning and its use in physics. It differs from other treatments of physics for nonscientists in its wide-ranging use of quantitative methods, which assume only that the reader can add, subtract, multiply and divide with confidence. The author begins with a self-contained introduction to the everyday uses of probability, including the quantitative assessment of statistical information. The author develops the basic idea of mechanical motion, the molecular theory of gases, entropy as a measure of molecular agitation, limitations on the conversion of heat to work, the physics of the direction of time; chaos, and the role of probability in quantum mechanics. To aid self instruction, there are solved problems at the end of each chapter. This book is perfect for undergraduate physics students and nonscience majors.

Thermal Physics

Entropy and Free Energies

Author: Joon Chang Lee

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810248741

Category: Science

Page: 201

View: 9154

An informal, readable introduction to the basic ideas of thermal physics.

The Mathematical Theory of Information

Author: Jan Kåhre

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402070648

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 502

View: 7244

The general concept of information is here, for the first time, defined mathematically by adding one single axiom to the probability theory. This Mathematical Theory of Information is explored in fourteen chapters: 1. Information can be measured in different units, in anything from bits to dollars. We will here argue that any measure is acceptable if it does not violate the Law of Diminishing Information. This law is supported by two independent arguments: one derived from the Bar-Hillel ideal receiver, the other is based on Shannon's noisy channel. The entropy in the 'classical information theory' is one of the measures conforming to the Law of Diminishing Information, but it has, however, properties such as being symmetric, which makes it unsuitable for some applications. The measure reliability is found to be a universal information measure. 2. For discrete and finite signals, the Law of Diminishing Information is defined mathematically, using probability theory and matrix algebra. 3. The Law of Diminishing Information is used as an axiom to derive essential properties of information. Byron's law: there is more information in a lie than in gibberish. Preservation: no information is lost in a reversible channel. Etc. The Mathematical Theory of Information supports colligation, i. e. the property to bind facts together making 'two plus two greater than four'. Colligation is a must when the information carries knowledge, or is a base for decisions. In such cases, reliability is always a useful information measure. Entropy does not allow colligation.

Physikalische Chemie

Author: Peter W. Atkins,Julio de Paula,Michael Bär,Anna Schleitzer,Carsten Heinisch

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527315462

Category: Science

Page: 1220

View: 458


Thermal Physics

Author: Ralph Baierlein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521658386

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 2879

Clear and reader-friendly, this is an ideal textbook for students seeking an introduction to thermal physics. Written by an experienced teacher and extensively class-tested, Thermal Physics provides a comprehensive grounding in thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. A key feature of this text is its readily accessible introductory chapters, which begin with a review of fundamental ideas. Entropy, conceived microscopically and statistically, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics are introduced early in the book. Throughout, topics are built on a conceptual foundation of four linked elements: entropy and the Second Law, the canonical probability distribution, the partition function, and the chemical potential. As well as providing a solid preparation in the basics of the subject, the text goes on to explain exciting recent developments such as Bose-Einstein condensation and critical phenomena. Key equations are highlighted throughout, and each chapter contains a summary of essential ideas and an extensive set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty. A free solutions manual is available for instructors (ISBN 0521 658608). Thermal Physics is suitable for both undergraduates and graduates in physics and astronomy.

Maxwell's Demon 2 Entropy, Classical and Quantum Information, Computing

Author: Harvey Leff,Andrew F. Rex

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420033991

Category: Science

Page: 502

View: 5686

Over 130 years ago, James Clerk Maxwell introduced his hypothetical "demon" as a challenge to the scope of the second law of thermodynamics. Fascination with the demon persisted throughout the development of statistical and quantum physics, information theory, and computer science, and links have been established between Maxwell's demon and each of these disciplines. The demon's seductive quality makes it appealing to physical scientists, engineers, computer scientists, biologists, psychologists, and historians and philosophers of science. Since the publication of Maxwell's Demon: Entropy, Information, Computing in 1990, Maxwell's demon has been the subject of renewed and increased interest by numerous researchers in the fields mentioned above. Updated and expanded, Maxwell's Demon 2: Entropy, Classical and Quantum Information, Computing retains many of the seminal papers that appeared in the first edition, including the original thoughts of James Clerk Maxwell and William Thomson; a historical review by Martin Klein; and key articles by Leo Szilard, Leon Brillouin, Rolf Landauer, and Charles Bennett that led to new branches of research on the demon. This second edition contains newer articles by Landauer, Bennett, and others, related to Landauer's principle; connections with quantum mechanics; algorithmic information; and the thermodynamics and limits of computation. The book also includes two separate bibliographies: an alphabetical listing by author and a chronological bibliography that is annotated by the editors and contains selected quotes from the books and articles listed. The bibliography has more than doubled in size since publication of the first edition and now contains over 570 entries.

CERN Courier

Author: European Organization for Nuclear Research

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nuclear energy

Page: N.A

View: 1165


Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Statistics

Author: Aleksandr Iakovlevich Khinchin

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486400259

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 4662

A coherent, well-organized look at the basis of quantum statistics’ computational methods, the determination of the mean values of occupation numbers, the foundations of the statistics of photons and material particles, thermodynamics.

Die Mechanische Wärmetheorie

Band II: Die Mechanische Behandlung der Elektrizität, Anwendung der Mechanischen Wärmetheorie Zu Grunde Liegenden Prinzipien Auf Die Elektrizität

Author: Rudolf Clausius

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 1421245728

Category: Electromechanical analogies

Page: 368

View: 1096

This Elibron Classics title is a reprint of the original edition published by Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn in Braunschweig, 1879.