Two-Step Approaches to Natural Language Formalism

Author: Frank Morawietz

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110197251

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 260

View: 2020

This book presents a unified formal approach to various contemporary linguistic formalisms such as Government & Binding, Minimalism or Tree Adjoining Grammar. Through a careful introduction of mathematical techniques from logic, automata theory and universal algebra, the book aims at graduate students and researchers who want to learn more about tightly constrained logical approaches to natural language syntax. Therefore it features a complete and well illustrated introduction to the connection between declarative approaches formalized in monadic second-order logic (MSO) and generative ones formalized in various forms of automata as well as of tree grammars. Since MSO logic (on trees) yields only context-free languages, and at least the last two of the formalisms mentioned above clearly belong to the class of mildly context-sensitive formalisms, it becomes necessary to deal with the problem of the descriptive complexity of the formalisms involved in another way. The proposed genuinely new two-step approach overcomes this limitation of MSO logic while still retaining the desired tightly controlled formal properties.

Quantifiers and Cognition: Logical and Computational Perspectives

Author: Jakub Szymanik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319287494

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 211

View: 955

This volume on the semantic complexity of natural language explores the question why some sentences are more difficult than others. While doing so, it lays the groundwork for extending semantic theory with computational and cognitive aspects by combining linguistics and logic with computations and cognition. Quantifier expressions occur whenever we describe the world and communicate about it. Generalized quantifier theory is therefore one of the basic tools of linguistics today, studying the possible meanings and the inferential power of quantifier expressions by logical means. The classic version was developed in the 1980s, at the interface of linguistics, mathematics and philosophy. Before this volume, advances in "classic" generalized quantifier theory mainly focused on logical questions and their applications to linguistics, this volume adds a computational component, the third pillar of language use and logical activity. This book is essential reading for researchers in linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, logic, AI, and computer science.

Grammatical theory

From transformational grammar to constraint-based approaches. Second revised and extended edition

Author: Stefan Müller

Publisher: Language Science Press

ISBN: 3961100748

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 9236

This book introduces formal grammar theories that play a role in current linguistic the- orizing (Phrase Structure Grammar, Transformational Grammar/Government & Binding, Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, Lexical Functional Grammar, Categorial Gram- mar, Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Construction Grammar, Tree Adjoining Grammar). The key assumptions are explained and it is shown how the respective the- ory treats arguments and adjuncts, the active/passive alternation, local reorderings, verb placement, and fronting of constituents over long distances. The analyses are explained with German as the object language. The second part of the book compares these approaches with respect to their predictions regarding language acquisition and psycholinguistic plausibility. The nativism hypothe- sis, which assumes that humans posses genetically determined innate language-specific knowledge, is critically examined and alternative models of language acquisition are dis- cussed. The second part then addresses controversial issues of current theory building such as the question of flat or binary branching structures being more appropriate, the question whether constructions should be treated on the phrasal or the lexical level, and the question whether abstract, non-visible entities should play a role in syntactic analyses. It is shown that the analyses suggested in the respective frameworks are often translatable into each other. The book closes with a chapter showing how properties common to all languages or to certain classes of languages can be captured. “With this critical yet fair reflection on various grammatical theories, Müller fills what has been a major gap in the literature.” Karen Lehmann, Zeitschrift für Rezensionen zur germanistischen Sprachwissenschaft, 2012 “Stefan Müller’ s recent introductory textbook, “Grammatiktheorie”, is an astonishingly comprehensive and insightful survey of the present state of syntactic theory for beginning students.” Wolfgang Sternefeld und Frank Richter, Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft, 2012 “This is the kind of work that has been sought after for a while. [...] The impartial and objective discussion offered by the author is particularly refreshing.” Werner Abraham, Germanistik, 2012

Syntax - Theory and Analysis

Author: Tibor Kiss

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110363704

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 652

View: 3157

The handbook offers an overview of syntactic theory and analysis, in terms of different theories, different languages, and different methods. The Handbook presents the state of art in syntactic analysis, also dealing with the methodology employed, and the rules of argumentation required to achieve such analyses for a wide range of phenomena.

A Descriptive Approach to Language-Theoretic Complexity

Author: James Rogers

Publisher: Center for the Study of Language and Information Publications

ISBN: 9781575861364

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 216

View: 1317

Early formal specifications of natural language syntax were quite closely connected to the notion of abstract machines for computing them. More recently, this approach has been superseded by one in which languages are specified in terms of systems of constraints on the structure of their sentences. This has made complexity results difficult to obtain. This book introduces a way of obtaining such results. It presents a natural and quite general means of expressing constraints on the structure of trees and shows that the languages that can be specified by systems of such constraints are exactly those computable by a particular standard class of abstract machines. Thus the difficulty of processing a construction can be reduced to the difficulty of expressing the constraints that specify it.

Computer Science Logic

18th International Workshop, CSL 2004, 13th Annual Conference of the EACSL, Karpacz, Poland, September 20-24, 2004, Proceedings

Author: Jerzy Marcinkowski

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computer science

Page: 520

View: 7517

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 18th International Workshop on Computer Science Logic, CSL 2004, held as the 13th Annual Conference of the EACSL in Karpacz, Poland, in September 2004. The 33 revised full papers presented together with 5 invited contributions were carefully reviewed and selected from 88 papers submitted. All current aspects of logic in computer science are addressed ranging from mathematical logic and logical foundations to methodological issues and applications of logics in various computing contexts.

Complexity and Coherence

Approaches to Linguistic Research and Language Teaching

Author: Josef J. Schmied,Christoph Haase,Renata Povolná

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Cohesion (Linguistics)

Page: 207

View: 6757


Emotional Cognitive Neural Algorithms with Engineering Applications

Dynamic Logic: From Vague to Crisp

Author: Leonid Perlovsky,Ross Deming,Roman Ilin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642228291

Category: Computers

Page: 202

View: 5128

Dynamic logic (DL) recently had a highest impact on the development in several areas of modeling and algorithm design. The book discusses classical algorithms used for 30 to 50 years (where improvements are often measured by signal-to-clutter ratio), and also new areas, which did not previously exist. These achievements were recognized by National and International awards. Emerging areas include cognitive, emotional, intelligent systems, data mining, modeling of the mind, higher cognitive functions, evolution of languages and other. Classical areas include detection, recognition, tracking, fusion, prediction, inverse scattering, and financial prediction. All these classical areas are extended to using mixture models, which previously was considered unsolvable in most cases. Recent neuroimaging experiments proved that the brain-mind actually uses DL. „Emotional Cognitive Neural Algorithms with Engineering Applications“ is written for professional scientists and engineers developing computer and information systems, for professors teaching modeling and algorithms, and for students working on Masters and Ph.D. degrees in these areas. The book will be of interest to psychologists and neuroscientists interested in mathematical models of the brain and min das well.

Visualizing Document Processing

Innovations in Communication Patterns and Textual Forms

Author: Graziella Tonfoni,Lakhmi Jain

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110895757

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 221

View: 9605

The book aims to encourage multiple perspective reading attitudes, which are meant to trigger and inspire new ways of viewing and engineering information. An innovative linguistic theory as well as a new model for text generation and text understanding are illustrated. The linguistic theory, enhanced by a novel artificial intelligence-based approach, will help readers to acquire information engineering skills and may be implemented in the design of knowledge management systems.

FGCS '92

Fifth Generation Computer Systems 1992

Author: N.A

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9789051990997

Category: Computer architecture

Page: 1218

View: 5712

The FGCS project was introduced at a congerence in 1981 and commenced the following year. This volume contains the reports on the final phase of the project, showing how the research goals set were achieved.

Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty

6th European Conference, ECSQARU 2001, Toulouse, France, September 19-21, 2001. Proceedings

Author: European Conference on Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning and Uncertainty,Salem Benferhat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540424644

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 818

View: 7974

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty, ECSQARU 2001, held in Toulouse, France in September 2001. The 68 revised full papers presented together with three invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from over a hundred submissions. The book offers topical sections on decision theory, partially observable Markov decision processes, decision-making, coherent probabilities, Bayesian networks, learning causal networks, graphical representation of uncertainty, imprecise probabilities, belief functions, fuzzy sets and rough sets, possibility theory, merging, belief revision and preferences, inconsistency handling, default logic, logic programming, etc.

Finite Model Theory and Its Applications

Author: Erich Grädel,Phokion G. Kolaitis,Leonid Libkin,Maarten Marx,Joel Spencer,Moshe Y. Vardi,Yde Venema,Scott Weinstein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540004289

Category: Computers

Page: 437

View: 4429

Finite model theory,as understoodhere, is an areaof mathematicallogic that has developed in close connection with applications to computer science, in particular the theory of computational complexity and database theory. One of the fundamental insights of mathematical logic is that our understanding of mathematical phenomena is enriched by elevating the languages we use to describe mathematical structures to objects of explicit study. If mathematics is the science of patterns, then the media through which we discern patterns, as well as the structures in which we discern them, command our attention. It isthis aspect oflogicwhichis mostprominentin model theory,“thebranchof mathematical logic which deals with the relation between a formal language and its interpretations”. No wonder, then, that mathematical logic, and ?nite model theory in particular, should ?nd manifold applications in computer science: from specifying programs to querying databases, computer science is rife with phenomena whose understanding requires close attention to the interaction between language and structure. This volume gives a broadoverviewof some central themes of ?nite model theory: expressive power, descriptive complexity, and zero–one laws, together with selected applications to database theory and arti?cial intelligence, es- cially constraint databases and constraint satisfaction problems. The ?nal chapter provides a concise modern introduction to modal logic,which emp- sizes the continuity in spirit and technique with ?nite model theory.

Logical Dynamics of Information and Interaction

Author: Johan van Benthem

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139500465

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 7727

This book develops a view of logic as a theory of information-driven agency and intelligent interaction between many agents - with conversation, argumentation and games as guiding examples. It provides one uniform account of dynamic logics for acts of inference, observation, questions and communication, that can handle both update of knowledge and revision of beliefs. It then extends the dynamic style of analysis to include changing preferences and goals, temporal processes, group action and strategic interaction in games. Throughout, the book develops a mathematical theory unifying all these systems, and positioning them at the interface of logic, philosophy, computer science and game theory. A series of further chapters explores repercussions of the 'dynamic stance' for these areas, as well as cognitive science.