A Descriptive Approach to Language-Theoretic Complexity

Author: James Rogers

Publisher: Center for the Study of Language and Information Publications

ISBN: 9781575861364

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 216

View: 875

Early formal specifications of natural language syntax were quite closely connected to the notion of abstract machines for computing them. More recently, this approach has been superseded by one in which languages are specified in terms of systems of constraints on the structure of their sentences. This has made complexity results difficult to obtain. This book introduces a way of obtaining such results. It presents a natural and quite general means of expressing constraints on the structure of trees and shows that the languages that can be specified by systems of such constraints are exactly those computable by a particular standard class of abstract machines. Thus the difficulty of processing a construction can be reduced to the difficulty of expressing the constraints that specify it.

Two-Step Approaches to Natural Language Formalism

Author: Frank Morawietz

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110197251

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 260

View: 2788

This book presents a unified formal approach to various contemporary linguistic formalisms such as Government & Binding, Minimalism or Tree Adjoining Grammar. Through a careful introduction of mathematical techniques from logic, automata theory and universal algebra, the book aims at graduate students and researchers who want to learn more about tightly constrained logical approaches to natural language syntax. Therefore it features a complete and well illustrated introduction to the connection between declarative approaches formalized in monadic second-order logic (MSO) and generative ones formalized in various forms of automata as well as of tree grammars. Since MSO logic (on trees) yields only context-free languages, and at least the last two of the formalisms mentioned above clearly belong to the class of mildly context-sensitive formalisms, it becomes necessary to deal with the problem of the descriptive complexity of the formalisms involved in another way. The proposed genuinely new two-step approach overcomes this limitation of MSO logic while still retaining the desired tightly controlled formal properties.

Quantifiers and Cognition: Logical and Computational Perspectives

Author: Jakub Szymanik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319287494

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 211

View: 3387

This volume on the semantic complexity of natural language explores the question why some sentences are more difficult than others. While doing so, it lays the groundwork for extending semantic theory with computational and cognitive aspects by combining linguistics and logic with computations and cognition. Quantifier expressions occur whenever we describe the world and communicate about it. Generalized quantifier theory is therefore one of the basic tools of linguistics today, studying the possible meanings and the inferential power of quantifier expressions by logical means. The classic version was developed in the 1980s, at the interface of linguistics, mathematics and philosophy. Before this volume, advances in "classic" generalized quantifier theory mainly focused on logical questions and their applications to linguistics, this volume adds a computational component, the third pillar of language use and logical activity. This book is essential reading for researchers in linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science, logic, AI, and computer science.

Syntax - Theory and Analysis

Author: Tibor Kiss

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110363704

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 652

View: 5332

The handbook offers an overview of syntactic theory and analysis, in terms of different theories, different languages, and different methods. The Handbook presents the state of art in syntactic analysis, also dealing with the methodology employed, and the rules of argumentation required to achieve such analyses for a wide range of phenomena.

Grammatical theory

From transformational grammar to constraint-based approaches. Second revised and extended edition

Author: Stefan Müller

Publisher: Language Science Press

ISBN: 3961100748


Page: N.A

View: 9127

This book introduces formal grammar theories that play a role in current linguistic the- orizing (Phrase Structure Grammar, Transformational Grammar/Government & Binding, Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, Lexical Functional Grammar, Categorial Gram- mar, Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Construction Grammar, Tree Adjoining Grammar). The key assumptions are explained and it is shown how the respective the- ory treats arguments and adjuncts, the active/passive alternation, local reorderings, verb placement, and fronting of constituents over long distances. The analyses are explained with German as the object language. The second part of the book compares these approaches with respect to their predictions regarding language acquisition and psycholinguistic plausibility. The nativism hypothe- sis, which assumes that humans posses genetically determined innate language-specific knowledge, is critically examined and alternative models of language acquisition are dis- cussed. The second part then addresses controversial issues of current theory building such as the question of flat or binary branching structures being more appropriate, the question whether constructions should be treated on the phrasal or the lexical level, and the question whether abstract, non-visible entities should play a role in syntactic analyses. It is shown that the analyses suggested in the respective frameworks are often translatable into each other. The book closes with a chapter showing how properties common to all languages or to certain classes of languages can be captured. “With this critical yet fair reflection on various grammatical theories, Müller fills what has been a major gap in the literature.” Karen Lehmann, Zeitschrift für Rezensionen zur germanistischen Sprachwissenschaft, 2012 “Stefan Müller’ s recent introductory textbook, “Grammatiktheorie”, is an astonishingly comprehensive and insightful survey of the present state of syntactic theory for beginning students.” Wolfgang Sternefeld und Frank Richter, Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft, 2012 “This is the kind of work that has been sought after for a while. [...] The impartial and objective discussion offered by the author is particularly refreshing.” Werner Abraham, Germanistik, 2012

Complexity and Coherence

Approaches to Linguistic Research and Language Teaching

Author: Josef J. Schmied,Christoph Haase,Renata Povolná

Publisher: N.A


Category: Cohesion (Linguistics)

Page: 207

View: 1804

Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics

Second International Conference, LACL'97, Nancy, France, September 22-24, 1997, Selected Papers

Author: Alain Lecomte,Francois Lamarche,Guy Perrier

Publisher: Springer


Category: Computational linguistics

Page: 251

View: 6344

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the Second International Conference on Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics, LACL '97, held in Nancy, France in September 1997. The 10 revised full papers presented were carefully selected during two rounds of reviewing. Also included are two comprehensive invited papers. Among the topics covered are type theory, various types of grammars, linear logic, parsing, type-directed natural language processing, proof-theoretic aspects, concatenation logics, and mathematical languages.

Descriptive Complexity, Canonisation, and Definable Graph Structure Theory

Author: Martin Grohe

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107014522

Category: Computers

Page: 530

View: 7024

Descriptive complexity theory establishes a connection between the computational complexity of algorithmic problems (the computational resources required to solve the problems) and their descriptive complexity (the language resources required to describe the problems). This groundbreaking book approaches descriptive complexity from the angle of modern structural graph theory, specifically graph minor theory. It develops a 'definable structure theory' concerned with the logical definability of graph theoretic concepts such as tree decompositions and embeddings. The first part starts with an introduction to the background, from logic, complexity, and graph theory, and develops the theory up to first applications in descriptive complexity theory and graph isomorphism testing. It may serve as the basis for a graduate-level course. The second part is more advanced and mainly devoted to the proof of a single, previously unpublished theorem: properties of graphs with excluded minors are decidable in polynomial time if, and only if, they are definable in fixed-point logic with counting.

Verbal Behavior

Author: Burrhus Frederic Skinner

Publisher: New York : Appleton-Century-Crofts


Category: Language and languages

Page: 478

View: 6027

Logic, Language, Information, and Computation

23rd International Workshop, WoLLIC 2016, Puebla, Mexico, August 16-19th, 2016. Proceedings

Author: Jouko Väänänen,Åsa Hirvonen,Ruy de Queiroz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662529211

Category: Mathematics

Page: 447

View: 4866

Edited in collaboration with FoLLI, the Association of Logic, Language and Information this book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 23rd Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Communication, WoLLIC 2016, held in Puebla, Mexico, in August 2016.The 23 contributed papers, presented together with 9 invited lectures and tutorials, were carefully reviewed and selected from 33 submissions. The focus of the workshop is to provide a forum on inter-disciplinary research involving formal logic, computing and programming theory, and natural language and reasoning.

Knowledge of Language

Its Nature, Origin, and Use

Author: Noam Chomsky

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275900250

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 307

View: 5101

In this study, the author addresses the questions of what constitutes the knowledge of language, and how this knowledge is acquired and used.

A Guide to Fashion Sewing

Author: Connie Amaden-Crawford

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1628921846

Category: Design

Page: 416

View: 2522

A basic text for beginner sewers, this book features step-by-step instructions that take the reader start-to-finish through over 100 sewing applications.