A Biologist's Guide to Mathematical Modeling in Ecology and Evolution

Author: Sarah P. Otto,Troy Day

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400840910

Category: Science

Page: 744

View: 7113

Thirty years ago, biologists could get by with a rudimentary grasp of mathematics and modeling. Not so today. In seeking to answer fundamental questions about how biological systems function and change over time, the modern biologist is as likely to rely on sophisticated mathematical and computer-based models as traditional fieldwork. In this book, Sarah Otto and Troy Day provide biology students with the tools necessary to both interpret models and to build their own. The book starts at an elementary level of mathematical modeling, assuming that the reader has had high school mathematics and first-year calculus. Otto and Day then gradually build in depth and complexity, from classic models in ecology and evolution to more intricate class-structured and probabilistic models. The authors provide primers with instructive exercises to introduce readers to the more advanced subjects of linear algebra and probability theory. Through examples, they describe how models have been used to understand such topics as the spread of HIV, chaos, the age structure of a country, speciation, and extinction. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists today need enough mathematical training to be able to assess the power and limits of biological models and to develop theories and models themselves. This innovative book will be an indispensable guide to the world of mathematical models for the next generation of biologists. A how-to guide for developing new mathematical models in biology Provides step-by-step recipes for constructing and analyzing models Interesting biological applications Explores classical models in ecology and evolution Questions at the end of every chapter Primers cover important mathematical topics Exercises with answers Appendixes summarize useful rules Labs and advanced material available

A Biologist's Guide to Mathematical Modeling in Ecology and Evolution

Author: Sarah P. Otto,Troy Day

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691123446

Category: Mathematics

Page: 732

View: 1198

Thirty years ago, biologists could get by with a rudimentary grasp of mathematics and modeling. Not so today. In seeking to answer fundamental questions about how biological systems function and change over time, the modern biologist is as likely to rely on sophisticated mathematical and computer-based models as traditional fieldwork. In this book, Sarah Otto and Troy Day provide biology students with the tools necessary to both interpret models and to build their own. The book starts at an elementary level of mathematical modeling, assuming that the reader has had high school mathematics and first-year calculus. Otto and Day then gradually build in depth and complexity, from classic models in ecology and evolution to more intricate class-structured and probabilistic models. The authors provide primers with instructive exercises to introduce readers to the more advanced subjects of linear algebra and probability theory. Through examples, they describe how models have been used to understand such topics as the spread of HIV, chaos, the age structure of a country, speciation, and extinction. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists today need enough mathematical training to be able to assess the power and limits of biological models and to develop theories and models themselves. This innovative book will be an indispensable guide to the world of mathematical models for the next generation of biologists. A how-to guide for developing new mathematical models in biology Provides step-by-step recipes for constructing and analyzing models Interesting biological applications Explores classical models in ecology and evolution Questions at the end of every chapter Primers cover important mathematical topics Exercises with answers Appendixes summarize useful rules Labs and advanced material available

Modelling for Field Biologists and Other Interesting People

Author: Hanna Kokko

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139463659

Category: Medical

Page: N.A

View: 356

Students of evolutionary and behavioural ecology are often unfamiliar with mathematical techniques, though much of biology relies on mathematics. Evolutionary ideas are often complex, meaning that the logic of hypotheses proposed should not only be tested empirically but also mathematically. There are numerous different modelling tools used by ecologists, ranging from population genetic 'bookkeeping', to game theory and individual-based computer simulations. Due to the many different modelling options available, it is often difficult to know where to start. Hanna Kokko has designed this 2007 book to help with these decisions. Each method described is illustrated with one or two biologically interesting examples that have been chosen to help overcome fears of many biologists when faced with mathematical work, whilst also providing the programming code (Matlab) for each problem. Aimed primarily at students of evolutionary and behavioural ecology, this book will be of interest to any biologist interested in mathematical modelling.

Elements of Mathematical Ecology

Author: Mark Kot

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316584054

Category: Nature

Page: N.A

View: 3849

Elements of Mathematical Ecology provides an introduction to classical and modern mathematical models, methods, and issues in population ecology. The first part of the book is devoted to simple, unstructured population models that ignore much of the variability found in natural populations for the sake of tractability. Topics covered include density dependence, bifurcations, demographic stochasticity, time delays, population interactions (predation, competition, and mutualism), and the application of optimal control theory to the management of renewable resources. The second part of this book is devoted to structured population models, covering spatially-structured population models (with a focus on reaction-diffusion models), age-structured models, and two-sex models. Suitable for upper level students and beginning researchers in ecology, mathematical biology and applied mathematics, the volume includes numerous clear line diagrams that clarify the mathematics, relevant problems thoughout the text that aid understanding, and supplementary mathematical and historical material that enrich the main text.

Mathematical Ecology of Populations and Ecosystems

Author: John Pastor

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444358456

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 8499

Population ecologists study how births and deaths affect the dynamics of populations and communities, while ecosystem ecologists study how species control the flux of energy and materials through food webs and ecosystems. Although all these processes occur simultaneously in nature, the mathematical frameworks bridging the two disciplines have developed independently. Consequently, this independent development of theory has impeded the cross-fertilization of population and ecosystem ecology. Using recent developments from dynamical systems theory, this advanced undergraduate/graduate level textbook shows how to bridge the two disciplines seamlessly. The book shows how bifurcations between the solutions of models can help understand regime shifts in natural populations and ecosystems once thresholds in rates of births, deaths, consumption, competition, nutrient inputs, and decay are crossed. Mathematical Ecology is essential reading for students of ecology who have had a first course in calculus and linear algebra or students in mathematics wishing to learn how dynamical systems theory can be applied to ecological problems.

Extended Heredity

A New Understanding of Inheritance and Evolution

Author: Russell Bonduriansky,Troy Day

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400890152

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 7373

How genes are not the only basis of heredity—and what this means for evolution, human life, and disease For much of the twentieth century it was assumed that genes alone mediate the transmission of biological information across generations and provide the raw material for natural selection. In Extended Heredity, leading evolutionary biologists Russell Bonduriansky and Troy Day challenge this premise. Drawing on the latest research, they demonstrate that what happens during our lifetimes--and even our grandparents' and great-grandparents' lifetimes—can influence the features of our descendants. On the basis of these discoveries, Bonduriansky and Day develop an extended concept of heredity that upends ideas about how traits can and cannot be transmitted across generations. By examining the history of the gene-centered view in modern biology and reassessing fundamental tenets of evolutionary theory, Bonduriansky and Day show that nongenetic inheritance—involving epigenetic, environmental, behavioral, and cultural factors—could play an important role in evolution. The discovery of nongenetic inheritance therefore has major implications for key questions in evolutionary biology, as well as human health. Extended Heredity reappraises long-held ideas and opens the door to a new understanding of inheritance and evolution.

Ecological Models and Data in R

Author: Benjamin M. Bolker

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691125228

Category: Computers

Page: 396

View: 6770

Introduction and background; Exploratory data analysis and graphics; Deterministic functions for ecological modeling; Probability and stochastic distributions for ecological modeling; Stochatsic simulation and power analysis; Likelihood and all that; Optimization and all that; Likelihood examples; Standar statistics revisited; Modeling variance; Dynamic models.

The Theoretical Biologist's Toolbox

Quantitative Methods for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Author: Marc Mangel

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139455869

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6574

Mathematical modelling is widely used in ecology and evolutionary biology and it is a topic that many biologists find difficult to grasp. In this new textbook Marc Mangel provides a no-nonsense introduction to the skills needed to understand the principles of theoretical and mathematical biology. Fundamental theories and applications are introduced using numerous examples from current biological research, complete with illustrations to highlight key points. Exercises are also included throughout the text to show how theory can be applied and to test knowledge gained so far. Suitable for advanced undergraduate courses in theoretical and mathematical biology, this book forms an essential resource for anyone wanting to gain an understanding of theoretical ecology and evolution.

Mathematical Modeling in Ecology

A Workbook for Students

Author: C. Jeffries

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461245508

Category: Mathematics

Page: 194

View: 8431

Mathematical ecology is the application of mathematics to describe and understand ecosystems. There are two main approaches. One is to describe natural communities and induce statistical patterns or relationships which should generally occur. However, this book is devoted entirely to introducing the student to the second approach: to study deterministic mathematical models and, on the basis of mathematical results on the models, to look for the same patterns or relationships in nature. This book is a compromise between three competing desiderata. It seeks to: maximize the generality of the models; constrain the models to "behave" realistically, that is, to exhibit stability and other features; and minimize the difficulty of presentations of the models. The ultimate goal of the book is to introduce the reader to the general mathematical tools used in building realistic ecosystem models. Just such a model is presented in Chapter Nine. The book should also serve as a stepping-stone both to advanced mathematical works like Stability of Biological Communities by Yu. M. Svirezhev and D. O. Logofet (Mir, Moscow, 1983) and to advanced modeling texts like Freshwater Ecosystems by M. Straskraba and A. H. Gnauch (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985).

Dynamic Models in Biology

Author: Stephen P. Ellner,John Guckenheimer

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400840961

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 4004

From controlling disease outbreaks to predicting heart attacks, dynamic models are increasingly crucial for understanding biological processes. Many universities are starting undergraduate programs in computational biology to introduce students to this rapidly growing field. In Dynamic Models in Biology, the first text on dynamic models specifically written for undergraduate students in the biological sciences, ecologist Stephen Ellner and mathematician John Guckenheimer teach students how to understand, build, and use dynamic models in biology. Developed from a course taught by Ellner and Guckenheimer at Cornell University, the book is organized around biological applications, with mathematics and computing developed through case studies at the molecular, cellular, and population levels. The authors cover both simple analytic models--the sort usually found in mathematical biology texts--and the complex computational models now used by both biologists and mathematicians. Linked to a Web site with computer-lab materials and exercises, Dynamic Models in Biology is a major new introduction to dynamic models for students in the biological sciences, mathematics, and engineering.

Theoretical Ecology

Principles and Applications

Author: Robert May

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199209995

Category: Computers

Page: 257

View: 4588

Robert May's seminal book has played a central role in the development of ecological science. Originally published in 1976, this influential text has overseen the transition of ecology from an observational and descriptive subject to one with a solid conceptual core. Indeed, it is a testament to its influence that a great deal of the novel material presented in the earlier editions has now been incorporated into standard undergraduate textbooks. It is now a quarter of a century since the publication of the second edition, and a thorough revision is timely. Theoretical Ecology provides a succinct, up-to-date overview of the field set in the context of applications, thereby bridging the traditional division of theory and practice. It describes the recent advances in our understanding of how interacting populations of plants and animals change over time and space, in response to natural or human-created disturbance. In an integrated way, initial chapters give an account of the basic principles governing the structure, function, and temporal and spatial dynamics of populations and communities of plants and animals. Later chapters outline applications of these ideas to practical issues including fisheries, infectious diseases, tomorrow's food supplies, climate change, and conservation biology. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on questions which as yet remain unanswered. The editors have invited the top scientists in the field to collaborate with the next generation of theoretical ecologists. The result is an accessible, advanced textbook suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate level students as well as researchers in the fields of ecology, mathematical biology, environment and resources management. It will also be of interest to the general reader seeking a better understanding of a range of global environmental problems.

Mathematical Biology

Author: James D. Murray

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662085429

Category: Mathematics

Page: 770

View: 8586

Mathematics has always benefited from its involvement with developing sciences. Each successive interaction revitalises and enhances the field. Biomedical science is clearly the premier science of the foreseeable future. For the continuing health of their subject mathematicians must become involved with biology. With the example of how mathematics has benefited from and influenced physics, it is clear that if mathematicians do not become involved in the biosciences they will simply not be a part of what are likely to be the most important and exciting scientific discoveries of all time. Mathematical biology is a fast growing, well recognised, albeit not clearly defined, subject and is, to my mind, the most exciting modern application of mathematics. The increasing use of mathematics in biology is inevitable as biol ogy becomes more quantitative. The complexity of the biological sciences makes interdisciplinary involvement essential. For the mathematician, biology opens up new and exciting branches while for the biologist mathematical modelling offers another research tool commmensurate with a new powerful laboratory technique but only if used appropriately and its limitations recognised. However, the use of esoteric mathematics arrogantly applied to biological problems by mathemati cians who know little about the real biology, together with unsubstantiated claims as to how important such theories are, does little to promote the interdisciplinary involvement which is so essential. Mathematical biology research, to be useful and interesting, must be relevant biologically.

Applied Mathematical Ecology

Author: Simon A. Levin,Thomas G. Hallam,Louis J. Gross

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642613179

Category: Mathematics

Page: 491

View: 9174

The Second Autumn Course on Mathematical Ecology was held at the Intern ational Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy in November and December of 1986. During the four year period that had elapsed since the First Autumn Course on Mathematical Ecology, sufficient progress had been made in applied mathemat ical ecology to merit tilting the balance maintained between theoretical aspects and applications in the 1982 Course toward applications. The course format, while similar to that of the first Autumn Course on Mathematical Ecology, consequently focused upon applications of mathematical ecology. Current areas of application are almost as diverse as the spectrum covered by ecology. The topiys of this book reflect this diversity and were chosen because of perceived interest and utility to developing countries. Topical lectures began with foundational material mostly derived from Math ematical Ecology: An Introduction (a compilation of the lectures of the 1982 course published by Springer-Verlag in this series, Volume 17) and, when possible, progressed to the frontiers of research. In addition to the course lectures, workshops were arranged for small groups to supplement and enhance the learning experience. Other perspectives were provided through presentations by course participants and speakers at the associated Research Conference. Many of the research papers are in a companion volume, Mathematical Ecology: Proceedings Trieste 1986, published by World Scientific Press in 1988. This book is structured primarily by application area. Part II provides an introduction to mathematical and statistical applications in resource management.

Population Biology

Concepts and Models

Author: Alan Hastings

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475727313

Category: Science

Page: 220

View: 480

Population biology has been investigated quantitatively for many decades, resulting in a rich body of scientific literature. Ecologists often avoid this literature, put off by its apparently formidable mathematics. This textbook provides an introduction to the biology and ecology of populations by emphasizing the roles of simple mathematical models in explaining the growth and behavior of populations. The author only assumes acquaintance with elementary calculus, and provides tutorial explanations where needed to develop mathematical concepts. Examples, problems, extensive marginal notes and numerous graphs enhance the book's value to students in classes ranging from population biology and population ecology to mathematical biology and mathematical ecology. The book will also be useful as a supplement to introductory courses in ecology.

Modelling Complex Ecological Dynamics

An Introduction into Ecological Modelling for Students, Teachers & Scientists

Author: Fred Jopp,Hauke Reuter,Broder Breckling

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642050299

Category: Science

Page: 397

View: 9260

Model development is of vital importance for understanding and management of ecological processes. Identifying the complex relationships between ecological patterns and processes is a crucial task. Ecological modelling—both qualitatively and quantitatively—plays a vital role in analysing ecological phenomena and for ecological theory. This textbook provides a unique overview of modelling approaches. Representing the state-of-the-art in modern ecology, it shows how to construct and work with various different model types. It introduces the background of each approach and its application in ecology. Differential equations, matrix approaches, individual-based models and many other relevant modelling techniques are explained and demonstrated with their use. The authors provide links to software tools and course materials. With chapters written by leading specialists, “Modelling Complex Ecological Dynamics” is an essential contribution to expand the qualification of students, teachers and scientists alike.

Numerical Ecology

Author: Pierre Legendre,Louis Legendre

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444538682

Category: SCIENCE

Page: 990

View: 1412

The book describes and discusses the numerical methods which are successfully being used for analysing ecological data, using a clear and comprehensive approach. These methods are derived from the fields of mathematical physics, parametric and nonparametric statistics, information theory, numerical taxonomy, archaeology, psychometry, sociometry, econometry and others. Compared to the first edition of Numerical Ecology, this second edition includes three new chapters, dealing with the analysis of semiquantitative data, canonical analysis and spatial analysis. New sections have been added to almost all other chapters. There are sections listing available computer programs and packages at the end of several chapters. As in the previous English and French editions, there are numerous examples from the ecological literature, and the choice of methods is facilitated by several synoptic tables.

Mathematical Models in Biology

An Introduction

Author: Elizabeth S. Allman,John A. Rhodes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521525862

Category: Mathematics

Page: 370

View: 5174

Linear and non-linear models of populations, molecular evolution, phylogenetic tree construction, genetics, and infectious diseases are presented with minimal prerequisites.

Biocalculus: Calculus, Probability, and Statistics for the Life Sciences

Author: James Stewart,Troy Day

Publisher: Nelson Education

ISBN: 1305114035

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1032

View: 3732

Functions and sequences -- Limits -- Derivatives -- Applications of derivatives -- Integrals -- Applications of integrals -- Differential equations -- Vectors and matrix models -- Multivariable calculus -- Systems of linear differential equations -- Descriptive statistitics -- Probability -- Inferential statistics

An Introduction to Mathematical Models in Ecology and Evolution

Time and Space

Author: Michael Gillman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405194898

Category: Science

Page: 158

View: 9802

Students often find it difficult to grasp fundamental ecological and evolutionary concepts because of their inherently mathematical nature. Likewise, the application of ecological and evolutionary theory often requires a high degree of mathematical competence. This book is a first step to addressing these difficulties, providing a broad introduction to the key methods and underlying concepts of mathematical models in ecology and evolution. The book is intended to serve the needs of undergraduate and postgraduate ecology and evolution students who need to access the mathematical and statistical modelling literature essential to their subjects. The book assumes minimal mathematics and statistics knowledge whilst covering a wide variety of methods, many of which are at the fore–front of ecological and evolutionary research. The book also highlights the applications of modelling to practical problems such as sustainable harvesting and biological control. Key features: Written clearly and succinctly, requiring minimal in–depth knowledge of mathematics Introduces students to the use of computer models in both fields of ecology and evolutionary biology Market – senior undergraduate students and beginning postgraduates in ecology and evolutionary biology

Evolutionary Dynamics

Author: Martin A. Nowak

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674417747

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 7852

At a time of unprecedented expansion in the life sciences, evolution is the one theory that transcends all of biology. Any observation of a living system must ultimately be interpreted in the context of its evolution. Evolutionary change is the consequence of mutation and natural selection, which are two concepts that can be described by mathematical equations. Evolutionary Dynamics is concerned with these equations of life. In this book, Martin A. Nowak draws on the languages of biology and mathematics to outline the mathematical principles according to which life evolves. His work introduces readers to the powerful yet simple laws that govern the evolution of living systems, no matter how complicated they might seem. Evolution has become a mathematical theory, Nowak suggests, and any idea of an evolutionary process or mechanism should be studied in the context of the mathematical equations of evolutionary dynamics. His book presents a range of analytical tools that can be used to this end: fitness landscapes, mutation matrices, genomic sequence space, random drift, quasispecies, replicators, the Prisoner’s Dilemma, games in finite and infinite populations, evolutionary graph theory, games on grids, evolutionary kaleidoscopes, fractals, and spatial chaos. Nowak then shows how evolutionary dynamics applies to critical real-world problems, including the progression of viral diseases such as AIDS, the virulence of infectious agents, the unpredictable mutations that lead to cancer, the evolution of altruism, and even the evolution of human language. His book makes a clear and compelling case for understanding every living system—and everything that arises as a consequence of living systems—in terms of evolutionary dynamics.